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Full text of "The Garden magazine"

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Vol. XX, Ho. I. 




7/24, 






AUGUST, 1914 



15 Cents a Copy 



f HI GARDEN 

MAGAZINE 




COUNTRY LIFE 
IN AMERICA 



A New Idea in 
Exhibitions 



DOUBL EDAY, PAGE & CO. 

Chicago GARDEN. CITY, N. Y. New York 



THE CONVENTION GARDEN 

at Boston, Mass. 




O 



THE WORLD'S 
WORK 



Bountiful Crops 
and Beautiful Grounds 



Are always Assured by Using 

Campbell Automatic 

Irrigation Sprinklers 

WHY LOSE YOUR CROPS OR LET YOUR GROUNDS BURN UP, WHEN YOU CAN GET RAIN 
WHEN YOU WANT IT AND LIKE YOU WANT IT, BY USING THIS WONDERFUL INVENTION? 

Placed on 3-4-inch stand pipes 7 feet high, attached to an underground pipe system, and 47 feet 
apart (requiring about 22 to the acre), these sprinklers, with only 20 pounds pressure will distri- 
bute perfectly and evenly an inch of water in the form of fine rain in four hours. Price $3.00 each 
postpaid, or $30.00 per dozen, F. O. B. Jacksonville. 

Special Introductory Offer — Send us money order for $1.50, mentioning this publication, and we will 
mail you a sample sprinkler and our booklet, "Modern Irrigation." One sprinkler only to each appli- 
cant at this price. Offer expires October 1, 19 14. 

J. P. CAMPBELL 

No. 190 Union Terminal Building JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA 

REFERENCES — Bradstreet, Dun's or any Bank in Jacksonville 




Peony and Iris Clumps 
For September Planting 

All the choice varieties including 
Festiva Maxima, and Queen,. Victoria. 

Send for free list and colored 

plates. 

HEADS BERGENFIELD NURSERIES 
Bergenfield. N. J. 




The best varieties, both new and 
old, and the best methods of plant- 
ing to raise a full crop of Strawberries 
next year are fully particularized in 

DREER'S 

Mid-Summer Catalogue 

Also the best varieties of Celery, Cabbage 
Plants, etc. 

A most complete list of the Best Hardy 
Perennial Seeds for summer sowing. 

Also vegetable and farm seeds for summer 
and fall sowing. Select list of seasonable 
decorative and flowering plants. 

Write for a copy and kindly 

mention this magazine — FREE. 

HENRY A. DREER PHILADELPHIA 



X 



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O 

A VERITABLE mint of in- 
**• formation on bulb planting 
and bulb care will be found in 
the 1914 issue of Thorburn's 
Bulb Catalog. 

Register your name for a copy now. 

J. M. THORBURN & CO. 

53B Barclay St. New York 




KREL AGE'S DUTCH BULBS 

including the world-renowned novelties of 
their own raising (Darwin and Rembrandt 
tulips, etc.), are offered in their new catalog, sent 
free on request to 

J. A. deVEER, 100 William St., New York 

Sole agent for the United States. 




How 

KELSEY HEAT 

Compares in 

Cost to Others 



ITS FIRST COST is somewhat more 
than steam and somewhat less than 
hot water; but Kelsey coal costs are 
decidedly less than either. 

Kelsey Warm Air Generators cost 
more than Hot Air Furnaces, but they 
are worth more; because they burn less 
coal and positively deliver ample heat to 
any room during any weather no matter 
where the wind blows from. 

The Kelsey both heats and ventilates 
at the same time. 

It's an economizer and healthizer. 

Send for facts, figures and catalog. 

!'u^"" I WARM AIR GENERATOR J £, 



*s 



232 James Street, Syracuse, N. Y 



Jt3- 



B 

S3, 



S3. 




SEEDSMEN 

BY 

POYAL WARRANT TO 

HIS MAJESTY 

KING GEORGE V 



YOU NEED the directions for 
the planting and cultivation of 
bulbs, compiled by CARTERS 
TESTED SEED experts, con- 
tained in our new catalogue 
and handbook. It illustrates and des- 
cribes the choicest varieties that have 
been personally selected by our rep- 
resentatives in Holland. 

For complimentary copy of catalogue, address 

CARTERS TESTED SEEDS, inc. 

104 Chamber of Commerce Bldg. 
Boston, Mass. 



August, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 




Residence of 
Mr. H. E. Dodge. 
Grosse Pointe, Mich. 
Albert Kahn and Ernest 
Wilby, Architects, De- 
troit, Mich. J-M«Systems 
of Refrigeration installed. 
Maintains a very low, 
dry temperature in seve- 
ral refrigerators, also sup- 
plies pure ice for table use. 
At right — one of the re- 
frigerators. Below — the 
A-S Refrigerating Ma- 
chine. 

Refrigeration with 
the trouble left out 

You can now have your own refrigeration or 
ice supply without the trouble and incon- 
venience of the old-style machines. It's as 
simple as A, B, C when you install the 

J"M System of 
Refrigeration 

(Using A-S Machine) 

No complex parts. So simple in operation that any 
intelligent person can run it. 

No pounding noise. Does not have to be recharged. 
No dangerous gases. 

When your home is eguipped with this machine the 
muss and nuisance of icing refrigerators are done away 
with. And furthermore, such clients are independent 
of the dealer who charges exorbitant prices because of 
a shortage in the ice supply. 

Can be used for refrigeration or ice-making. Makes n 
to no pounds of ice per hour, according to size of ma- 
chine. Hundreds of these machines are in daily use, 
many of which have been in operation for six years 
without a cent for repairs. 

Write nearest branch for booklet 

H. W. JOHNS-MANVILLE CO. 

Manufacturers of Asbestos Shingles; Roofings; Stucco; Pipe 
Coverings; Cold Storage Insulation; Waterproofing; Sanitary 
Specialties; Acoustical Correction; Cork Tiling, etc. 

Omaha 

Philadelphia 

Pittsburgh 

San Francisco 

Seattle 

St. Louis 

Syracuse 

THE CANADIAN H. W. IOHNS- 
MANVILLE CO.. LIMITED 

Toronto Montreal 
Winnipeg Vancouver 





Landscape Gardening 

A course for Home-makers and 
Gardeners taught by Prof. Beal, 
of Cornell University. 

Gardeners who understand up- 
to-date methods and practice are 
in demand for the best positions. 

A knowledge of Landscape Gar- 
dening is indispensable to those 
who would have the pleasantest 
Prof. Beal homes. 

250 page catalogue free. Write today. 

THE HOME CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOL 

Dept. 9, Springfield, Mass. 




at the home \ 
of Country 
Life in America. * 

Presented to 
Doubledav, Page 
& Co., by Mr. Ed 
ward Bok, of the 
Ladies' Home Jour- 
nal, who requested 
that this be a collection 
of the choicest and 
most beautiful varieties 
in existence. 

The commission was 
executed by Wyomissing 
Nurseries, for here only 
could such a collection be 
found. Write to Mr. Farr for his book Hardy Plant Specialties, which describes 
upwards of 500 varieties of Irises, including the beautiful sorts planted at Garden City. 

BERTRAND H. FARR, Wyomissing Nurseries 

I04 Garfield Avenue Wyomissing, Pennsylvania 



Plant LOVETT'S Pot-Grown Strawberries 

this Summer and have an abundance of big, red, luscious berries next June 



I have been growing: them for 36 years. I otter properly grown 
-but by far the finest of all strawberries are the Van Fleet 



I am a pioneer in growing- Pot-Grown Strawberries, 
plants of all the choice new and good old varieties- 
Hybrids, the 

Early Jersey Giant, Edmund Wilson, & Late Jersey Giant 

now being introduced by me. They yield enormously, have the delicious flavor of 
the wild strawberry, and are as large as small apples. These three varieties give 
a long season of fruit, from the earliest until the very latest. Write for my booklet, 
mailed free. It tells all about the Van Fleet Hybrids, illustrates and describes a score 
or more of other fine varieties (including the best of the Everbearing Strawberries), 
and gives full cultural instructions. 

J. T. LOVETT Box 125 Little Silver, N. J. 




The Readers' Service will furnish information ibout foreign travel 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



August, 1914 




To business that we love we rise betime 
And go to 't with delight." — Antony and Cleopatra. 



A LITTLE JOURNEY IN THE WORLD 

FROM Garden City to Berlin and Leip- 
zig is not so great a distance, but such 
a journey may put one in touch with 
many interesting people and things. 

To speak of the farthest point first — The 
present chronicler journeyed to the great 
book exhibition in Leipzig which rejoices in 
the fragile name of Internationalen Aus- 
stellung fiir Buchgewerbe und Graphik. Here 
the publishers of the world (excepting Amer- 
ica) combined to give a great show of books 
of all kinds, of pictures and magazines, of 
machines for printing and binding, and kindred 
things. The number and size of the build- 
ings would be, we should guess, about equal 
to those of the Buffalo exhibition in 1901, 
some of them a thousand feet long or more, 
and many, like the English, the French, the 
Austrian and the Italian, not to forget the 
little Japanese building, displaying the na- 
tional characteristics of the architecture of 
each country. 

What perhaps surprises one more than 
anything else is the fact that some thirty or 
forty thousand people a day flock to this great 
book show — people really interested in 
books. No such crowd could probably be 
brought together for such a purpose in any 
other country in the world. Certainly the 
Germans have the science of bookselling 
developed to the highest efficiency, and one 
authority estimates that about three times 
as many titles are issued in Germany each 
year (about 30,000 to our 10,000), and in 
quantity about twice as many books as we 
print in this country. 

It is interesting, too, to find that the Ger- 
man law is exactly opposite to the American. 
In that country the publisher having fixed a 
retail price for selling his book, is expected to 
give the jobber a certain discount, and the 
retailer his discount; but the book must event- 
ually be sold to the customer at the exact 
price set when the book is published. If any 
one of these persons who handles the book is 
guilty of breaking the price, he is punished 
by fine or in extreme case by imprisonment. 
Of course, such a combination to preserve 
prices in this country is against the provis- 



ions of the Sherman law. The fact is that in 
the whole of Germany there are about ten 
thousand good booksellers, and they adequate- 
ly supply the demand for books to the small- 
est community. The scholar and student has 
been attracted to the business, and for a na- 
tion of 65,000,000 people there are about four 
times as many booksellers as for our own na- 
tion of nearly 100,000,000 people. 

All of which is not new, but interest- 
ing when encountered at first hand. The 
book trade in Germany is apparently pros- 
perous. 

In England there is the usual flood of new 
books being prepared for the fall. Mrs. 
Humphry Ward has a novel about the suf- 
fragettes which will be issued in this country 
by Hearst — a gentleman who has added to his 
newspapers and magazines a book publishing 
business, and who will no doubt show the rest 
of us a thing or two. Rudyard Kipling is 
completing a series of travel papers on Egypt, 
which with other chapters will make a volume 
of Travel Letters in the spring of 191 5. The 
Countess von Arnim has just finished a novel 
— the first since "The Caravaners" — called 
"The Pastor's Wife." The Countess lives 
on a mountain top in Switzerland, and has 
been much delayed in finishing the book, on 
which she has been working for two years or 
more. Joseph Conrad has also finished a 
novel which will come in the spring, and he 
himself has been induced by Doubleday, Page 
& Co. to make a visit to America in October of 
this year. Mr. Conrad sailed the Seven Seas 
for a score of years, but never saw New York, 
and his friends will be glad to know of his 
eager interest to visit us. With him will 
come Mr. J. B. Pinker, the literary agent, 
who has been a lifelong friend of the author 
of "Chance." 

"run-overs" 

A reader of The Garden Magazine or Country 
Life recently wrote us a long letter. He took 
a large sheet of paper, folded it into sixteen 
pages, began his letter on page one, continued 
it on page nine, jumped to the middle of page 
seven, then to the top of page twelve, etc., etc. 
At the end of this quaint epistle he said, "If 
you have read this letter, you will know how 



it feels to read your magazines, which are 
full of 'runovers.' " 

To this gentleman and others who, like 
him, do not approve of the words, " Continued 
on page so and so," we stand with hands up, 
and we have the editors' word for it that they 
will reform as soon as a new "make-up" can be 
devised. The temptation to "run over" 
articles comes through the desire to make a 
brave show of striking articles and large pic- 
tures in the opening pages, and not, as some 
readers have intimated, to lead people to 
turn to the advertising section. Fortunately 
for us, our advertisements are in themselves 
so interesting, entertaining and beautiful, 
that we do not have to resort to subterfuges to 
get people to read them, and, of course, the 
fact is that tricks of this sort accomplish 
nothing: people read what they will, and 
nothing can make them read what does not 
interest them. 

the tree guide 

Miss Julia E. Rogers has made this new- 
volume of the little Guide Series which goes 
to hundreds of thousands of readers each year. 
It is uniform with the Flower Guide and the 
Bird Guides, and has hundreds of illustrations, 
in black and white, and color. Many owners 
of the Reed series will be glad to know of this 
book, the price of which is $1.00 in cloth, and 
$1.25 in leather. 

BIG BUSINESS AND PUBLICITY 

There are a great many substantial con- 
cerns who would be glad to get before an im- 
partial public the interesting facts about their 
great businesses, consisting, as the clerk of 
the court so eloquently puts it, of "the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth." 
A book on these frank and aboveboard lines 
has just been published by us describing the 
beginning and development of a great organ- 
ization, The United Fruit Company — under 
the title, "The Conquest of the Tropics." If 
you are interested in that subject or that 
company, you might like a copy of the book, 
which can be purchased through any book- 
seller or from Doubleday, Page & Company 
and we hope that there may be other interest- 
ing books in this series telling a frank and in- 
teresting story of achievement. 



August, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 




Perpetuate the real pleas- 
ures of Summer by having 
flowers and vegetables the 
year round. 

Let us submit plans and es- 
timates for a 

King Greenhouse 

Now is the time to write us stat- 
ing what you have in mind. We 
can furnish any kind from an in- 
expensive sectional greenhouse 
to sumptuous palm houses and 
conservatories of King Channel 
Bar Construction. 

Every "King" is the result of 
years of experience in building for 
professional growers. Full of 
new features and new ideas to 
make them more productive, 
more beautiful and more easy to 
operate. 

Write today for Bulletins No. 
43 and 47 and see for yourself 
why we can offer the most for 
the money in practical artistic 
greenhouses. 

King Construction Co. 

276 Kings Road, North Tonawanda, N. Y. 
All the Sunlight All Day Mouses 




5S 



Bm«gnB3ngK3wgga» 



C. G. van Tubergen, Jr. 

Haarlem, Holland 

Grower of Choice Bulbs 

E.J.KRUG, Sole Agent 

114 Broad St., New York 

Formerly represented by C. C. Abel & Co. 

Bulbs imported direct from Holland 
for customers. No supply kept here. 
Catalogue quoting prices in Nurser- 
ies in Haarlem —free on application. 



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A Veritable Hedge of 

Madonna Lilies 

LILIUM CANDIDUM (Choice Northern Grown) 

The favorite lilies of the old-fashioned garden; produce strong, stiff stems, 
studded with a mass of pure, glistening, white flowers, that enliven the peren- 
nial flower garden or, for effects of contrasts with the beautiful green shrubs of 
the June garden, are unequalled. 

Plant some bulbs during August and September and enjoy a big crop of 
flowers next June or pot up, store in cold frame, and force for early Winter 
in the greenhouse or conservatory. 

Extra Large bulbs 15c. each $1.50 doz. $10. per 100 
Jumbo bulbs 25c. each $2.50 doz. $15. per 100 

Giant Freesia Purity 

A charming little bulbous plant for window-garden, greenhouse or conserva- 
tory. Has tall, stiff stem, bearing six to eight beautiful, snowy white flowers. 

Plant a dozen bulbs in a 5-inch pot and enjoy a feast of blooms 
for Christmas. Where a continuous display during winter is desired, plant 
a dozen or more pots and set in cold frames bringing in at intervals of 
two weeks from October. Excellent for cutting, remaining in good con- 
dition a week or more in water. Much superior to the popular Refracta 
Alba Freesia, in size of flower, strength of stem, (often measuring 20 
inches) and purity of color. 

Large fine plump bulbs 75c. doz. $3.50 per 100 $30. per 1000 

Jumbo bulbs $1.00 doz. $4.50 per 100 $40. per 1000 

On all orders amounting to$5. ormore t express charges paid anywhere in United States 

Our catalogue of Best Bulbs for Fall Planting will be sent to all customer; 
in August. A postal will bring you one. 



30-32 
Barclay St. 



New 
York 



Water Lily Specialist 

I have had many years' experience in the plant- 
ing of water gardens, handling Water Lilies 
suitable for all purposes. If you contemplate a 
lily pond at any time, or if you wish to plant in- 
doors now for winter flowers, let me advise you. 

For Fall Planting 

I have a particularly choice selection of Peonies, Roses, 
and Hardy Perennials which, set out this fall, will 
gladden the heart of the true garden lover next 
spring. Send today for interesting booklets. 
WILLIAM THICKER ARLINGTON, N. J. 




What is a fair rental fnr a liven properly? Ask the Readers' Service 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



August, 1914 



Poultry, Kennel and Live Stock Directory LtS"^^ 

dogs, poultry and live stock will be gladly given. Address INFORMATION DEPARTMENT, 
The Garden Magazine, 11-13 West 32d Street, New York. 




USE THE 

HOWES 
Bird Baths 

Through the hot sum- 
mer months when our 
songsters need great 
quantities of water 

The Howes Baths are 

the best and cheapest 

ones made 

No. 1 . Twenty-four inches 
square $7.50 

No. 0. Sixteen inches 

square $5.00 

THEY are made of the finest cypress wood 
lined with galvanized iron, trimmed with 
mouldings and brass corner braces and mounted 
on heavy oak pedestals with neatly trimmed 
base. Our baths make beautiful ornaments 
for the lawn or garden and they keep the 
birds with us all summer. 

Order direct from this advertisement as these 
two, new beautiful styles are not in our catalogue. 

Send for fully illustrated booklet of 
the famous HOWES bird aitractors. 

Maplewood Biological Laboratory 

Stamford, Connecticut 



Delight the 




A Shetland Pony 

— is an unceasing source 
of pleasure. A safe and 
ideal playmate. Makes 
the child strong and of 
robust health. Highest types 
here. Complete outfits. En- 
tire satisfaction. Write for 
ustrated catalog. 

BELLE MEADE FARM 

Dept. 15 Markham, Va. 




Bob White Quail 

Partridges and Pheasants 

Capercailzies, Black Game, Wild Turkeys, Quails, 
Rabbits. Deer, etc., for stocking: purposes. Fancy 
Pheasants, Peafowl. Swans, Cranes, Storks, 
Ornamental Geese and Ducks, Foxes, Squirrels, 
Ferrets, etc., and all kinds of birds and animals. 

WILLIAM J. MACKENSEN, Naturalist 

Dept. 55, Pheasantry and Game Park YARDLEY, PA. 



You Can't Cut Out 

1 A BOG SPAVIN, PUFF or THOROUGHPIN. but 



TRADF MARK. StC.lI SPAT OFf 



will clean them off permanently, and you work 
the horse same time. Does not blister or re- 
move the hair. $2.00 per bottle, delivered. 
Will tell you more if you .write. 
Book 4 K Free 
WTF.YOUNG.P.D.F., 152 Temple Street, Springfield, Mass. 



Hatch Winter Layers Now 

Young's strain S. C. White Leghorns, over 200 eggs yearly 
each, 90% fertility guaranteed; eggs $1 per 15 postpaid. $4 
per 100, special feeding formula with each order, also Barred 
Rocks, White Wyandottes and R. I. Reds, 6 week chicks $3 a 
dozen, 10 week chicks $5 per dozen. 

CEDAR CREST POULTRY YARDS, Masonville, N. J. 



Hammond's 



Sold by Seedsmen and Merchants 

' Hammond's Cattle Comfort" 

Trade Mark 

Keeps Cows, Horses or Mules free from Flies, Gnats 
and other pests. It is cheap and effective. For pam- 
phlet on " Bugs and Blights" write to 



"Cattle Comfort" HAMMOND'S SLUG SHOT WORKS, City of Beacon, N. Y. 




Have you Gardening Questions ? Experts will 
answer them free. If a plant fails, tell us about 
it and ask help from Readers' Service. 






A LAWN EXPERT 

will answer your lawn questions and advise how 
to get the best lawns through Readers' Service. 



Hodgson Portable Poultry Houses 

Five-Section Poultry House — No. Colony Laying House — 



10x50 ft. 



Sanitary, durable, up-to-date — made of red cedar, clap- 
boarded outside, interior sheathed. Made in 10-ft sections, 
each fitted with roosts, nests and fountain. Open fronts, 
with canvas-covered frames. You can add sections at any 
time. Easily erected. 




f__ |0 U on o Fitted complete with nests, fountain 
IOl li QCIIS an( j f eec ] trough. Sanitary — easily clean- 
ed. One man can easily care for several hundred birds. 
Nicely painted — set up in fifteen minutes. A comfortable 
year-round house. In stormy weath- 
er the run may be covered, giving a 
protected scratching room. Size, lOx 
4ft., 5ft. high. 



$2(T 



E. F. HODGSON CO., 



Send for catalogue. 

Visit our t BOOM 311, 110 WASHINGTON ST., BOSTON, MASS. 

showrooms t CUAFTSMAN KMIC, G EAST 39TII ST., NEW YORK 




Address all 

correspondence 

to Boston 



1 here's Money in Poultry 

Our Home Study Course in Practical Poultry 
Culture under Prof. Chas. K. Graham, late of the 
Connecticut Agricultural College, teaches how to 
make poultry pay. 

Persona/ instruction. Expert advice. 
250 Page Catalogue free. Write to-day. 

THE HOME CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOL 
Dept. 10, Springfield, Mass. 




Head Gardener — Position Wanted 

by a man fully competent in all the work of 
private place, including trees, shrubs, lawns, 
roads, greenhouses and vegetables. First class 
reference. Address 

Box No. 3, care of The Garden Magazine 

Garden City, New York 



Pot-Grown Strawberry Plants 

We have a large stock of the best varieties for the garden, 
which, if planted now, should produce a good crop next 
summer. For list of varieties and prices see our Midsum- 
mer Catalogue, copy of which will be mailed on request. 

R. & J. FARQUHAR & CO. 

8 South Market Street Boston, Massachusetts 



PEONIES and 
HOLLAND BULBS 

Now is the time to select them. We have the 
FINE ones. Send for catalogue. 

FRANKEN BROTHERS Deerfield, 111. 



HARDY PERENNIALS 

of SPECIAL MERIT 

SEEDS : to be sown now. My special collection, 12 popular 
varieties 25 cts., worth 50 cts. Plants: Iris, Peonies, and many 
other varieties transplant well during August and following 
month. Special lists with full culture directions free. FRANK 
KOEHLER, Landscape Gardener, Grower of Perennials for 
20 years. Rosedale Hardy Plant Farm, Camden, New Jersey. 



25 cts. will bring you a plant of the 

New Geum, " Mrs. Bradshaw " 

and our artistic catalogue 

COOLIDGE RARE PLANT GARDENS 
Pasadena California 



PEONIES AND EVERGREENS 

All the popular varieties. Easily grown and should be 
planted NOW. Send for special list TO-DA Y. 

The Crest Nursery, Piqua, Ohio, Dept. A. 



LOVELY IRISES 

Eight Varieties — One Dollar 

Good plants, all labeled, including the beautiful 
Pallida Dalmatica and Madame Chereau, postpaid. 

ORONOGO FLOWER GARDENS 

Carthage, Mo. 



The Index of Contents and Title 
Page for Volume XIX. of 
THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 
has been prepared and is now 
ready to be sent to subscribers, 
free, upon application. 



The Readers' Service is prepared to advise parents in regard to schools 



The Month's Reminder - - - - 

Photographs by A. G. Eldredge and W. S. Kimball 



TAGE p A GE 

Plain Facts About Some Common Evergreen Trees 18 

Photographs by G. O. Stoddard, A. G. Eldredge and others 



The Newer Tulips and Daffodils - Joseph Jacob g 

Photographs by A. G. Eldredge and N. R. Graves 



Gardening at No. 1869 



Nina R. Allen 11 



The Convention Garden, Boston ----- 

Photographs by H. Troth, A. G. Eldredge, J. H. McFarland, and others 



*3 



Fruiting Strawberries in Winter 

Photographs by the author 



E. I. F. 17 



Water Lilies Without Lakes or Pools 



Photograph by the author 



L. J. Doogue 20 



August Opportunities in Plant Raising 



Photographs by W. S. Kimball and others 



J as. T. Scott 21 



Suggestions for the Home Table Effie M. Robinson 24 



Club and Society News ---------- 2 6 



SUBSCRIPTION: 

$1.50 a year 
Single copies, 15 cts. 



r- xt r,m.»n-T,Av ™ LEONARD BARRON, Editor c . t,,,™™-™ -t- 

F. N. DOUBLEDAY, President \ S. A. EVERITT, Treasurer 

HERBERT S. HOUSTON, ^ ^ T m „ „_ copyright, 19 14, by RUSSELL DOUBLEDAY, 

vice-president DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY secretary 

Entered as second-class matter at Garden City, New York, under the Act of Congress, March 3, 1879 



For Foreign Postage 

add 65c. 
For Canada add 35c. 



HOLLAND BULBS 

HYACINTHS, 

TI TI IDC Ear, y Sin e le 

1 ULir D 9 and Double 

DARWIN TULIPS, 
DAFFODILS, etc. 



Choicest Selection of First-class Quality only. Delivered 
free in New York or Montreal, Duty Paid. 



CATALOGUE FREE ON APPLICATION TO 

ANT. ROOZEN & SON 

Bulbgrowers 
OVERVEEN, nr. Haarlem, HOLLAND 



BOBBINK & ATKINS 

World's Choicest Nursery and Greenhouse Products 

In our 300 Acres of highly cultivated Nursery Land we are growing Nursery 
and Greenhouse Products for everybody and suitable for all parts of the coun- 
try. We shall be glad to have intending purchasers visit our Nursery and 
inspect the Quality of stock we grow, or submit their list of wants for prices. 

The Following Plants for Outdoor Planting, Interior and Exterior 
Decorations are Among Our Specialties 



HYDRANGEA OTAKSA IN TUBS. 

We have many hundreds of Specimen Plants 
in bloom and bud for Summer decoration, 
at $2.50, $3.50, $5.00 and $7.50 each. 

LARGE LEAVED EVERGREENS, ENG- 
LISH LAURELS, and AUCUBAS for 

summer decorations. 

ENGLISH IVY. We grow many thousands 
in trained forms and ordinary plants from 
two to eight feet tall. 

HARDY OLD-FASHIONED FLOWERS. 

Several acres of our Nursery are exclusively 
devoted to their cultivation. 

BOXWOOD. We grow thousands of plants 
in many shapes and sizes. 

STRAWBERRIES. Potted and field-grown 
in all the leading varieties. We have many 
thousands of Strawberry plants and are in 
a position to fill orders of any size. Ask for 
special list. 



PEONIES AND IRIS. We have a com- 
plete collection ready for August and Sep- 
tember Delivery. 

EVERGREENS, CONIFERS AND PINES. 

Many acres of our Nursery are planted with 
them. All are balled and burlapped and have 
splendid root system 

BAYTREES, PALMS and other plants for 
Conservatories, Interior and Exterior Decor- 
ations. 

BULBS AND ROOTS. We grow and 
import quantities of bulbs and roots from all 
parts of the world. Autumn planting. 

PLANT TUBS, WINDOW BOXES, 
ENGLISH GARDEN FURNITURE, and 
RUSTIC WORK. We manufacture all 
shapes and sizes. 

OUR WONDERFUL NEW HYBRID 
GIANT-FLOWERING MARSHMAL- 
LOW. Everybody should be interested in 
this hardy old-fashioned flower. It is per- 
fectly hardy and will grow everywhere. 



ASK FOR OUR ILLUSTRATED GENERAL CATALOG No. 25, des- 
cribing the above; also our AUTUMN CATALOG. 

We Plan and Plant Grounds and Gardens Everywhere With Our 
"World's Choicest Nursery and Greenhouse Products." 

Nurserymen, Florists and Planters Rutherford, New Jersey 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



August, 1914 



Plant Peonies in September 



PEONIES can be and are planted at any time during the spring 
and fall, but September is the very best time for transplanting 
them, and if planted then they will bloom the following June; if 
large undivided clumps are planted, a splendid display of bloom can 
be had. Peonies are one of our great specialties, and our list of 
varieties is the most comprehensive in America. We have' now over 
fifty thousand plants to offer. SPECIMEN PLANTS — of many 
varieties we can furnish large undivided clumps at three times the 
price quoted below or in our catalogue. Immediate effects can be 



obtained by planting these large clumps. The finer varieties of 
Peonies surpass the finest roses in coloring, form and size. They are 
absolutely hardy and of the easiest culture. They should be planted 
in deep, rich soil, three to four feet apart. Below we offer a small 
selection of extra fine and good varieties, but can supply over three 
hundred sorts. Our price list, the most comprehensive catalogue of 
Hardy Plants, Trees, Shrubs and Bulbs published, may be had for 
the asking. Write for catalogue or make order on order blank 
below. 



SPECIAL OFFER OF PEONY FESTIVA MAXIMA 



Of this glorious white Peony we now have a stock of over ten thousand plants, and to induce 
people to plant it in q uantity we have decided to offer it at a specially low price. It is the most 
satisfactory Peony in cultivation, and cannot be surpassed either for cut flowers or for decorative 



effect in the garden. Very large, pure white flower, with a few blood-red stains in the center; tall 
stalks, beautiful foliage and very free-flowering. Strong flowering plants, 75 cts. each, $8 per doz. 
$50 per 100. Small plants 30 cents each, #3 per doz. 



ORDER BLANK 



To ELLIOTT NURSERY, 326 4th Avenue, Pittsburg, Pa. 

(J. WILKINSON ELLIOTT) 



PRICES (6 at the dozen rate, 
50 at the 100 rate) 



Quantity PEONIES 

Wanted rL*\JM£*0 

AsaCrrny. Large full flower, imbricated, beautiful form. 

carnation-salmon, powdered with carmine-lilac. One of 
the best , 

....Avalanche. Large flowers of perfect shape, milk white, 
creamy center with a few carmine stripes; late and very free 
flowering, splendid habit. A variety of great distinction 
and beauty 

... .Couronne d*Or (Golden Crown). Large imbricated white 
flower, yellow reflex with stripes of carmine and golden 
stamens; extra fine 

. . . .Delaclill. Large cup-shaped flower, deep amaranth, late- 
flowering; fine 

. . . .Edulis superbe. Very large flower of perfect shape; beautiful 
brilliant tin ted violet, mixed with whitish ligules; silver reflex 

Festlva. Similar to Festiva maxima but dwarferand smaller 

flowers. Special low price .... Per 100 $9.00 

Floral Treasure. Soft rose, ligules buff with tufts of rose 

petals in center, long stems, distinct and fine ; fragrant 



Per 
Each doz. 



o 60 56 co 
?S 3 50 
35 3 50 
20 2 00 



Quantity 
Wanted 



PEONIES 



Per 

Each doz. 



Hume! rosea. A splendid old sort, with deep rose-flowers; 

one of the latest to bloom (So 30 $3 00 

Marguerite Gerard. Lovelylight pink, exquisitely beautiful 1 50 

M. Martin Cahuzae. Large purple red, shaded with 

black maroon; very brilliant, and the darkest variety in culti- 
vation ; extra fine 4 00 

. . . .Mixed Varieties. This mixture is made up from varieties 
of which we have not sufficient to catalogue. It does not con- 
tain the best varieties, but the quality is extremel\ good for 
the low price quoted .... Per 100, $15.00 eo 2 00 

,...Mme. de Verne ville. Very pretty anemone flowers, very 
full; collar of large petals, those of the center very close; 
carnation white and sulphur, sometimes carmine, extra . 50 5 00 

Old Double Crimson. This fine old Peony is very 

effective when planted in masses; one of the earliest to 

bloom Per 100, $16.00 25 2 50 

Madam Buequet. Velvety black, amaranth, coloring 

very dark and rich 1 00 10 00 



Signed . 



Add* 



Quantity 
Wanted 



PEONIES ^l« 

Tennlfolla. Same as following variety, but with beautiful 

single flowers $0 40 $4 00 

Tenuifolia flore pleno. Deeply cut fringe-like foliage; 

flowers bright scarlet crimson ; rare and fine 

Triomphe de FExposltlon de Lille- Large imbricated 

flowers, soft carnation pink, with white reflex, carmine cen- 
ter ; very fresh coloring ; splendid 

Baroness Schroeder. Ivory white. First-class Certificate, 

R. B. S 3 00 

Cyclops. Purple-crimson. First-class Certificate, R. B. S. 30 

. . . .Duke of Cambridge. Avery handsome, bright crimson 
flower ; a superb variety ; the very best of its color 



50 5 00 



1 00 io 00 



75 



JAPANESE PEONIES 

. .Double ana Semi-Double. These are really very choice 
and distinct from varieties grown in this country, and will 
give the greatest satisfaction . . Per 100, $45.00 

..Single. The finest Single Peonies undoubtedly come from 
Japan. They are equal or superior to single sorts coming 
from Europe costing three times as much Per 100, $55.00 

. .Japanese Tree Peonies. Magnificent, large, semi-double 
flowers of the most splendid coloring, in shades of white, 
pink and crimson ; showiest flowers in the world; but diffi- 
cult to grow. Plants delivered in Spring .... 






! 






The 
Finest Dutch and English Bulbs 

Sutton's Garden City Collection 
of Flowering Bulbs 



Collection A— $5 

Fine Mixed Border Hya- 
cinths 
1 2 Heavenly Blue Grape Hya- 
cinths 

Mixed Polyanthus Narcissi 

Stella Narcissi 

Narcissus poeticus ornatus 

Mixed Narcissi 

Daffodils Princeps 
12 Campernelle Jonquils 
25 Scilla praecox 
75 Snowdrops 



25 



.75 — Including 

50 Yellow Crocuses 

50 Blue Crocuses 

50 White Crocuses 

25 Mixed Single Early Tulips 

12 Mixed Darwin Tulips 

1 2 Mixed Double Tulips 

12 Gesneriana Tulips 

25 Puschkinia libanotica 

25 Tritelia uniflora 

50 Finest Mixed Spanish Irises 

12 Mixed English Irises 

532 in all 



Collection B—$3.00— Including 



12 Fine Mixed Hyacinths 
6 Mixed Polyanthus Narcissi 
25 Mixed Narcissi 
50 Snowdrops 
100 Mixed Crocuses 
25 Mixed Single Early Tulips 
12 Mixed Double Tulips 



12 Mixed Darwin Tulips 
12 Puschkinia libanotica 
12 Tritelia uniflora 
12 Finest Mixed Spanish 

Irises 
12 Mixed English Irises 

2 90 in all 



The above collections can not be divided. Order now (or early September delivery 

WINTER, SON & CO. 

64 WALL STREET, NEW YORK CITY 

Sole Agents For 

Sutton & Sons, Reading, England 

The Royal Seed Establishment 



FEWER 
AND BETTER 
BOOKS 
Doubleday ' 



"This book mak.es you understand intervention in 
Mexico. "—Philadelphia Public Ledger 



The 



Mexican People 

Their Struggle for Freedom 

By L. GUTIERREZ DE LARA and EDGCUMD PINCHON 

John Reed, Special Correspondent to the Metropolitan 
Magazine in Mexico, says: 

"Mr. De Lara's book gave me the most actual excitement to 
find in it the incontestable proofs of a racial struggle which I had 
only guessed at from seeing a little of the present Revolution in 
the North. It presents the evidence, never denied, of the systematic 
looting of the peons by Diaz. It confirmed all my superficial and 
hastily-formed theories of the people and their struggle. And great- 
est service of all, it exploded the Diaz myth forever." 

"To the person who has been bewildered by the ferocity of the fighting 
and seeming confusion of the issues it will give a lucid explanation of the 
whole trouble. The book is an expression of the voice of the Mexican com- 
mon people." — Pittsburgh Post. 

"What is badly needed just now is news from Mexico — real news, which 
will let us know exactly what is happening there. And it happens that there 
is more of this kind of news in a single volume just issued than in all the 
dispatches since the.beginning of the Madero revolution in ioio. The book 
is called 'The Mexican People: Their Struggle for Freedom.' " — San Francisco 
Bulletin. 

Third Large Printing. Illustrated. Net $1.50 

Many people cannot get books. If there is no bookstore near you we shall be glad to send 
books on approval. We do not wish to interfere with the trade of the bookseller; we wish that 
every locality in the United States had a good bookseller and that you would buy the book? se- 
lected from him; our suggestion is addressed to readers who have no convenient bookstore to go to. 

Garden City DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY New York 



The Readers' Service will gladly furnish information about Retail Shops 



The Garden Magazine 



Volume XX 



AUGUST, 1914 




Number 1 






^ Vl^fa^^'^^, r -^aafej 




%ms. ... s^@ . 



tHE one important task for 



August is the selection and 



ordering of bulbs for all 
-^ purposes — bulbs for formal 
effects, bulbs for natural plantings, 
bulbs for forcing — the whole pro- 
gramme should be thought of 
thoroughly now, and your bulb order 
placed. Bulbs are far too little used 
considering that there is nothing 
that will give bigger returns. 



THE MONTHS 
REMINDER 



COMPILED WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE HOME GARDEN, FROM 
THE TEN YEARS' DIARIES OF A PRACTICAL EXPERT CARDENER 

For reckoning dates, the latitude of New York City is generally taken as a 

standard. In applying the directions to other localities, allow six 

days' difference for every hundred miles of latitude 



B 



Order Bulbs 
Now 



ULBOUS plants, generally speaking, give spring flowers, 
yet by careful selection you can get a variety that will cover 
five months, from the pretty little snowdrop in April to some of 
the late flowering lilies in August or even September. 

For rock garden or alpine effects, crocus, 
scillas, grape hyacinths, and fritillaria are best. 
For naturalizing use bulbs that increase nat- 
urally, especially narcissus. 

For shaded spots the trillium is excellent, and some of the small 
flowering narcissus or the true jonquil can be used. 

For low meadow land the English and Spanish iris are adapted; 
or, if not too wet, the narcissus family can be brought into use for 
this purpose. 

For flowering effects in 
formal beds, along the 
edges of shrubbery 
borders, or around dwell- 
ings the tulip certainly ex- 
cels; all the types are fine, 
the Darwins, May flower- 
ing Gesneriana, the single 
early or doubles, each one 
used by itself — not mixed ; 
the single or double hya- 
cinths are also excellent 
for formal effects. 

"DULB forcing has 

reached that stage of 

development that every 

place that has a green- 

house no 

matter how 

small,forces 
bulbs, there is a good rea- 
son for this, they flower 
easily, require very little 
space in the greenhouseand 
yield enormous returns. 

All the hyacinths are excellent for forcing, the Roman hyacinth 
being one of the most popular of all forcing bulbs; early tulips 
are used extensively, the Darwins can be forced late in winter and 
are very showy, any of the narcissus force readily, many of the 



For Winter 
Flowers 




During this month you can start the greenhouse going for the winter flowers and vegetables. Don't 
forget to grow some tomatoes indoors 



lilies are especially adapted to forc- 
ing and those that don't take kindly 
to forcing are retarded in cold stor- 
age so that they are available for 
the purpose. 

The foregoing include the easily 
handled forcing kinds, there are a 
number of other types which are ex- 
cellent, such as callas, allium, freesia, 
iris, ornithogalum, oxalis, the forc- 
ing gladiolus (G. Colvillei varieties), 
ranunculus, spirea, anemone, etc. 
While most of these bulbs (or roots) cannot be planted this 
month, yet it is now time to give the matter attention. Orders 
placed now mean, first selection, no shortage on varie ies, and 
early delivery. 

Boxes or pans (whichever are to be used for forcing) should 
be provided, so as to be on hand when wanted. The bulbs 
should be planted immediately upon their arrival, as it is 
harmful for them to lay around. You can get delivery now 
on callas and freesias and the others in succession at different 
periods, until the spireas or Japan lilies in November and 
December. Cold storage lilies for Christmas forcing are now 
available. 

CTART sowing peas for 
° fall crops. Of late 
years (because of the mild 
fall weather) peas sown 
during August 
and Septem- 
ber have been 
very successful. Make 
two sowings during the 
month, about the ist and 
1 5th. If the ground is dry 
soak the drill thoroughly 
before sowing. Soaking 
the seed only is not so 
safe because there is then 
no available moisture after 
germination. 

Spinach can be sown 
along with the peas, and 
will give a crop far super- 
ior to spring spinach. Two 
or three sowings can be 
made during the month. 
Make two sowings of 
beans this month. Keep 
the rows rather close to- 
gether — say about 15 
inches apart — and keep all successive sowings together so that 
a burlap or other cover can be placed over the rows to protect 
them from an early frost. 

Sow at once several rows of beets and carrots for a winter supply. 



Seeds To 
Sow 



.7 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



August, 1914 



Late 
Crops 



From the middle to the latter part of this month is a good time 
to make a couple of big sowings of lettuce for fall use. Fall lettuce 
does finely, and you can figure that from sowings made the latter 
part of this month, you can have lettuce until Thanksgiving. A 
little covering is of course necessary, later on. 

PHIS is the last chance to set out late cauliflower and cabbage 
and don't forget the importance of a good start, so water 
liberally if dry weather prevails at the planting period. It is 
not too late to produce good celery from plants set out at this time, 
but they must be properly looked after, never allowed 
to suffer for want of water, and an occasional dose of 
nitrate of soda will hurry them along. You cannot get 
size from celery plants set out now, but you can get just as good 
quality as can be produced. 

Early celery should be now ready for use and should be blanched 
for table use. There are a number of methods, a four-inch tile 
pipe is often used but sometimes causes "dampening"; wrapping 
with paper is also too close for this reason. The best method for 
blanching summer celery in small quantities is by boards, using 
two large boards, one on each side of the row and two boards for 
the top placed so they converge to form a roof over the trench. 

TV/TUSKMELONS should be ripe now, don't neglect to save your 

seed supply for next season from the first few melons to 

ripen, providing of course, they are of tip top quality. When 

Maturing picking your melons be careful not to trample the 

c vines. Pick off and burn any diseased leaves, and 

any vines that die should be pulled up and destroyed. 

Put onions in a dry place for keeping. Before storing away the 
necks should be twisted off; the larger onions that are intended 
for exhibition purpose should have the necks tied. 

Select a few of your very best tomatoes to save seed from for 
next season's crop; this is very little trouble and insures at least 
as good as you have, if not better. 

Don't fail to keep the runners lifted on the sweet potato plants, 
after this month you can let them grow unmolested. 

When picking corn don't strip the ear to find out when the ear 
is full, try to accustom yourself to the feel of the ear when ready; 
you will soon learn, and an ear of corn is never as good after it has 
been stripped. 

"^"OW is the time to sow sweet peas indoors if you want your 

flowers ready for the holidays. Give them good rich earth 

— it positively cannot be too rich for sweet peas; and be sure you 

procure good seeds, 
of the 
winter 
flower- 
ing type. That is 
most important. 
Poor seeds are dear, 
even as a gift. 

Carnations can now 
be benched and the 
house can be slightly 
shaded for a few days 
until the plants have 
started root action. 

If you have not 
already sown your 
calceolaria and ciner- 
arias as told in last 
month's Garden 
Magazine, you had 
better sow them at 
once. 



Bedding 
Plants 




In the 
Greenhouse 



Cut out the old raspberry 
canes now 



TT IS now time that all cuttings of bedding stock, such as ger- 
anium, coleus, achyranthus, ageratum, etc., be taken and 
rooted. Be sure you have enough stock plants to carry you over 
the winter; don't run short for the sake of a few extra cuttings. 
Palms and other exotics that have been spending the summer 



out-of-doors should now be brought in as the cool nights are 
apt to make them lose their color. 

Sow mignonette for forcing indoors, taking care to 
keep the plant cool and using a very rich heavy soil. 
Stocks and schizanthus to be grown on in pots tor in- 
door bloom can be sown this month. 

Pansies intended for winter flowering in the frames should be 
sown early this month. 

Gloxinia, achimenes, fancy leaved calad- 
ium and all other summer flowering green- 
house bulbous plants should now be gradu- 
ally dried off until by late 
fall they can be laid on 
their side for absolute rest. 
Pot plants such as prim- 
ulas, cyclamen, etc., which 
have been carried through 
the summer in a coldframe 
should be brought inside the 
latter part of this month. 




Late cabbage and 
cauliflower is ready 
to transplant now 



Chrysan- 
themums 



HPHIS is a very important 
month with the chrysan- 
themums, as it is "bud taking" time and much of one's success de- 
pends upon selecting the right bud; and getting it at the right 
time is equally important. The second crown bud of a chrysan- 
themum when produced from the middle of August 
to September ist, gives the best exhibition flowers, 
but the terminal bud is the surest and can always 
be depended upon to produce a good flower, this bud comes later 
than the crown bud and can be told by the cluster of smaller buds 
around it. It is the safest bud for the amateur to take, but will 
not produce the big flowers which are seen at the November 
shows. 

npHE English frame cucumbers for forcing should be started 

now. This type of cucumber is quite different from the 

garden type, and is ever so much better in quality. A liberal 

supply of leafmold is necessary to grow this plant well, using it 

v . mixed in equal parts with good turfy loam with 

v , | a sprinkling of sand to keep it open. 

Artichoke sown now and wintered in a cold- 
frame will not only produce fruit next season but will produce 
heads of wonderful quality and in good quantities. 

Tomatoes for forcing should be started right away. Don't use 
the common garden type, but rather get one of the forcing types 
which will yield better results. 

If you are fond of greens for winter use, a half bench of New 
Zealand spinach will be very satisfactory, this plant is a wonder- 
ful producer and is a really fine vegetable when properly served. 

Parsley for winter use should have some attention, prepare a 
place in the frames which are heated or where heavy frost can be 
excluded and plant some roots lifted from the garden, remove the 
tops to help them get established. 

Water cress sown at this time and wintered in a coldframe will 
produce all winter, cover the soil with sand and water several 
times a day, after the plants begin to grow. 

Start gathering droppings now for a mushroom bed, it is still a 
little early for spawning but it takes some time to get the droppings 
all gathered. 

Cauliflower is one of the most delicious of vegetables when 
produced in a greenhouse, very different from the cauliflower 
grown out-of-doors. Start sowing now and sow every three or 
four weeks through the winter for successional crops. 

HpHIS is a good time to look over your trees and shrubs of all 

A kinds and remove any dead wood, it is very easy to see dead 

. _ wood when the foliage is still on the plants. The 

irees earl y fruit ghould be ripe j n tne orcnar d and care 

should be used that none go to waste. 

Raspberries and blackberries should have a good cleaning out, 
cut out all the old cane which have produced fruit and tie the 
young vigorous canes in place. Green grapes and crab apples 



August, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



should now be ready for jelly making and must not be allowed 
to become too ripe for this purpose. 

HpHIS is the time to get new lawns ready for sowing, prepare your 
■*■ soil well and take advantage of any wet weather by sowing then. 
Save your own seed of Pennisetum Ruppellii, you can get 
any quantity now. 

Cut down all the dead flowering stalks of the 
perennials just as soon as you can, they not only 
spoil the appearance of a garden, but are quite 
a drag on the root system which is entirely unnecessary. 

It is still not too late to sow perennials for wintering in a cold- 
frame, any of the kinds mentioned in last month's Garden Maga- 



Among the 
Perennials 



zine can be used. Early this month foxglove and cup-and-saucer 
campanula can be sown in quantities for wintering in the cold- 
frames, these plants can be flowered in the frame in spring or 
planted out very early. 

"THE month of August is an excellent time for moving any 
evergreens. Do the work just as the plants start to make 
their late root growth and success is sure. Later planting of 
evergreens is not easy, unless it is done in actual winter. Another 
p, .. advantage of doing the work now is that it re- 

„ ' lieves the pressure on September planting of 

perennials, and later comes the planting of de- 
ciduous trees and shrubs that simply cannot be moved now. 



WEIGHED IN THE BALANCE 

The Newer Tulips and Daffodils 

JOSEPH JACOB WRITES OF THE KINDS "THAT I KNOW AND CAN RECOM- 
MEND AND WHICH I FEEL SURE AMERICAN READERS WILL LIKE TO TRY" 

[Editor's Note. — The Rev. Joseph Jacob is recognized as an international authority on the &i-i..v:-.';^:-: i //l ; .l>..3 
tulip and daffodil and has published two books — one on each bulb. He writes as an amateur 
for the amateur and we are gratified at being able to present to American readers the appraisals of so eminent an authority at this season when 
there is yet time for the placing of bulb orders for fall planting. Not by any means the least valuable characteristic of Mr. Jacob's ap- 
praisals is the fact that he recognizes actual intrinsic merit quite apart from the questions of novelty and rarity which usually flavor so strong Iv 
the garden judgments of European authorities and minimizes their value to the American amateur who looks for intrinsic merit first and last.] 





ONE thing about The Garden 
Magazine that I like very much 
is the way in which it revives 
the spirit of the title pages of our 
old British gardening books. One knows 
before one starts reading an article exactly 
what to expect. Hence, the title of this 
article. I want the readers of this maga- 
zine to do a little more than just read; I 
want them to put an emphasis in two places. 
Firstly on "I know" and secondly on "like 
to try." Emphasis makes a lot of difference 
as the customer found when he 
asked for his drinks after being 
shaved. "Oh," said the barber, 
"you have read my notice wrong. 
It should go like this. ' Look here ! 
What! Do you think I'll shave 
you for nothing and give you a 
drink?'" 

I write, then, from personal 
knowledge of what are "good 
things" and "good growers" in 
my own country and which I think 
it will be worth while dwellers in 
those states, where my letter- 
writing-ally, Mrs. Francis King, 
can be taken as guide, philosopher 
and friend in gardening matters, to 
try and test for themselves. I am 
not going to talk about daffodils 
that cost tens of dollars, or about 
tulips that are so scarce that for 
practical purposes they are unob- 
tainable, but rather of certain well 
tried kinds that I believe are ready 
to step into the shoes of those good 
old favorites, such as Mrs. Lang- 
try, Emperor, Empress, Ornatus, 
Autocrat, John Bain, and such like 
among the narcissus; and Artus, 
Keizerskroon, Cottage Maid, Gol- 
den Crown, Parisian Yellow, 



Double La Candeur, Bartigon, Margaret, 
Donders, and similar old timers among the 
tulips. 

Not that I must be taken to imply that 
they will all be superseded. Emperor 
never will, nor will Keizerskroon, until 
like Zomerschoon (well described by Mrs. 
King in the May .number of The Garden 
Magazine as that "too costly tulip of un- 
forgettable beauty") they begin to suffer 
as we all of us must do from "Anno Do- 
mini." Maddocks, a celebrated florist of 




Tulips are 



in constantly increasing demand and yet many excellent sorts may 
be had at low prices 



Walworth, London, published a bulb list 
in 1798. Zomerschoon is there and I have 
every reason to suppose it to be the identical 
variety that we have to-day. Even a 
tulip can't be as vigorous at a hundred and 
twenty as when it is only ten ! 

To begin with the daffodils. The last 
ten years have made an immense difference 
both in what we show and what we grow. 
Madame de Graaff has quite ousted the 
more or less "miffy" or poor doing white 
trumpets from our gardens. The bicolors, 
Empress and Horsfieldii are giv- 
ing place to such fine plants as 
Duke of Bedford and Glory of 
Noordwijk. Old Emperor will 
have serious rivals in all-yellow 
trumpets in Olympia and, in mild 
damp climates, the famous King 
Alfred. Among those that Park- 
inson, the Adam of daffodil en- 
thusiasts, called the "peerless," 
but which we label Incomparabilis 
and Barrii, or large and small cups, 
we have wonderful new creations 
in Lady Margaret Boscawen (bi- 
color incomparabilis) ; Blackwell 
(early, long red cup with yellow 
perianth) ; Bernardino (large deli- 
cate apricot-red cup and ivory 
perianth); Seagull (the vigorous 
white and pale yellow centred 
Barrii); Albatross (its red edged 
twin — both came from the same 
seed pod) ; Firebrand (small vivid 
red cup and primrose perianth); 
Red Chief (red cup, white peri- 
anth) ; and Lucifer (red cup, which 
does not burn, and white perianth). 
In the Leedsiis there are a large 
number of very fine things indeed 
of the White Queen type coming 
along. This splendid variety was 



10 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



August, 1914 



a great advance in size on the older 
type, such as Mrs. Langtry, Duchess of 
Westminster and Minnie Hume, but it is 
not my idea of a garden plant, being short 
in the stem. In time we will have Norah 
Pearson, Diana, Sir Olaf, H. C. Bowles. 
Honorable Mrs. Francklin, The Fawn and 
others, but with the exception of Diana 
these are still expensive. We have, how- 
ever, White Lady, which is any and every- 
body's flower if ever there is one. 
I am inclined to think it will be a 
second Emperor. 

In the poeticus section the 
number of the new varieties 
is legion and the task of 
selection is most difficult. 
There is a consensus of opin- 
ion over here that, like the 
proverbial dog, every variety 
"has its day" or year. One 
is good in 191 2, and another 
good in 1 914. The best ana 
most reliable of the more 
reasonable priced are Cas- 
sandra, Homer, Horace (red 
eye), Virgil (early), and Ben 
Jonson; and of the more ex- 
pensive kinds Acme (red eye) 
and Kingsley (lovely rimmed 
eye). 

An entirely modern type, 
which we owe to Messrs. R. 
Van der Schoot & Son of Holland, is the 
"poetaz" — the result of crossing poe- 
ticus ornatus with some of the polyan- 
thus or tazetta varieties. [This type has 
proven quite hardy in America — Eds.] 
I consider the introduction of the white 
trumpet Madame de Graaff, the evolution 
of the giant Leedsii (such as White Queen) 
and the coming of the poetaz (Elvira, 
Aspasia, Jaune a. Merveille, Sunset, Irene, 
etc.) the three great events in the introduc- 
tion of daffodil novelties in recent times. 

Tulips have steadily been gaining popular 
favor in recent years. The advent of the 
Darwins about a quarter of a century ago 
gave tulip culture a great fillip. The 
introduction of finer varieties and the find- 
ing and putting before the public many 
choice cottage ones fanned the flame. 
America wants these just as much asBritain. 
So much so I am told that, to-day, there is 
a sort of mimic mania taking place among 
the growers at Haarlem in their eagerness 
to acquire stocks of all the best. With 
regard to what are known as "earlies" I 
believe the demand is not so great as 
formerly, and I am not surprised, for now 
that Cottage, Breeder and Darwin tulips 
are so much used in bedding arrangements, 
it follows that there is less need for the 
others. 

In one way they might be useful still, 
and that is in what I term the "duplex" 
tulip bed. This means that in the place 
of any ground plant, such as an aubrietia, 
arabis, or phlox, an early and a late variety 
is planted alternately. Then the early 
one, when it has done flowering, is cut off 
either at the ground level or just above the 
second large leaf. If this is a low priced 




Daffodils have a great range of form and some of the 
newer poeticus and Leedsii kinds (shallow cups) have re- 
markable colorings, while the trumpet kinds are more 
solid and substantial 

one (such as Prince de Ligny, Artus, 
Prince of Austria, Maas, or Duchess of 
Parma), the cost need not be very heavy 
and the two varieties could easily be 
separated at getting-up time by the long 
stems of the latter. 

For growing in pots, I think those who 
wish for new or out of the way flowers 
might invest in some bulbs of the pure 
white double Schoonoord — it is as good 
as any peony — in some Safrano, best 
described as a pale yellow tea rose; and in 
Lac van Haarlem, an old but not much 
known rosy-mauve, rather dwarf growing 
but a good doer and very distinct. Among 
the singles, I take it for granted every one 
grows the lovely orange-red Prince of 
Austria. It is my ideal tulip and one of the 
few really sweet ones. This last character- 
istic it shares with Jenny, which for habit 
and shape of bloom leaves nothing to be 



desired. Its color is a beautiful cherry 
red, quite a shade of its own. Two, called 
after American Presidents — President Taf t 
and President Cleveland — are good. 
The first is a striking white with a deep rose 
edge, which gradually colors the whole, 
and the second a charming combination of 
a much paler pink and white. Both are 
large fine flowers. The only other 
one in this section that I will men- 
tion is the new De Wet [which was 
so conspicuous at the New York 
International Flower Show in 
1913. — Eds.] It is a sport from 
Prince of Austria and in every- 
thing but color it is a replica 
of that grand plant. The 
ground color of the petal is an 
orange yellow, and there is a 
fine net work of red veins dis- 
tributed evenly all over it; the 
combination giving a bright 
orange tone to the whole 
flower. With age the 
red more and more pre- 
dominates. It is the 
best novelty we have 
had for years. 

Breeders are old self 
colored kinds that as a 
rule have a more egg 
shaped and longer look- 
ing flower than the 
square based Darwins. Many 
of them have yellow bases 
or bottoms. A fairy tale in 
connection with this type of 
flower that I have been told is, 
that their popularity in the States is based 
on the belief that the Pilgrim Fathers grew 
them before the sailing of the Mayflower. 
They very likely did have something of the 
sort in their gardens, but they would be 
there not because they were self colored, 
as we like them, but because they expected 
them to "break" or become striped. The 
only tulips that were of much value until 
the last thirty years were these broken or 
striped ones. Now the case is reversed, 
although I hear there are signs that the 
old fashion may be revived to some ex- 
tent. Of these breeder selfs none is more 
refined than Louis XIV; its aristocratic 
looking combination of deep rich purple 
and glossy brown is always admired, more 
especially in bright sunlight. Gondvonk, 
a fine large tortoise shell comb color and 
raw sienna, and Golden Bronze, a cad- 
mium brown and deep yellow, are two 
of the best of the brown-yellows. Then 
there is Panorama, or as it is sometimes 
called Fairy, but why this name should 
be given to a flower that suggests anything 
but such a being I cannot imagine. It 
has a massive mahogany red bloom of the 
size and height of the Darwin Millet. 
Lastly, I would mention Marie Louise. 
This is a round flower of a fascinating shade 
of pale old rose edged with a warm apricot 
and is very distinct. In some years it 
"comes rough"— that is, many of the 
flowers develop an abnormal number of 
segments and sometimes a petal is distorted, 



August, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



n 



but with all its faults "I love it still" 
and would be sorry not to have it in my 
garden. Planted in alternate clumps with 
a mauve Darwin such as Euterpe, the 
blending of colors is restful and somewhat 
uncommon. 

To these Darwin varieties I now pass. 
Their introduction into commerce in 1889 
created a profound sensation. I have an 
early list of Messrs. E. H. Krelage & Son, 
the introducers, dated 1891. It contains 
three hundred varieties with prices rang- 
ing from twelve cents (6d. in English 
money) each, to twenty-five and thirty 
guelders (30 guelders equals about $12.50). 
It is impossible to say how many kinds 
have been introduced since then, but they 
must be numbered by hundreds. Slowly 
the best are crystallizing out, but the pro- 
cess is by no means complete. It is this, 
coupled with fashion, which accounts for 
such a mighty rise as took place in 
the case of the blue purple The Bishop. 
Every one wants it. No one has much 
stock. Up goes the price. The same firm 
which lists it in their 1914 catalogue at 
30 shillings per dozen (say $7.50), offered 
it last season at 5 shillings ($1.25). It is the 
bluest of the purples and a self. 



Viking comes near it, but it is to The 
Bishop as La Tristesse (rosy heliotrope 
edged silvery gray) is to Remembrance. 
That is, it is more of a bicolor on account 
of the three inner petals being of a paler 
shade than the interior ones. Let me 
couple two more, still paler, but of a similar 
tone, Euterpe and Erguste. These are 
both very lovely and while my favorite is 
the more rosy and taller growing Euterpe, 
very many lean to the bluer gray of the 
latter. If my garden was bathed in sun- 
shine all May I would go in for some of the 
real darkies, but I would have to be care- 
ful to give them an appropriate setting. 
If placed against very dark foliage, they 
do not show; and if they are part of a 
scheme it will then, I fear, look gappy. 
The two I would advise are the earlier and 
rounder flowered Fra Angelica and the 
later and longer Faust. 

Pink shades are very popular. Hereto- 
fore, Clara Butt has carried all before her 
and now that she can be bought at quite a 
low figure her popularity will not be less. 
There is nothing quite like the delicious 
warm pink that we get on well grown 
flowers. I would again suggest two names 
— Suzon, a beautiful buff rose with a blush 



edge, and L'Ingenue, a sort of paler edition 
of the same. Deep reds and rich dark 
crimsons are "off," not because they "are 
not" but because no one seems to notice 
them. I don't think my fine bed of City 
of Haarlem evoked a single exclamation of 
admiration among my visitors this spring! 
The deep crimson Millet and the rich ruby 
red Tara (syn: William Goldring) were 
likewise all passed by. 

With the Cottage varieties it is nearly the 
same. Orange King (splendid rosy orange) , 
Inglescombe Pink (buff rose) and the very 
new Branching Tulip, Mons. S. Mottet, 
were three of the exceptions. This last 
variety is the first of a new type "made 
in France" by Mons. G. Bony of Cler- 
mont-Ferrand. Every plant bears from 
two to five or six well developed blooms 
on different lengths of stem. The blooms 
are white in their boyhood, but with ad- 
vancing age they become more and more 
flushed, just as is the case with the well 
known Picotee. I believe in this type. 
I think it has a future — the days of a too 
prim regularity are no more. For a 
cycle we have become Gothic in spirit. 
A bed of Mons. S. Mottet exactly expresses 
the change. Hence my faith. 




Qardening atJYb. iffy 



patct 11. 

(Concluded from June Number) 



JSeinylfie Veracious Jlcceunt of a Jticcess/uC JdattCe 6etween 
the Chime/* and a JRecalcltrunt JBack it/art?, 6y 



HAVE already alluded to 

our efforts to hide our ugly 

fences. Besides the plants 

previously mentioned, we 

have used various vines, both 

annual and hardy. Among the 

latter was the kudzu vine which, we were 

told in divers veracious publications, would 

often grow fifty feet in a season. 

It is strange how different is the appear- 
ance of a plant in a seed catalogue and out- 
side of one. In a certain catalogue, this 
one grew skyward with a Jack-and-the- 
beanstalk-like rapidity, its blossoms rising 
in innumerable clusters tier on tier. A 
glowing description below the picture made 
life seem hardly worth living without a 
kudzu vine, although the catalogue admitted 
that it would need to be helped little. 

I should think so. I did its twining for 
it during one entire summer, and in the 
autumn I discovered that as soon as I 
stopped, the kudzu vine had wandered 
from the fence out into the border, and had 
rooted here and there among my hardy 
plants, no doubt, with the amiable intention 
of presenting us with some young kudzu 
vines. As if we needed any more or wanted 
them! 

It has never produced a blossom, though 



JY2naJ{. MCen 



every spring from twenty to thirty sprouts 
have shot up from the root, sprawling shift- 
lessly in every direction, and waiting for 
somebody to come and do something. 

At length it has seen fit to make wood 
that endured a severe winter, and as we 
are about to move, I fear that I shall be 
obliged to abandon the kudzu vine to its 
fate. Otherwise, I must also take the fence 
with me. 

OUR STRUGGLE WITH THE SOIL 

I have left this topic to the last because 
it was our greatest difficulty, not our least. 
In its virgin state, our soil is a fine gray 
sand of the most compact texture, baking 
in the sun to a bricklike hardness. Dry 
and powdered, it looks like road dust, and 
seems to have little more fertility. When 
we came here, grass refused to grow in 
places, and where it managed to exist, it 
was rooted so shallow that the turf could 
be peeled off almost as easily as the rind 
from a California orange. 

Into this hard, airless ground, we ignor- 
antly dug bonemeal and sheep fertilizer. 
On account of the bad mechanical condition 




^1 



of the soil, neither had any 
appreciable effect. 

Having read repeatedly of 
the value of the dust mulch and 
the need of breaking the crust 
that forms after a rainfall, we 
endeavored to stir the ground around our 
plants, as directed. The result, during our 
first season, was that the ground broke in 
such big pieces that the little plants were 
uprooted with the chunks of earth. In 
places, the soil set like cement around young 
seedlings. It was as if they had been put 
into little plaster jackets, and the life was 
squeezed out of them. The air could not 
reach their roots, and they were smothered. 

Even now, after the improvement due 
to the addition of humus and to frequent 
cultivation, this soil has a way of greening 
over the surface, though in the sun, unless 
continually stirred. This appearance, when 
undisturbed, is followed by moss, indicating 
the poor drainage of the place, the bad aera- 
tion of the ground. 

The soil is acid, as I scarcely need to say. 
One indication of this fact was found in the 
deformity of certain flowers. Hardy chry- 
santhemums at first showed in some cases 
only a partial development of their ray- 
florets. Perhaps a quarter of the circle of 



12 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



August, 1914 



these that should surround the disk would 
be missing. Dahlias, too, were affected, 
but in a lesser degree. Pansies were per- 
haps the worst sufferers. Their poor little 
faces were often so distorted that they 
seemed afflicted with floral paralysis. 

For such a condition of the soil, lime is 
indicated, to drop into medical phraseology: 
It sweetens, and promotes porosity. We 
used it liberally. Clover now grows where 
it was once unknown, the visible sign of 
improvement. 

After liming, the crying need of such a 
soil as ours is the introduction of humus, or 
decayed vegetable matter. 

Stable manure has the great advantage 
of providing both the humus which will 
loosen a compact soil and the food elements 
needed for the nourishment of the plant; 
but it also has the disadvantage of intro- 
ducing weeds and white grubs. And it is 
not easily got in the city. 

We at length had the good fortune to 
obtain a number of loads from our grocer. 
At it was furnished late in the fall, the stuff 
was first used as a winter protection. In 
the spring, the fine part of this material 
was dug in where it had lain. There was a 
great deal of straw in this manure, and as 
the former had not perceptibly rotted, it 
was carefully removed, and buried with 
lime to facilitate its decay. Six months 
later it was incorporated with the soil where 
most needed. We valued it not only for its 
humus, but for its content of potash. I 
noticed later that the only weed seeds 
that survived the application of lime were 
those of clover and several grasses. 

But the one thing that proved most 
efficacious as a means of breaking up this 
tenacious soil and making it friable, was 
rotted grass clippings decayed till they 
were like a rich dark earth, almost as black 
as soot. We had several loads of this good 
stuff. The clippings had been piled up by 
the janitor of an apartment house against 
the fence of a friend of ours, and the latter 
objecting to the rotting of his property, we 
obtained this material for hauling it away. 
This substance has value, also, as a fertilizer. 

All grass clippings should be saved. 
Sprinkled with woodashes and dug into 
beds in the fall, there is nothing else so good 
for asters. The soil will come to resemble 
the woods earth so much liked by these 
flowers without the disadvantage of con- 
taining slugs and snails. 

We also had a compost pit into which 
went all of the vegetable refuse of the kit- 
chen, even tea and coffee grounds, all faded 
cut flowers, weeds, dead leaves, etc. These 
things were sprinkled with lime as each 
layer was put in, to prevent odor, hasten 
decay, and add value. This compost 
proved of great benefit. 

After the introduction of humus from 
these sources, the soil was in a condition 
to make use of the elements of food pro- 
vided by commercial fertilizers and they 
were added as needed. 

Coal ashes were also used to some extent 
as a means of breaking up this stiff soil, 
but not because they contain either humus 



or plant food. It was because we had 
them and because we knew they would 
have a tendency to separate the particles 
of earth. Their use resulted in improve- 
ment, and the first sign was the appearance 
of certain shade-loving weeds that had pre- 
vously found the ground along our south 
fence in too bad a condition even for their 
existence. 

It is now believed by many that there is 
no great difference in soils in the matter 
of constituents but that the dissimilarity 
lies in the degree of availability of the food 
elements to the plants. However this 
may be, judging by indications our ground 
was deficient in potash and phosphoric acid, 
but rich in nitrogen. 

Nitrogen is supposed to leach out 
rapidly, but I am not surprised that it 
could not get out of our soil. I'd like to see 
anything get out of it after it had once got 
in. 

We seemed to have a reservoir of that 
element. Before we attacked the soil 
from the correct angle, everything ran to 
leaf. Yet, strange to say, the foliage, 
though so luxuriant, in some cases showed a 
tinge of yellow. This peculiarity is usually 
due to the lack of nitrogen, but it may also 
be caused by an excess, we are told, or by a 
deficiency in some other element. Here, 
I am inclined to think, it was ascribable to 
the want of sufficient phosphoric acid. 
This lack was also shown by the failure to 
bloom well on the part of some plants, and 
the anaemic pallor of the blossoms of others. 
Either condition was most pronounced in 
the case of plants that require a good 
soil — dahlias, illustrating the first, and 
bleeding hearts the second. Sheep fer- 
tilizer or bonemeal was thereby indicated, 
and supplied by the garden doctor, with 
satisfactory results. 

The deficiency in potash was shown by 
the soft stems of a number of plants, but 
it was particularly evident in gladiolus. 
These grew very tall and spindling, with 
leaves that drooped and weak stalks that 
could not support the weight of the blos- 
soms, though these were less in number than 
they should have been. Verbenas showed 
a mass of feeble looking stems and leaves 
and poor corymbs until wood ashes of the 
commercial sort were dug in around them, 
supplying potash. They then stiffened 
up and not only began to bloom, but rust 
spots which had begun to appear on their 
foliage, now vanished. 

The wood ashes were also used with the 
hope of sweetening the soil when the pan- 
sies showed deformity. They were of 
some use in this respect, but, in my opinion, 
lime is better and more lasting in its effects. 
But, though the ashes bleached the flowers 
to some extent, we found them of great 
benefit to the plants, promoting an upright 
growth that did one good to see when con- 
trasted with the "lopping" habit they had 
at first shown. Sheep fertilizer or bone 
meal, applied later, restored color to the 
blossoms. 

One difficulty is still unconquered and 
will remain so, I think, unless the yard is 



underdrained. Plants winter kill badly in 
this cold, wet soil, with its poor drainage 
and bad aeration, except when the season 
is unusually favorable. And many that 
endure the vicissitudes of winter pass 
away with root or crown rot during an inau- 
spicious spring. 

Yet in spite of our troubles, we have had 
many flowers. 

Most annuals require a lighter soil than 
ours, but we have grown numerous sorts 
with various degrees of success. Portulaca, 
petunias, sweet alyssum, four o'clocks, 
marigolds, calendulas, zinnias, larkspurs, 
ageratum, balsams, perillas, Japanese hops, 
and wild cucumber have been good. Our 
nicotiana, salvias, ten-week stocks, and 
violas were fine. Our Shirley poppies were 
the wonder of the neighbors who could 
scarcely believe that such fairylike crea- 
tures could spring from the soil hereabouts; 
and we have had creditable asters, free 
from root lice, though grown in sand. 

Certain perennials have found the soil 
much to their taste after improvement: 
Golden Glow rudbeckias and hardy sun- 
flowers are but too well pleased, while 
forget-me-nots of the variety known as 
Palustris, whose habitat is marshy ground, 
threaten to become a weed. Hollyhocks, 
Oriental poppies, and German iris have 
flourished; larkspurs and columbines have 
managed to live comfortably; day lilies 
and funkias, gaillardias, sweet Williams, 
bleeding hearts, lilies-of-the-valley, moon- 
penny daisies, primroses, hardy chrysan- 
themums, Japanese iris, English daisies, 
gypsophila, and heleniums, have compared 
very favorably with those in other city 
yards. With foxgloves, coreopsis, and 
Canterbury bells, when failure resulted, 
the trouble that has prevented success has 
generally been winter killing or crown rot 
in early spring. The wet soil, even when 
beds were raised above the level, proved too 
much for a certain delicacy of constitution 
possessed by these. 

The gardener in such a place must 
snatch half of his joys from the overcoming 
of obstacles. And if he be endowed to 
some degree with " the divine sense of humor 
that rainbows the tears of the world," so 
much the better for him. He will then 
enjoy himself in spite of his almost insuper- 
able difficulties. Yet it must be admitted 
that it would be as cheap and less trouble 
to move and garden in a more propitious 
spot, if a hegira be possible. 

I have had hours of such discouragement 
that I have declared with my Job's com- 
forters, who, of course, have not been lack- 
ing, "Nobody can do anything with such 
soil as this." But I have also had my 
moments of triumph when success has gone 
to my head, as it sometimes does in the 
case of other "artists," and I have thought, 
"One who can raise flowers here can grow 
them in the Sahara without irrigation." 

I end as I began. It is my private 
opinion that any one can have a garden 
anywhere if he wants one badly enough to 
make the attempt and to persist in spite of 
obstacles. 




49i4 



wzm. 




CONVENTION GARDEN 

[Editors' Note. — The Society of American Florists holds Us joth Annual Convention at Boston, Mass., 
August 18 to 20. In conjunction there are also stated meetings of the various "special flower" societies devoted to 
the interest of the Sweet Pea, the Rose, the Carnation, the Gladiolus, etc. These annual Conventions have been 
accompanied by exhibitions of plants, building materials, sundries, etc., but generally of a "trade" character. Last 
year, when the Society met at Minneapolis a new feature was introduced in the form of an outdoor exhibition of 
growing plants set out in the form of a garden. Here the general public was able to see growing displays of many 
novelties, which displays were maintained throughout the season. This year the city of Boston designated an area 
of ten acres.vf land on the Fenway and under the direction of the Park Department as the "Convention Garden." 
Here the amateur gardener will find, until late fall, many displays of growing plants, including novelties of the season.} 



fTpHE 

i started its 



Society of American Florists 
I started its career thirty years 

i ago with a strong incentive and 
a well-defined purpose. In the 
earlier period of American horticultural development, the most 
rapid progress had been made in what we might term the utilitarian 
field, the study and culture of fruits having already assumed an 
importance equalling, if not surpassing, that which it had attained 
in the most highly cultivated portions of the old world. 

As in the history of 
all new settlements, at- 
tention had been given 
chiefly to the useful 
and directly remunera- 
tive, rather than to the 
purely ornamental in 
garden products. 

But it was becom- 
ing very evident to 
thoughtful and far- 
seeing minds that the 
time was approaching 
when the gratification 
of esthetic taste and 
the promotion of re- 
fined comfort would 
appeal to the American 



The "S. A. F." 

By W. J. STEWART, Ex-Secretary 

and its possibilities 




mination to really "do something." 

No more alluring field for action 
under wise, experienced and zealous 
leadership was ever presented. Its needs 
were self-evident; the direction of its 
coming evolution was unmistakable. If American horticul- 
ture was to reach its full development, the work must begin 
at the foundation, with the workers. If the great community 
was to be educated to a proper appreciation and correct 

knowledge of practical 



, 






P. Welch, of Boston, Vice-Presi- 
dent, Society of American Florists 



Theodore Wirth, of Minneapolis- 
President, Soc. of American Florists 



J. K. M. L Farquhar, of Boston, 
Chairman, Publicity Committee 



people with a force and in a manner hitherto almost undreamed of. 
Already there were signs that the commercial flower grower had 
begun to chafe under the domination of his affluent and sometimes 
aggressive brother — the fruit and vegetable grower — in the 
affairs of the then-existing horticultural bodies. Dissatisfaction 
with prevalent conditions was rife. In short, the younger brother 
was fast attaining manly stature and confidence in his own strength, 

and self-assertion was 

sure to come sooner or 

later, 

Thus the Society of 

American Florists was, 

in . its very inception, 

prepared for serious 

business. The pro- 
gressive men of the 

young and virile flower- 
growing industry, 

aroused as they espied 

the dawning of a 

new era in American 

horticulture, and 

thrilled with its in- 

Dillon, Chairman, Boston SpiratlOn, got together, John Young, of New York, Secre- 
Park Commission filled With the deter- tary, Society of American Florists 

13 





horticulture, the real 
start must be in the 
training of the prac- 
tical men to whom 
the world could look 
for reliable example 
and instruction. The 
pioneers of the Society 
of American Florists 
seem to have realized 
that, before opening 
their house to com- 
pany, they must first 
set their house in 
order. 

The early hsitory 
of the organization is 
all aglow with the ardor of altruistic purpose. Steadfastly 
and consistently have the original ideals been striven for. 
Steadily has the task of fitting the workers for better work 
and for greater usefulness gone on. The facts of science have 
been applied to practical use; the gospel of beauty has been 
preached as never before, and the ideality of art has touched 
and quickened the oldest occupation known to mankind 
into a loftier reality. 

The Society of 
American Florists 
and Ornamental Hor- 
ticulturists, as its 
title is given under 
the unique Na- 
tional charter con- 
ferred by 
has in a measure 
the floral 
this 



Congress, 



of 



J. H. 



in 
made 
dustry 
try, and 
inspiration 
grown up 
useful 
which 



re- 

in- 

coun- 

under its 

there have 

the many 

special societies 

have rendered 




splendid service. 



Jas. 



B. Shea, Deputy Commis- 
sioner ol Parks, Boston 





The old Chase garden at Salem 

BOSTON and its immediate vicin- 
ity has been the cradle of much 
that has dominated American hor- 
ticulture. Hereabouts have been 
the beginnings of many lines of great 
general interest. At Cambridge, one of 
America's foremost horticulturists, C. M. 
Hovey, had his gardens. Wilder, who 
rendered such service to American pom- 
ology, lived at Dorchester, and part of the 
old garden still remains. The site of 
Parkman's garden, now incorporated into 
the park system along Jamaica Way, is 
famous for the introduction of the Park- 
man crab tree among other things; and 
the Clapp garden, another fine old place, 
is also at Dorchester. The original ginkgo 
tree, transplanted from the old 
Gardiner Greene estate on 
Beacon Hill in 1835, stands to- 
day on Holmes Walk, Boston 
Common, with other venerable 
trees. The Public Garden ad- 
joining is a splendid example 
of the possibilities in reclaim- 
ing waste lands, for all this 
territory now converted into 
fine lawns and famous for 
fancy summer bedding, is re- 
claimed from the marshes of 
Charles River. Reclaimed 
land, extending all the way 
along Muddy Brook, forms the 
great parkway of Boston run- 
ning out to Jamaica Plain . Part 
of this is devoted this year to 
the Convention Garden where 
the Society of American Flor- 
ists is exhibiting in connection 
with the thirtieth annual 
meeting, and wherein are trade 
exhibits of modern varieties 
of plants displayed for comparison and 
demonstration. 

Extending along the Back Bay Fenway 
itself the plantings are instructive as show- 
ing how skilfully the art of man can repro- 
duce the semblance of Nature's own handi- 
work. This is the work of the late Mr. J. 
A. Pettigrew, former park superintendent. 



In the Weld garden at Dedham 



The Fenway leads us right into the 
Arnold Arboretum, that unique collection 
of hardy trees and shrubs representing 
everything that can be grown in the climate 
of New England. The Arboretum is open 
to the public every day from sunrise to 
sunset. Fifty years old, the results of this 
work are now being brought very prac- 
tically before the horticultural public 
partly by a series of Popular Bulletins 
recently established. 

Continuing beyond the Arboretum, the 
visitor will pass the Bussey Institute and 
connect with the most important area of the 



■Hi ' ^^%* 




At Lancaster, on the estate of Mr. Bayard Thayer 

possesses an Italian garden, but this 
estate is now under process of remodelling. 
Near by are the gardens of Mrs. John L. 
Gardiner, William Whitman, and the newly 



THE GARDEN INTEREST 



A TABLOID SUGGESTION FOR THE 
TION CITY — WHAT IS TO BE SEEN 



Metropolitan Park System, Franklin Park. 

Brookline, long famed for its gardens, 

adjoins the Arnold Arboretum. Here, in 




Mr. Larz Anderson's Italian garden, wherein a continuous succession of bloom is maintained 

the Weld garden of Mr. Larz Anderson, 
is one of the most famed specimens of 
formal Italian gardening in this country, 
and instructive horticulturally because of 
the careful system of continuous succession 
of .bloom that is maintained throughout 
the season. 

The adjoining Faulkner Farm, also 
14 



planted grounds of Mrs. Hannah P. Weld. 
Holm Lea, the residence of Professor C. S. 
Sargent, director of the Arnold Arboretum, 
is an interesting example of 
the English park style of 
landscape art. It also con- 
tains a representative collec- 
tion of peonies, iris, lilacs, 
Crataegus, rhododendrons, etc. 
The Botanic Garden of Har- 
vard University, located at 
Cambridge, has historic asso- 
ciation in connection with 
the late Professor Asa Gray, 
who did most of his botanical 
work at this place. There 
are extensive collections of 
herbaceous plants and a rock 
garden. In all, about 9,000 
species of plants are cultivated. 
The garden will be open to the 
public from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m., 
daily. 

In the Agassiz Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, also as- 
sociated with Harvard Uni- 
versity, is a representative 
collection of glass models of 
flowers, which excites a good deal of in- 
terest. 

Cambridge, itself, is noted for the resi- 
dences of several famous people, including 
Longfellow, James Russell Lowell, etc. 
Part of the grounds of the last named house 
are now included in the park system. On 
the road to Cambridge, the visitor may see 





Holm Lea, noted for its open park -like effects 

in passing the historical Washington elm. 

The two large cemeteries of Boston are 

not without their interest at this time. 

On the west is Mt, Auburn, which was 



At Wellesley is Mr. Hunnewell's remarkable topiary work 

Mrs. H. L. Higginson (famous for its seaside 
rockeries), Judge W. H. Moore, Mrs. E. C. 
Swift; and at Marblehead Neck, that of 
Chas. W. Parker. 

The historical old-time gardens of Salem 
were unfortunately, to a large extent, 
injured by the recent calamitous lire in 
that town. Here, however, was Governor 
Endicott's estate, interesting on account 
of its old-time associations; and nearby 
is the new estate in Topsfield of Mr. T. 
Emerson Proctor, a modern country estate 
and arboretum, rock garden, etc. 

Rock gardening may also be seen at the 



IN AND ABOUT BOSTON 

CRITICAL VISITOR TO THE CONVEN- 
AND THE LESSON TO BE LEARNED 



closely concerned with the beginnings of 
the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 
Indeed, the two organizations were one at 
the start, and it is the ceme- 
tery that made possible the 
great influence that this So- 
ciety has exercised. To the 
south of Boston is Forest 
Hills Cemetery, of importance 
as being the first example of 
the lawn, or park, cemetery 
in this country. 

The best example of topiary 
work to be seen in America 
is on the Hunnewell Estate 
at Wellesley. Apart from this, 
however, the collections of 
fine evergreens and rhododen- 
drons, which give the place 
its character, have a fame all 
their own. The work stands 
as an instructive example of 
what may be accomplished 
in what is commonly regarded 
as an impossible waste — the 
tract was so considered when 
the work was begun more than 
three quarters of a century ago. 

Owing to the naturally favorable con- 
ditions, the entire shore line, both up and 
down the coast from Boston, has been devel- 
oped into a series of finely gardened estates, 
more particularly along the North Shore, 
such as at Manchester. Some of the more 
noteworthy are the gardens of Mrs. Evans, 
Mr. H. C. Frick, W. S. and J. T. Spaulding, 



Ipswich garden of Mr. George E. Barnard, 
adjoining Topsfield. The best example of 
wild gardening in the neighborhood is at 





One of the many old-time gardens around Boston — the Whipple estate at Salem 



Dedham, in the gardens of General Stephen 
M. Weld. Other neighboring regions where 
fine gardens exist are in Lancaster, Whit- 
insville and like nearby towns. 

Commercial establishments, such as 
supply the wants of other large cities, will 
naturally be found in the environs of 
Boston, but there are also one or two 

15 



The House of Seven Gables" at Salem 

places which have a particular appeal to 
the general plant lover. From the Woods 
Hole establishment of M. H. Walsh came 
the beginnings of that great race of rambler 
roses which have become so dominant a 
characteristic of American gardens. At 
Natick, near Wellesley, are the Waban 
Conservatories, where were originated the 
Hadley, Wellesley, and Mrs. Charles Rus- 
sell roses. This establishment was also 
the first one to adopt the modern very 
large greenhouse for commercial plant 
growing. The development of the sweet 
pea as a cut flower under glass has been 
very largely due to the work of Mr. Wil- 
liam Sim, at Cliftondale; and in the 
establishment of Mr. Thomas Roland, at 
Nahant, may be found a large 
collection of acacias and other 
hard - wooded plants which 
seem to suggest a revival of 
interest in this formerly very 
popular class of material. 

And as looking into the 
future possibilities of plants 
that have come to us from 
China, mention may be made 
of the nurseries of R. & J. 
Farquhar at Dedham and 
Roslindale, where many of the 
introductions of Mr. E. H. 
Wilson are being propagated 
extensively. The modern de- 
velopment of the florist's carna- 
tion is also associated with 
this region, as it was Mr. Peter 
Fisher of Ellis who raised the 
now famous Mrs. T. W. Law- 
son and others of that type 
that followed. 

An illustration of the mod- 
ern great developments in com- 
mercial horticulture may be seen in Tracy's" 
gladiolus farm at Wenham. The environs 
of Boston are studded with large establish- 
ments devoted to the commercial produc- 
tion of plants. And not the least important 
posession of Boston is the extensive horticul- 
tural library in the home of the Mass. Horti- 
cultural Society in Horticultural Hall. 



' # nBOST^fjR 



e 



CONVENTION GARDEN 

GUIDE TO THE EXHIBITS 



TiE accompanying map, corrected up to July 
13 th, shows the location of the various exhibits 
up to that date. 

The circle contingent to the space for the tent is to 
be planted by the Park and Recreation Department, 
to represent the seal of the City of Boston. Also, 
in the centre, a coat of arms of the United States, 
elaborately worked out showing the red and white 
stripes and blue field with thirteen stars representing the thirteen 
original states. This is flanked on both sides by a leaf represent- 
ing the emblem of the Society of American Florists. 



A rose covered arbor on the planting area leading 
on to a rustic bridge which curves in and out, ends 
at a Japanese tea house. The bay between the bridge 
and shore is to be planted with water lilies and other 
aquatic plants, all to have a Japanese effect. 

All the beds that have been listed have been con- 
structed. Beds which have no numbers had not 
been engaged at the time of going to press, and if 
not taken otherwise, will be planted by the Park and Recreation 
Department of the City of Boston. Some beds are planted by 
two exhibitors and are listed, for example, as 5a and 5b. 



Bidwell & Fobes, 5a 

Boddington, Arthur T., Canna, gladiolus, mont- 
brietia, 32, 35, 53, 75 

Carter's Tested Seeds, Inc., Clock dial in grass with 
bedding plants 70 

Childs, John Lewis, Gladiolus, 61 

Comley, Henry R., Cosmos, white chrysanthe- 
mum, 3 

Conard & Jones Co., Cannas, 13, 14, 38, 39, 40, 
41, 42 

Cowee, Arthur, Gladiolus Peace, 56a 

Dreer, Inc., Henry A., Nymphseas, no 

Eastern Nurseries, 31, 58 

Edgar Co., William W, Heliotrope and lilies, 4 

Farquhar, R. & J. Co., 37, 62, 127 



Fletcher Co., F. W., New hyacinth — flowered 

Antirrhinum, 59 
Goddard, S. J., Begonia Gloire de Chatelaine, 63 
Henderson & Co., Peter, Geranium Genl. Funston, 

57 
Hewes & Co., A. H., vases and pottery scattered 

about garden 
Knight & Struck Buddleya and Heatherhome 

cosmos, 6, 11 
Magnuson, H., Salvia, 56b 
Manda, W. A., 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 

87, 88, 89, 90 
Mt. Desert Nurseries, Phlox, astilbe, spirea, etc., 

7, 8, 9, 10 
Palmer, F. E., Petunia Veilchenblau and dwarf 

Marigold, 91 



Park and Recreation Department, 2, 15 

Pierson, A. N., Co., Baby rambler roses, perennials, 

geraniums, foliage plants, cannas, 26, 27, 28, 28a, 

29, 3° 

Sim, William, Snapdragon Pride of Cliftondale, 50 
Steward, E. E., 5b 

Tracy, B. Hammond, Gladiolus in variety, 12, 25 
Tricker, William, Nymphaeas and water plants, 114, 
115, 119, 120 

Vaughan's Seed Store, 60 

Vick's Sons, James, Gladiolus Rochester White, 55 
Vincent, Jr., & Sons Co., R., Geraniums, 34 
Being used as a nursery bed for overflow stock, 54 
Not built, being under large trees, 1, 16 




iDRItJKING FOUNTAIN 



TEA HOUSZ 



16 



Fruiting Strawberries in Winter— By E. I. F., 

NOT A DIFFICULT PROCEDURE BUT REQUIRING ATTENTION TO DE- 
TAILS—START NEW PLANTS NOW AND BEAT THE OUTDOOR CROP 



Maisa- 
chmetU 



THE conventional plan is to layer 
the first runners made in July 
in 3-inch pots plunged near the 
parent plants. In two weeks 
they are repotted into 4-inch pots and set 
in a coldframe. When fall comes the 
plants are shifted to 5-inch and again to 
6-inch pots. In actual practice and deal- 
ing with several hundred plants, just as 
good results have been obtained when 
strong runners have been dug up late in 
July or early in August and set directly 
into 6-inch pots. 

It is convenient to set the pots in 
coldframe, for they can be cared for 
to good advantage there. Good gar- 
den soil, preferably from new land, 
may be used in the pots and com- 
mercial fertilizer applied if it seems needed. 
Very much depends upon the proper 
watering of the plants until winter comes. 
Sometimes it is necessary to make an 
application of water twice a day; enough 
must be given so that it will penetrate 
to the roots. 

When cold weather comes, breakage of 
the pots may be avoided by surrounding 
them with coal ashes and putting a sash 
on the frame, but the plants are permitted 
to freeze. Late in December the first 
of the plants to be forced may be taken in 
and thawed. The season is easily extended 
by starting the plants in batches. A night 
temperature of 40 to 45 is about right. 
When the buds come, the temperature is best 
run up to 65 or 75 at night, but good 
ventilation is necessary As soon as the 
plants are brought into the house, it is 
wise to spray them with copper sulphate, 
one ounce to eight gallons of water, to 
kill fungus spores. 

Some growers keep their plants in pots 
through the forcing season. Others shift 
them to boxes with an opening in the front, 
into which the plant is set. The latter 
plan is excellent for a lean-to house, as the 
boxes may be placed on 
shelves arranged in tiers 



against the rear wall, the floor space being 
left clear for other purposes. With this 
plan, too, the berries are protected from 
the dirt and watering is made an easy 
matter. When pots are used, and this is 
the more common method, they are placed 
on tables or raised benches and excelsior, 
cork chips or a piece of wire screening 
thrust under the berries to keep them from 
becoming soiled. 




Hand fertilizing of the flowers is nec- 
essary. Some growers find it satisfactory 
to shake the plants sufficiently to scatter 
the pollen, but as a rule a camel's hair 
brush is made use of, the pollen being 
gathered from the stamens and transferred 
to the pistils. Sometimes any extra pollen 
is carried along on a wooden paddle. 
Pollenizing the blossoms must be done 
every sunny morning. It is very necessary 
that every pistil in a flower be reached 
by the pollen, or the berries will grow one- 
sided. After the fruit has begun to set, 
■---. the application of weak 

manure water two or three 
times a week will be an ad- 



vantage. Commercial growers spend little 
time, as a rule, in thinning the fruit, but 
it will pay the amateur to remove the 
smallest and poorest from any plant that 
has set more than eight or nine berries. 

In about a month from the time the 
fruit sets, the berries may be expected to 
begin ripening and the plants will bear from 
two to four weeks. With several relays of 
plants, it is possible to have berries 
through much of March and April. 
After they have ceased bearing, 
the plants may as well be thrown 
away. 

Apparently the Marshall is the 
best strawberry for green- 
house forcing. It yields 
high grade fruit and 
stands forcing well. 
Commercial growers like 
it because it is a popular 
variety everywhere. 
Also, it is perfect flower- 
ing. Another and some- 
what later berry which 
gives good results is the 
Sharpless. 

A s'rawberry plant 
covered with ripe berries 
is a novel and highly attractive 
table decoration. Two or three 
potted plants on the table at a 
social function are certain to 
arouse much admiration. 

PLANTING A NEW BED OUTDOORS 

During August is also the approved time 
for the making of a new bed in the garden. 
Dealers offer "pot plants" at this time 
which may be set out at once and if given 
ordinary care will take hold and become 
well established before cold weather sets in. 
By this method the plant will be in a posi- 
tion to start growing vigorously as soon as 
the season opens and the result is an actual 
crop of fruit next June from the bed made 
this season. The gain to the home gar- 
dener is a very real one, and practically 
amounts to a year's time; for, if the new 
bed is not set out till next spring the plants 
will not be vigorous enough to crop. 



Hand fertilizing. 
Transferring the pol- 
len to the pistils by 
means of a brush is 
essential when forc- 
ing strawberries 




The plants for fruiting may be grown in pots or benches, or they may be set into boxes as shown here. This facilitates watering, etc. 

17 




Abies brachyphylla is one of the most promising trees for Hardy form of the cedar of Lebanon growing from seed 
our gardens in the Arboretum 



Torreya nucijera is the latest of all conifers to leaf out, 
making its growth in June 



Plain Facts About Some Common Evergreen Trees 



From the Arnold Arboretum 



Boston, 
Mass. 



[Editors' Note: The Director of the Arnold Arboretum, Prof. C. S. Sargent, issues from time to time the "Bulletin of Popular 
Information^ in which the lessons learned by careful study and observations are made generally available. The matter in these Bulletins 
is of unusual merit, and we herewith present to the readers of The Garden Magazine certain facts in regard to coniferous evergreens 
{extracted from a recent issue) which have a timely and practical interest at this season when the planting of evergreens may be undertaken to 
great advantage. Some of the information given below may be startling to some of our readers, who, however, may rest assured that there can 
be no more authoritative decisions than those that come from that institution where is to be found growing every tree and shrub that can be 
grown in that part of the country.] 



EASTERN North America is not 
a good region for these trees. 
Many of them cannot long bear 
our hot dry summers, cold win- 
ters, and the cold nights, the hot sun and 
the winds of a New England March. For 
ornamental planting here better and more 
permanent results are obtained by the 
use of deciduous leaved trees and shrubs 
than by the general planting of conifers 
and broad-leaved evergreens. Two of the 
handsomest of coniferous trees, however, 
are native to this part of the country, the 
white pine (Pinus strobus) and the hemlock 
(Tsuga Canadensis), and where these two 
trees thrive the lover of evergreen trees 
need not lack material for his plantations. 

It can be said generally that the conifers 
of northeastern North Amer- 
ica, the Rocky Mountains, 
northern, central and south- 
eastern Europe, Siberia, north- 
ern China and northern Japan, 
are hardy in this climate, and 
that those of the southern 
United States, Mexico, Cen- 
tral America and the coun- 
tries south of the equator, the 
Himalayas and southeastern 
Asia are not hardy; that only 
a few of the species of western 
North America can be safely 
planted in this climate, and 
that so far as it is possible 



to judge by our experience here many of 
the pines, spruces, firs, and larches which 
cover the mountain slopes of the Chinese- 
Tibetan frontier promise to be hardy in 
New England. 

In the Arboretum there is probably the 
largest collection of species and varieties 
of conifers which can be found in eastern 
North America, although in a few col- 
lections like that at Wellesley in this state, 
and in the Hoopes Pinetum at West 
Chester, Pa., there are larger specimens of 
several species. Many exotic species are 
hardy and grow rapidly and vigorously 
here, but only time can tell whether any of 
these trees will ever reach here a large 
size and become permanently valuable as 
ornamental or timber trees. 




The Japanese yew *(Taxus cuspidala) is quite hardy and keeps good color in winter 

18 



The most interesting thing, perhaps, 
which the Arboretum has taught about 
conifers is the fact that when a species is 
widely distributed over regions of different 
climates plants raised from the seeds of 
the trees growing in the coldest parts of 
the area of distribution of the species are 
the hardiest. For example, the Douglas 
spruce (Pseudotsuga taxifolia) from the 
shores of Puget Sound, where this tree 
grows to its largest size, is not hardy here, 
but the same tree from the high mountains 
of Colorado is one of the hardiest and most 
promising of the exotic conifers which 
have been planted in New England. A bies 
grandis from the cold Cceur d'Alene 
Mountains of Idaho has been growing for 
years in the Arboretum, while the same 
tree from the northwest coast- 
region cannot be kept alive 
here. The same is true of the 
so-called red cedar or giant 
arborvitae (Thuya plicata) of 
the northwest. Plants from 
Idaho are perfectly hardy in 
the Arboretum and now prom- 
ise to grow to a good size, 
while those from the coast 
are tender. 

The experience or the Arbor- 
etum with the cedar of Le- 
banon is interesting, for this 
is a famous tree which it is 
desirable to establish wher- 



August, 19 14 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



19 



ever it can be induced to grow. The cedar 
of Lebanon of European nurseries is 
raised from seeds produced in Europe 
by the descendants of the trees brought 
originally from the Lebanon in Syria. 
Occasionally one of these trees can be *' 
seen in the neighborhood of New York 
and Philadelphia, but it is not hardy in 
New England. The cedar of Lebanon 
also grows on the Anti-Taurus in Asia 
Minor, a much colder and more northern 
region than the Lebanon, and in 1901 the 
Arboretum had seeds collected from the 
trees in this northern station, and these 
were sown in the spring of 1902. None 
of the plants raised from this seed, although 
planted in exposed situations, has ever 
suffered, and some of them are now from 
fifteen to eighteen feet high. This experi- 
ment may have important results, but a 
century at least will be needed to show its 
real success or failure. [A small specimen 
of this form is now growing in the Country 
Life Press gardens, planted out last fall. Ed.] 

Of exotic conifers usually planted in 
this country it is found that the life here of 
the Scotch pine {Pinus sylvestris) is usually 
not more than thirty or forty years. The 
tree grows very rapidly here, it is per- 
fectly hardy, and, beginning to produce 
seeds when only a few years old, self-sown 
seedlings often appear in considerable 
quantities. The so-called Norway spruce 
(Picea Abies or excelsa) is another hardy, 
fast growing European tree which in this 
climate generally begins to die at the top 
when forty or fifty years old and is not a 
success here. Experiments are being made 
in the Arboretum with seeds of these trees 
collected from wild trees in Norway and 
Sweden in the hope that plants raised 
from these seeds will be more permanent 
here than European nursery stock which 
has usually been planted in this country. 

The Colorado blue spruce, so-called 
{Picea pungens), promises to be a dis- 
appointment. This tree grows naturally 
near the banks of streams in Colorado, 
where it is not very common, and never 
forms forests or large groves; and at the 
end of a few' years it becomes thin and 
scrawny, with a few short branches found 
only near the top of the tree. Plants up 
to twenty or thirty years of age in Colorado 
and in cultivation are symmetrical, com- 
pact, and very handsome. No conifer of 
recent introduction has been raised in such 
large quantities by nurserymen here and 
in Europe, and few ornamental trees have 
been more generally planted in the last 
twenty years. This must be considered 
a misfortune, for judging by old trees in 
Colorado and by the oldest trees in cultiva- 
tion, this spruce cannot be for any length 
of time a valuable addition to our planta- 
tions. It was discovered by Dr. Parry 
in 1862, and one of the trees raised from 
seeds which he sent at that time to Asa 
Gray is growing on the southern slope of 
Bussey Hill in the Arboretum. This 
specimen very well shows what this tree 
looks like at fifty years of age. [See illus- 
tration herewith. Eds.] 



The other Colorado spruce, Picea Engel- 
mannii, although it grows more slowly, 
promises to be a more permanently valuable 
ornamental tree than Picea pungens; cer- 
tainly as it grows in Colorado, where it 
once formed great forests, at high altitudes, 
it is one of the most beautiful of all spruces. 
The trees in the Arboretum were raised 
here from seeds collected in Colorado in 
1879. and are believed to be the finest 
specimens in cultivation. They are nar- 
row, compact, symmetrical pyramids, and 
until a year or two ago were furnished with 
branches to the ground; now they are 
beginning to lose their lower branches and 
therefore are losing some of their beauty 
as specimen trees. . 

It is found here that the northern white 
spruce {Picea Canadensis) grows rapidly 
and is very handsome for about thirty 
years, and then begins to become thin 
and unsightly, probably because our climate 
is too warm for this cold country tree. It 
is found here, too, that the red spruce 
{Picea rubra), the great timber-producing 




Colorado blue spruce fifty years old growing on Bussey Hill 



spruce tree of the northeastern United 
States, is rather difficult to establish and 
grows more slowly than any other conifer 
in the collection, and that the two balsam 
firs of the eastern states {Abies balsamea 
and A. Fraseri) are in cultivation short- 
lived and are of no value as ornamental 
trees; and that this is true, too, of one of 
the Rocky Mountain Firs, Abies lasiocarpa, 
and of the Siberian Abies Sibirica. 

Of native conifers in the collection, which 
now after a trial of from twenty to thirty 
years promise to be most valuable in this 
climate, the Rocky Mountain form of 
Abies concolor is the most beautiful at 
thirty years of age of all the firs which 
can be grown here. Abies brachyphylla, 
from Japan, with leaves dark green above 
and silvery white below; Picea Omorika, 
from the Balkans, a narrow pyramidal 
tree which seems to grow as well in western 
Europe as it does in New England, are 
promising trees. Abies Cilicica, from Asia 
Minor; Pinus parviflora, from Japan; and 
P. Koraiensis, from Siberia, Manchuria, 
and Korea, a valuable timber tree in its 
native country, are also promising. Pinus 
monticola from western America, the west- 
ern representative of our eastern white 
pine, is perfectly hardy here, but as an 
ornamental tree is in no way superior to 
the eastern species. 

Tsuga Caroliniana from the Blue Ridge 
of North and South Carolina, although 
smaller is a more graceful and beautiful 
tree than our northern hemlock. First 
raised from seeds in the Arboretum 
in 1 88 1, it gives every promise of being 
one of the most desirable ornamental 
conifers which can be grown in this cli- 
mate. 

The collection of the forms of the native 
arborvitae {Thuya occidental is) in the 
Arboretum is a large one and is now in 
excellent condition, and well worth a visit 
by any one interested in the seminal 
varieties some trees are capable of pro- 
ducing. This tendency to variation, ap- 
pears, too, in the Japanese retinisporas 
{Chamcecyparis obtusa and pisifera) which 
are planted next to the arborvitses. 

Although yews are not technically coni- 
fers, it may be said that the Japanese 
Taxus cuspidata and its variety brevifolia 
have come through another winter entirely 
uninjured, and that there is no reason for 
modifying the statement already made in 
these bulletins, that these are the most 
valuable plants which Japan has contrib- 
uted to New England gardens, in which 
the Japanese yew seems destined to be- 
come our best hedge plant. A low 
form of Taxus baccata (var. repandens) 
has proved very hardy in the Arbor- 
etum, and for this climate appears to be 
the most desirable form of the European 
yew. 

Of trees related to the yews the hardiest 
here, with the exception of the well-known 
gingko tree, is the Japanese Torreya, T. 
nucifera. This, in Japan, is a large tree 
with a tall trunk and a dense head of dark 
green foliage. 



Water Lilies Without Lakes or Pools —By l. j. Doogue, £5 



MAKE YOUR SELECTIONS OF KINDS NOW AND PLAN TO HAVE WATER LILIES IN YOUR GARDEN NEXT 
YEAR — A FEW IDEAS FOR THE CITY DWELLER OR ANYWHERE WHERE OPEN WATER IS NOT POSSIBLE 



LACKING the room for 
a large lake the next 
best thing is to make 
a miniature lake. 
If you cannot grow dozens 
of lilies and other water plants 
grow a few or only one. It 
is merely a question of fitting 
things. 

Of course, some poetic souls 
may suffer a rude shock at the 
idea for they can only enjoy 
water lilies when seen resting 




soil and means to hold water 
it is merely a matter of 
choosing plants to put in 
the soil. One thing how- 
ever, is essential — put the 
tubs in a sunny place. 

Water lilies grow as well 
under this treatment as when 
in a lake. Get the tubs 
ready in the spring and set 
out the plants about June. 
Keep them covered with 
water. 




A bed of sphagnum moss is a good growing medium 
water lilies 

on the shimmering waters of a lake ; but most 
of us are so practically situated that our po- 
etic sense is partially suppressed and the little 
that is left cries out for water lilies in the 
backyard. The half barrel is the solution. 
Take one, two, or as many barrels as 
your space will allow and cut them in 
halves. Burn out the insides, after which 
fill with well rotted manure and loam with 



fur 



Barrels sawed in halves make practical lakes for 
small gardens 

a liberal mixture of charcoal and 
sand. Sink in the ground and leave 
three inches between the loam and 
top of the tub which space is to be 
filled with water. A tub of bulrush 
(Scirpus lacustris), and its variegated 
form (var. zebrina) with its beauti- 
fully marked leaves will do wonder- 
fully well in a tub, growing four feet 
high and making a thick graceful 
bushy plant. The beautiful lotus 
(Nelumbium) is suitable for tubs also, 
and while they show to best effect when 
in masses in a pond, individual speci- 
mens may be successfully grown in 
such small spaces as we are talking of. 
A tub tucked away in a sunny 
corner and filled with the water hya- 
cinth (Eichhornia) will be a feast for 
the eyes. This is the same old rogue 
of a plant that fills rivers down South and 
cuts up unpleasant capers generally, but 
confined in a tub it is wonderfully decora- 
tive. A combination of tubs with lily 
plants in the centre flanked by other tubs 
filled with umbrella grass (Cyperus) and 
eulalia makes a charming group. 

There is simply no mystery about grow- 
ing water lilies as suggested. Given the 




Drainage material is necessary in a tub to be filled with 
water lilies 

Don't crowd the tubs. One plant in a 
tub is much better than five or six. 

What kinds to grow: almost any that 
are not strictly tropical, but especially 
the hardy marliac and Laydeckeri varieties 
as well as our native pond lily or the 
Chinese pygmy. Now is the time of year 
to see water lilies in flower and make your 
selection for next vear. 




All the water lilies in the pool are planted in tubs which are then placed on the floor of the pool 

20 



August Opportunities in Plant Raising — By Jas. T. Scott, 



New 
York 



LITTLE APPRECIATED CHANCES FOR THE AMATEUR TO ACCOMPLISH BIG WORK THIS MONTH IN ROOTING 
CUTTINGS OF EVERGREENS, SHRUBS, AND INCREASING ALL KINDS OF PERENNIALS BY LITTLE EFFORT 



SUMMER propagation of evergreens, 
flowering shrubs, and many peren- 
nials, offers a large field of interest 
for the progressive amateur, and 
there is an added charm about plants that 
we have actually raised ourselves. 

The rooting of cuttings is really not at all 
difficult provided only that a few certain 
points are kept well in mind. 

ESSENTIAL CONDITIONS 

It takes green cuttings of half ripened 
wood from four to eight weeks, according 
to the kind, to make roots. During the 
time that the cut is callusing (healing) 
the atmospheric conditions must be such 
as will cause as little wasting as possible in 
the tissues of the cutting. The wood and 
leaves must be kept as fresh and plump as 
possible until roots are formed. 

A branch or twig cut from a green grow- 
ing bush and left exposed to the sun, or 
even stuck in the earth, yet left exposed 
to the sun and wilting atmosphere will 
soon dry up and wither; the same piece, 
if cut and left exposed in damp rainy 
weather, will retain its freshness as long as 
the weather remains cool and moist. If 
the weather would continue thus for the 
length of time that it takes such a subject 
to heal it would be a simple matter to 
raise plants by the million. 

Such weather conditions, however, do not 
prevail continuously, so it becomes nec- 
essary to create such a condition artificially, 
and this can be accomplished by means of 
frames. 

Nurserymen usually have a greenhouse 
which they shade heavily, but many use 
frames and sash, though they require 
more attention than a greenhouse. 

FRAMES FOR CUTTINGS 

Turn the ordinary garden frame so that 
the slope of the glass will face to the north, 
instead of to the south. Ordinarily it is 
faced to the south to catch the full rays 
of the sun, and create heat; but for our 
present purposes we need to keep the 
frame as cool as possible. If a place can 
be found at the north side of a wall, so 
much the better, as less shading will be 
required. 

A very gentle bottom heat will induce 
quicker results. About two weeks prior 
to putting in cuttings, fill the frames with 
12 to 15 inches of fresh stable manure, 
tramping it down firmly. Give it a 
thorough soaking of water and put on the 
sash. The resulting fermentation will gen- 
erate heat, and as soon as its virulence 
is spent, tramp the manure again. The 
mass will shrink considerably. On the 
top of this then spread from 4 to 6 inches 
of clean sand. Now put on the sash and 
leave the frame alone for a few days, test- 
ing the heat subsequently by putting your 
hand into the sand. When the heat has 
practically subsided is the proper time 
to put in the cuttings. 



Before planting firm the sand well with 
a brick or the back of a spade and get a 
level surface. Then with a straight-edged 
piece of wood the length of the frame, laid 
flat on the top of the sand, as a ruler so 
to speak, mark a small furrow by drawing a 
small pointed stick along the straight edge. 
Make this furrow two to three inches deep. 
After inserting one line of cuttings make 
them thoroughly firm before making the 
next line, and when several lines are in 
cover with dampened paper to pre- 
vent drying out. As soon as the 
frame is full, 
give a good 
watering, and 
put the sash on 
tight. 

Cuttings may 
be set quite thickly to- 
gether even touching but 
at the same time not 
crowding one another. 
And remember when put- 
ting in the CUttingS not Cutting of ramb- 

to expose them to the ler rose showing 

1 • 1 how to take it with 

drying sun any longer a .. heer of the old 
than is absolutely nee- wooc j 
essary. Also when mak- 
ing the cuttings keep them well sprinkled 
with water and covering them, in the box 
or basket in which they are held, with 
damp paper. When putting them in the 
sand take out only a few at a time, for it 
is of the utmost importance that the cut- 
tings be kept fresh till the last moment. 

SHADE AFTER PLANTING 

I prefer a lath shade though many people 
shade the sash with whitewash. The 
lath shade can be made cheaply from ordin- 
ary plaster lath. Use two heavier pieces 
to tack the lath on to, leave a full inch 
between the laths. When using them do 
not lay them flat on the glass, but keep 
them six inches above (by means of blocks, 
a flower pot, etc.) leaving an air space 
which helps materially in keeping the 
frame cool. 

No further attention will be needed for 
two or three weeks, and it is just as well 
to forget about the frames. Lifting the 
sash every day and looking at the cutting 
retards rather than helps matters. If the 
general weather conditions are dry and 
hot give water in about two weeks; but 
if damp and cool the frames can be left 
alone for three weeks. After this second 
watering close up as before, and by the 
time watering is needed again the cuttings 
ought to have begun to make roots. 

AFTER ROOTING 

It is not necessary to pull out any of the 
cuttings to see if they are rooted (although 
the temptation to do so is great). You 
will know if root action is taking place by 
the fresher color of the cutting and the new 
growth. 

When the young plants commence to 
21 



grow ventilate the frame by raising the 
sash about an inch to start with, increasing 
the air gradually until ultimately the sash 
and shade are removed to harden off the 
plants before transplanting into the open 
ground. 

For the first winter the young plants 
should have a sheltered place, if possible; 
and after freezing weather sets in cover 
them with a mulch of leaves or salt hay. 
This covering is to keep the ground from 
thawing and freezing, and 
without it the young plants 
will be entirely thrown 
out of the ground and all 
your labor wasted. 

PROPAGATION OF CONIFERS 

Evergreens require longer to 
root than most other plants. In 
July their growth is nearly com- 
plete; in August fully completed. 

The careful gardener goes through 
his evergreens at this time and with 
his shears trims off any branches 
that have grown out of proportion 
to the rest of the plant. These 
clippings he uses for cuttings. 

The growth of this year, cut off 
with a "heel" from the point where 
it started this spring, makes the best 
cutting. It is useless to put in small 
cuttings, and of no advantage to put 
in large ones. Try and get them 
of a uniform size; say from 5 to 6 
inches long. Set them from 2 to 2\ 
inches in the sand, the part that goes in 
being trimmed close to the main stem 
with a sharp knife. Many good cuttings wil 1 
be more than six inches long, but these can 
have their tops trimmed off to make them 
conform to the others. When the heel cal- 
luses they will start to grow; but since 
the young roots are emitted chiefly along 
the stem, it is important that the sand be 
well firmed around the base of the cutting. 
When the roots are an inch long it is 
time to set out the young plants; if left 
longer in the sand they will deteriorate, 
and, moreover, there is the added danger 
of breaking the young roots if they are any 
longer. Plant them out in a piece of well 
prepared ground, if possible in a shel- 
tered place, and shade for a few days if 
the weather is bright. If possible, do the 
planting out on a dull day. 

Since the junipers take the longest 
time to root it is well to commence with 
them. Not only the common red cedar, 
the Irish juniper, and all the fine glaucous 
varieties, but also the prostrate and pro- 
cumbent varieties of communis, Chinensis, 
and Sabina, etc., are all easily rooted from 
cuttings. Some of the varieties, notably 
Virginiana glauca, take a long time to root, 
sometimes six months. They form a 
heavy callus, which seems to sup- 
port them. They may be planted out 
with the others, however, and if pro- 



22 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



August, 1914 



tected will be found to have taken hold 
by spring. 

After the junipers take the Thuyas 
(arborvitaes). The common occidentalis 
is easily raised from seed, and it is hardly 
worth while troubling with cuttings; but 
its sports and varieties such as pyramidalis 
lutea (Geo. Peabody), Victoria, War- 
reniana, etc., can only be had by cuttings. 
The dwarf or globe varieties, and the 
biotas, will root in from six weeks to two 
months. 

The Japanese cypresses (Retinispora) 
root more readily, often in a month. Com- 
mence with filifera; then follow with pisi- 
fera plumosa, ericoides, squarrosa, and 
Veitchii. The last two are the easiest 
of all to root. Don't, however, imagine 
for a moment that you will get every 
cutting to root; if you can bring 50 per 
cent, through until next spring you will 
be doing well. 

The pines and spruces are raised from 
seed and by grafting, and it is hardly 
worth while for the amateur to trouble 
with them. They can be procured very 
cheaply from any reliable nurseryman in 
small sizes when wanted to grow on. 

EVERGREEN VINES 

Under the heading of evergreens may 
also be placed English ivy, periwinkle 
{Vinca minor), and Enonymus radicans. 
These are all extremely easy to root, and 
the manure for bottom heat as previously 
described can be dispensed with. Indeed 
it will do to simply add a liberal sprinkling 
of sand to any ordinary garden soil, mix 
it well and put in the cuttings of half 
ripened wood, water well, and close the 
sash for three weeks. Then ventilate 
gradually, and when they will stand full 
air without wilting, remove the sash 
entirely for use on some other frame. 
These cuttings will make nice plants by 
fall, but should be left in the frames and 
given a protection of salt hay or litter 
when winter sets in, and transplanted next 
spring. My first batches were rooted 
by July 1st, but cuttings can be put in 
up to September and still give nice plants 
for spring planting. 

FLOWERING SHRUBS 

The summer propagation of shrubs is 
now largely practised by nurserymen. 
After the spring rush is over, and the weeds 
under subjection, the work can be under- 
taken easily before the fall season opens. 
A number of things that are hard to root 
from dormant wood in spring will root 
freely from green cuttings. The wood of 
this season's growth is just right in July 
and August. Take it with a heel if possible, 
as recommended for evergreens, and cut 
back the top if the cutting be long. 

Such things as lilacs, Enonymus alatus 
and europea, Chionanthus Virginica, vari- 
ous viburnums, andromedas, azaleas, and 
kalmia, Daphne cneorum, Abelia rupestris, 
and many others that are usually raised 
by budding or grafting, can be successfully 
raised from cuttings in summer. The 



host of every day shrubs (deutzias, for- 
sythias, barberries, calycanthus, hydran- 
geas, kerrias, privets, honeysuckle, mock 
oranges, spireas, stephanandra, weigela, 
etc.), which are usually, and easily, propa- 
gated from dormant wood in early spring, 
may also be struck from soft wood cuttings 
now, if desired. They will be nicely rooted 
by fall, and with a slight protection will 
be in fine condition to put out next spring. 
Treat as already advised for ivy and 
vinca. 

GROW YOUR OWN ROSES 

Really it is easy to grow roses from 
cuttings. They may be treated as advised 
for ivy and vinca; but quicker and better 

results will be 
obtained if 
treated in the 
way advised for 
evergreens, and, 
after they are 
rooted, potted 
into small pots 
and put back in 
the frame and 
slightly shaded 
till they get a 
hold. Givesome 
protection in 
winter and the 
plants will be fit 
for putting out 
next spring. 
The Hybrid 
Perpetuals, Hy- 
brid Teas, and 
Teas are usually 
budded in Au- 
gust or as soon as the eyes are plump, but 
own root roses succeed perfectly in many 
places, particularly if the soil be a heavy 
loam or clay loam, and there is no reason 
why the amateur gardener should not in- 
crease his stock of favorites in this way. 
There is some interest to be derived from 
noticing the behavior of different varieties; 
some will root more freely than others, and 
there is always some pleasure in being able 
to tell your friends how successful you have 
been with the shy fellows. 

Nowadays no one thinks 01 buying any 
but "own root" stock of the ramblers, and 
the Wichuraianas can be had. very easily 
from cuttings made now. Select wood of 
this year that is fairly well ripened (hard 
wood is slow to root and too green wood 
will turn black and often spoil those next 
to them). Cut your stems into pieces, 
allowing two leaves for each cutting. 
Pull off the lower leaf being careful not to 
tear off any of the bark. Also shorten 
back the other leaf if it be large. Then 
with a sharp knife make a clean cut close 
to the bud, where the leaf was pulled off. 
Get quite close to the bud without cutting 
it. The reason for this is that the wood is 
always hardest at this point, has less 
pith, and will heal over readily. Ramblers 
can also be raised by taking this year's 
lateral shoot with a slight heel. Prac- 
tically every cutting will root. 




Evergreen cuttings ready for 
the frame 



TRICKS WITH PERENNIALS 

Perennials are principally raised by 
seeds and division. Delphiniums, fox- 
gloves, lupins, coreopsis, gaillardias, lychnis, 
pansies, bellis, sweet William, and a great 
many other popular favorites are raised 
thus from sowings made this month, and 
it is generally unnecessary to trouble with 
cuttings. 

But many of our favorite varieties do 
not come true to seed and these have 
to be raised by cuttings and division. The 
phloxes have to be raised thus. For the 
early flowering type (e. g., Miss Lingard), cut 
off the tips of the shoots before the flower 
buds are set, remove some of the lower 
leaves and trim the base as advised for 
roses. Treat them as advised for ever- 
greens and they will root as readily as 
geraniums . The later or suffruticosa kinds 
(including Coquelicot and Frau G. Von Lass- 
burg types), can also be increased this way, 
but a much quicker method is available: 

About the end of September or beginning 
of October, lift the whole clump from the 
ground, being careful not to break off any 
of the small roots and keep each clump or 
variety separate. Lay the clump on a. 
bench, board, or other hard surface, and 
with a spade chop it up as you would mince 
meat with a chopper. A good sized clump 
will thus give several hundred small pieces 
of root. 

Prepare a piece of ground either in a 
frame or in the open garden, and sow the 
small pieces as you would seeds; cover 
them with about half an inch of earth 
and as winter sets in protect lightly with 
leaves. Next spring uncover, and in a 
short time the young plants will come up 
as thickly as in a seed bed. When large 
enough to handle, transplant them. Each 
plant will give one head of flowers the first 
season. Anemone Japonica and its varie- 
ties, Eupatorium ccelestium, Gypsophilla, 
Achillea, and any of the perennials that 
have similar roots can all be propagated 
in this way. A method of growing Anchusa 
from root cuttings was told in last month's 
Garden Magazine; perennial or orien- 
tal poppy may be raised in exactly the 
same way. 

Phlox subulata can be propagated readily 
now. Just cut from the old plants pieces 
about 3 to 4 inches long and dibble them 
into a well prepared bed in a frame; keep 
them well watered, and you will scarcely 
lose a plant. 

Campanula, Physostegia, Rudbeckia, Lo- 
belia of the cardinalistype, astilbe,andmany 
of those plants that make a pithy growth 
or that send their leaves and flower spikes 
directly from a crown (astilbe is a good 
example) , can be divided into single crowns 
in August or September. They will get 
a good hold before winter and will make 
nice plants for another year. 

Veronica subsessilis, Penstemon, hardy 
aster, Boltonia, Asclepias, Iberis, old 
fashioned pinks, Dianthus and many others 
can be raised from cuttings, in the man- 
ner advised for the early perennial phlox. 



August, 19 14 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



23 



Livingston's Great Dollar Collection-^ 

of "True Blue" Paeonies 



will prove a real surprise. We will mail 
strong roots of sorts named below — a 
bargain of unusual character and quality. 

Alexander Dumas. Violet Golden Harvest . Most 
rose with creamy white col- beautiful creamy yellow with 
lar. Freely blooming and soft pink guard petals, 
fragrant. Meissonier. Very brilliant 

Duchesse De Nemours, crimson; resembles the Amer- 
Cup shape, sulphur white ican Beauty Rose in color, 
blooms. Fine for cut flowers. Queen Victoria. Large. 

Arthemise. Soft lilac pink, compact white flowers, center 
Late sort, of value for land- petals sometimes tinged with 
scape work. carmine. 

The set of Six (Value $2.25) for $1.00 postpaid 

Paeonies in Separate Colors 

The majority of these are really high-priced, named 
varieties. Of some, we have only a few — too few to 
catalog them separately ; of others, we have a good many 
but not enough to make their propagation worth while. 
They are really fit for any fancier's collection. Many rare 
shades of pink and red, also white. Dozen $1.50, 100 for 
$10.00 — by express at buyer's expense. 

Write to-day for our free Guide to Fall Planting, 
giving dependable planting- and culture-directions 
for everything that should be planted in the Fall. 

The LIVINGSTON SEED CO., 659 High St., Columbus, Ohio 



M 




Some Planting Hints for 
August and September 



EVERGREENS during May and 
June make root and top growth, 
which hardens up in July. In 
October and November they make 
a second root growth. Between these 
periods of growth and hardening, or 
the months of August and Sept- 
ember, evergreens can be trans- 
planted with perfect safety, especially 
when shipped with a generous ball 
of earth, as ours are. Such plant- 
ings become thoroughly established 



this Fall and make more vigorous 
growth next Spring. The same is 
true of Hardy Perennial Plants. In 
fact it's the best way of surely mak- 
ing sure of their blooming next 
Spring. 

Bear in mind that all our stock is 
grown in this rigid New England 
climate, which gives to it a sturdi- 
ness that makes them hardy any- 
where in the States. Send for cata- 
log. Let your Fall planting under way. 



North Abington ^; " ^ r \^A 



North Abington l x 
Mass. ^S 



¥ 



m 



m 




'AEOWAY 

Popery 

IS THE SETTING EXQUISITE THAT ENHANCES 
THE BEAUTY OF FLOWERS 



Send for our illustrated ~-- 
'catalogue of Flower Pots. 
Boxes.A&ses.Benches, Sundials, 
Gazing Globes, Bird Fonts and 
other Artistic Pieces for Garden 
and Interior Decoration. 

Gadoway Terra CoTta Go. 

3214 WALNUT ST. PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Remarkable Quality 
in these Trowels 

These trowels are different. They're made from 
crucible steel of finest texture. They 'reone piece, 
blade and neck, with the handles fastened to stay 
with two steel rivets. The blades are 1, 16 inch 
thick, self cleaning and full of the 

mn 
mmn 

quality that makes all Keen Kutter 
garden tools famous. The straight- 
neck trowel is for repotting 
plants and the bent-neck one is 
for general garden work. In ap- 
pearance, quality and workman- 
ship no ordinary iron or steel trowel 
can compare with these fine 
trowels. Ask to see them. 

Send for our Garden Tool 
Booklet, TVo. 1646 

If not at your dealer's, write us. 

Simmons Hardware Co. 
St. Louis, U. S. A. 





BANISH SPARROWS 

The famous Dodson Sparrow Trap catches as many as 75 to 100 a day. 
Successfully used all over America. 

Get rid of sparrows; native birds will return to your gardens. Sparrows 
are most easily trapped in July and August, young birds being most 
plentiful and bold. The Dodson Sparrow Trap 



WBSk 



':#! 



Strong wire, electrically welded. Adjustable needle points at mouths of 
two funnels. Price $5 f. o. b. Chicago. 

NOTE.— Mr. Dodson, a Director of the Illinois Audubon Society, has been 
building houses for native birds for 19 years. He builds 20 kinds of houses, 
shelters, feeding stations, etc., all for birds— all proven by years of success. 

Free booklet — tells 



■ to win native birds to jour gardens. 



■it.- h. 



JOSEPH H. DODSON, 709 Security Building, Chicago, III. 



s?si@& 



structed for use on estates, small parks, etc , for spraying- shrub- 
bery and fruit trees. Provided with 150 feet of hose, 25-foot lengths. 
Engine, standard Domestic type. Pump capacity, 250 gallons per 
hour, removable bronze ball valves, each in separate cage. Cylinder 
has removable brass liner. Barrel fitted with automatic paddle agi- 
tator and brush for preventing clogging. Engine Catalogue No. 14 and 
"Made Money by Spraying" sent Free. Write for these catalogues 
to-day. Domestic En»ine & Pump Co., Box 535, Shippensburg, Pa. 



DIRECT FROM GROWER 
TO INDIVIDUAL PLANTERS 

D AVOID DEALERS' PROFITS B 



u 

T 
C 
H 



AVOID DEALERS' PROFITS 

Sold at prices which include freight, duties and ex- 
penses to destination. Send for Catalogue "A," 
quoting prices, to 

ROYAL EILAND NURSERY CO. 

Hillegom, Holland 
or 

F. B. VANDEGRIFT & CO., Forwarding Agents 

15-25 Whitehall Street New York City 



u 

L 
B 

S 



24 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



August, l 9 1 1 




THE HOME TABLE 



!__&JL Graduate oftfie ItfaiiortaF^frainwf/ ScSoof 
'vSi I wTT' ?Tv ofCoofiety, JLond~on, (stigfantf? 




AUGUST is the time when we want the "home 
table" outdoors. The spirit of fresh air 
moves every one, rich and poor alike, from 
the wealthy who take their tours costing 
thousands of dollars to the poor man with his large 
family for a day's "outing." I remember one holiday 
seeing a troop of small children dragging wearily 
along a dusty country road, one of them crying, and 
as I passed the father turned his head and called 
"Come on, I brought yer out to enjoy yerselves, and 
yer just jolly well got ter." I think that is how many 
people, particularly the elderly, feel about vacations. 
It is a wonder to me how people will give up all the 
comforts of a home to "board" in small, hot, stuffy 
rooms and sit on verandas, continually changing their 
dresses, and trying to imagine that they are enjoy- 
ing themselves. 

Camping is Freedom 

ONE ideal holiday for those who don't mind rough- 
ing it a bit is camping. There you are outdoors 
all the time and can really get the benefit of the fresh 
air without being hampered by conventionalities. The 
food problem used to be a rather trying one, but in 
these days one can get almost anything canned or 
bottled, and canning and preserving have been brought 
to such perfection that the flavor of vegetables, meats 
and fish is not destroyed or changed like it used to be. 

Holidays by Land or Sea 

AND what a number of different kinds of holidays 
there are from which one can choose. Going 
abroad, a trip by sea, a trip by land, an automobile 
tour, a cottage by the sea, or in the mountains, 
boarding in some country farm or seaside resort, camp- 
ing in tents or bungalows, a summer on a houseboat. 
Then there are daily trips by sea or land, picnics, 
daily visits to country friends, and others. 

Those who already live in the country can give such 
delightful entertainments out of doors— garden parties, 
porch dances, hay rides, barn dances and many other 
pleasures suited to the neighborhood in which one lives. 

In all these diversions, refreshments must be served. 
Nature is always asserting herself and it seems to me 
that one's hunger will manifest itself more quickly in the 
country than when one is living in a town. I suppose 
it is the fresh air; and travelling also, unless it makes one 
sick, makes one desperately hungry. 



Pay Your Money and Take Your Choice 

IT IS very wise to have a good supply of canned 
goods on your shelves to supplement the ordinary 
family meal food when unexpected guests drop in. 

Go to one of the big food stores and investigate. 
You will find things canned that you had no idea 
people thought of putting up. Taste and try before 
you buy. The demonstrators are always glad to let 
you "sample." I saw in one place hare, Irish stew, and 
sweet potatoes. I have not tried the potatoes yet, 
but I always like to try new things and mean to do so 
soon. I had a most delicious sandwich paste the other 
day, the foundation of which was goose liver, and pork, 
with truffles and flavoring. My friend asked me where 
to get it as it was so good and she wanted it for use in 
her summer cottage. She goes round every summer 
trying to get new things. The old standbys such as 
canned salmon, and now its cousin, the tuna or tunny 
fish (very delicate and not so oily) corned beef, tongue, 
and the potted meats for sandwiches are all good; but 
one gets very tired of them and something with a 
flavor that is different is very desirable. 

Saving on the Laundry Bills 

ONE must try to make things as easy as possible 
and lessen work in every way. One lady has 
white oilcloth on the table instead of a tablecloth that 
needs laundering and I would suggest that the 
beautiful paper table cloths and dinner napkins to 
match might be used for company times. If you want 
to save dish washing, the wooden plates are good but 
do not look very pretty and are more suitable for 
picnics or campers. Towelling also comes in paper 
and should decidedly be used, saving the washing of 
dish or face towels. 

At the best of times doing your own work is hard 
and if, in addition, you must fetch water for drinking 
and pick up wood for your fire, then the holiday be- 
comes a burden instead of a rest. Nowadays things 
are made easier than before. There are fine oil 
stoves to be had and little ovens that will fit over 
one burner. I have one of those and use it on my 
gas stove and get a great deal of comfort from it. It 
does not heat the kitchen, and will bake everything, 
even a small joint or chicken. An oil stove is quickly 
lit and will boil a kettle of water in a few minutes. 

Very often the evenings mercifully become quite 



cool, and it is a comforting thing to come in from a 
drive, or even from sitting on the porch till late, and 
have a warm drink. There is a prepared coffee 
which is of very good flavor and only requires to 
have boiling water added. It makes a rich cup of 
coffee instantly with fine aroma. Cocoa, with milk and 
sugar, is also put up in prepared form and is very grate- 
ful and comforting. Of course tea cannot be handled 
that way, but it has been compressed and made into 
tablets to be used in the cup with boiling water. 

Rather a good substitute for fresh cream, which is 
in fact preferred by some, is the evaporated milk or 
cream. I do not mean the sweetened or condensed 
milk which is so useful in its place and delicious in 
coffee; this is unsweetened. It does not, however, 
keep very long. Try it some time when the cream 
turns sour. 

Drinks Hot or Cold 

BESIDES the canned meats and fishes of which 
there are such variety — not to speak of the 
fruits and vegetables which you will be able to get 
fresh — there are ready bottled drinks to suit all 
tastes; and fruit juices, grape and lime, particularly. 
Grape juice to my mind needs aerated water as its 
sweetness is not very thirst quenching unless ice cold 
and seltzered, but lime juice is the most refreshing 
drink I have tasted in a long time and quenches the 
thirst and cools one off on a hot day better than the 
old timers, lemonade and orangeade. 

I am, though, a tea fiend and a cup of tea, even if it 
makes me very warm at first, really refreshes me more 
than anything else. It may be served iced, of course, 
but to a real English tea drinker, hot tea is the only 
thing. There are also beef extracts and bouillon cubes 
that only need boiling water. Also clam broth in 
bottles, besides all sorts of soups, both thick and thin. 
Horlick s malted milk is filling and refreshing. It is a 
good thing to take on an ocean trip for the baby as it is 
easy to prepare. 

A Blessing for the Babies 

TALKING about babies another great conveni- 
ence is the thermos bottle, which keeps liquids 
either hot or cold. For August we do not wish to 
think of anything hot, and will use it for cold drinks. 
But it is a boon to mothers who have their little babies 
who must have warm food. 



ROYAL 

BAKING POWDER 

Absolutely Pure 

Used and praised by the most 
competent and careful pas- 
try cooks the world over 




Serves "You Right- 
Food or Drink -not 
or Cold - When - 
Where -and As 
you like 

THE Thermos Jug for Tea, 
Coffee or Chocolate — per- 
hapsatasty, cooling bever- 
age or a Thermos jar filled 
with ice cream or chilled salad 

— add to the convenience of the host- 
ess and the delight of her guests. 

Warm afternoons on the veranda — 
hot nights in the bedroom — lawn 
parties, and every sort of outing, are 
more enjoyable and comfortable with 
Thermos. 

Thermos keeps fluids icy cold for 
seventy-two hours, or piping hot for 
twenty-four hours. 

Thermos caters to every want of 
each member of the family. In the 
nursery Thermos keeps Baby's milk 
pure and free from infection. 




BOTTLES CARAFES 

$1.00 up $3.50 up 

JUGS, $4.00 up 

The Genuine have the 
name Thermos stamped on 
the bottom. 

Sold by dealers every- 
where. If not sold near you 
write for the Free Thermos 
Picture Puzzle Cut Out for 
Kiddies. 



American Thermos Bottle Company, Norwich, Conn., Toronto, Canada 



All foods advertised in this department have been tested and approved by Effie M. Robinson. They are also sold and recommended by the Doubleday, Page 6* Co. Cooperative Store 



A r g c s t . 19 14 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



25 



SUGGESTIONS FOK 




Con 9ue t -eS~ '~&g-? 

EFFIE M . R.OB1NSON 





Ferris Burlap Covered Hams 
and Boneless Bacon 



A LITTLE HIGHER IN PRICE— BUT! 

A careful housekeeper says: 

* They are the cheapest hams I can get, 
even at 2c. or more per pound than 
other brands — they are so delicious 
they are all used up, while with 
others there is considerable waste." 

Take No Substitute! 




msmm 



WM$ 



i hi 1 1 .-'. 



The Westfield Board of Health 
says — "Absolutely Pure and 
Wholesome." 




^^ REMEMBER — 



That Lion Brand Evaporated and 
Condensed Milk can be used 
in the home for all Milk and 
Cream purposes. Try a can today 
Clean — Wholesome Pure 
SAVE THE LABELS 

Best Milk + Best Premiums = Best Value 

WISCONSIN CONDENSED MILK CO. 

91 Hudson Street New York City 




THE HOME TABLE 



4_^_ Graduate oftfie JtfationdfHrairrinp <$c'fibof 
ofCooftery, I^oncfoa . <s>nyfan<T? 





Reg. U.S. Pit. Off. 



It is delicious 

A well made cup of good cocoa best ful- 
fils the requirements of those who wish a 
delicious and nourishing hot beverage, and 

Baker's Cocoa "2?*" 

in every sense of the word, absolutely 
pure and of high grade. 

Walter Baker & Co., Ltd. 

Established 1780 

Dorchester, Mass. 



Let us send you a pint sample of 

Knox Gelatine 

Enough to make a number of the 
many different dainty dishes; 
recipes of which are 
given in our FREE Rec- 
ipe Book. 

Book free for dealer's name. 
Pint sample for 2c. stamp. 

Chas. B. Knox Co. 

575 Knox Ave., Johnstown, N. Y. 



KNOX 

5pARKLlN|(j 



SjBaaBESgB31Bffi 




WHAT THIS DEPARTMENT MEANS TO THE READERS 
OF THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



T "T THEN the idea of this " Suggestions for the Home 
V/y Table" Department was first conceived the inter- 
ests of our readers were naturally uppermost 
in our minds. 

We felt from the first that the idea was closely allied with 
the theme and purpose of this magazine, and after most 
careful thought and investigation we became convinced that 
in the general plan and programme of The Garden Maga- 
zine there was a definite place for a department of this kind 
and that it would be of real value and sendee to our readers. 

Accordingly we engaged the services of Miss Effie M. 
Robinson, a graduate of the National Training School of 
Cookery in London, and the idea became a reality in the 
June number. 



And as a logical supplement to the editorial matter we 
decided to offer a limited amount of advertising space in 
this section to the manufacturers of food products approved 
by Miss Robinson, a number of whom have already taken 
advantage of this exceptional opportunity. 

It will be well worth your while to read carefully each 
month Miss Robinson's articles and then to digest thor- 
oughly the information contained in the different advertise- 
ments for we believe the institution of this department to 
be one of the most constructive steps The Garden Maga- 
zine has taken in the ten years of its existence and that 
you will find herein many ideas and suggestions that will be 
of the greatest assistance to you in your housekeeping 
activities. 



Miss Robinson will be glad to answer personally any inquiry regarding any subject 
whatsoever in connection with the home table, which our readers may care to send 
her. Address care of The Garden Magazine, Garden City, Long'Island, New York 



All foods advertised in this department have been tested and approved by Effie SI. Robinson. They are also sold and recommended by the Doubleday, Page &■ Co. Cooperative Store 



26 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



August, 1914 





White Spruce For Quick Results 

Plant August — September 

""THE birds winter in this group of White 
1 Spruce, proving that it is the densest 
windbreak. 

You will like the cheerful, blue-green 
healthy foliage, happy because native. The 
trees like cold northern climates and salt 
spray. Your friends will admire the hospi- 
tality and privacy of evergreen boundaries. 
For a hedge 5 feet high, they save you time 
and give you more for the cost than anything 
else. If these White Spruce fail, we will re- 
place. Send for catalog describing little 
evergreens, or carloads twenty feet high. 

A hedge 2 ) 2 feet high will coit for the plants 
$20.00 per roo feet, if 3 feet apart; 3 1 o feet 
high $50.00 per 100 feet, 3 feet apart; 4 feet 
high, planted 4 feet apart will be 
$50.00 per 100 feet. They will 
make a solid screen six feet high, 
quicker than Privet. 



cks iree^ 

Isaac Hicks &>Son 

Weslburu , Lone; Island 



HARDY PHLOX 

Can be used everywhere. Unlike other plants, require little 
care and give bountiful returns in flowers during the season. 
They have a delightful odor, scenting the whole garden. 
I am anxious to send you my list. Write for it now. 300 
varieties. Also Iris and Delphinium. 

W. F. SCHMEISKE, Hospital Station, Binghamton, N. Y. 



Our Cannas Win 

Sweeping recognition in European and American 
horticultural prize winning events has won for our 
cannas the reputation of being "The Finest Can- 
nas in the World." 



Our Mr. Wintzer 
has doubled the 
size, trebled the 
colors and in- 
creased the en- 
durance of the 
bloom and ^ 
hasbronzei 
the foliage. 





Our Vice-Pres., Mr. 
Antoine Wintzer, has 
handled nearly 50,000 
seedlings and has de- 
veloped over 72 wonder- 
ful varieties of rare 
beauty, stateliness and 
continuity of bloom. 
Our cannas are for people 
who care. 

Boston 

Convention 

Exhibit 



l«y We'll have an ex- 

cellent one. Don't 
miss it. Our several 
novelties for 1014 
are incomparable. 

IOS 
Varieties 

and each of them 
tested for 3 years — 
constitute the u n - 
equalled C. & J. offer- 
ing. Send for our in- 
teresting Canna Book. 
It's free. 

THE CONARD 
& JONES CO. 



Box 24 
WEST GROVE, 



PA. 



i 



dmE 



Haul 

1 liiii RIH 



H 1 



iH 



ras 



if 






K/iBwl 



is 



Meetings and Exhibitions in August 



Staten Island Garden Club, New Dorp, S. I.: meeting. 
Worcester County Horticultural Society Worcester, 

Mass.: exhioition. 
Pasadena Horticultural Society, Pasadena, Calif.: 

meeting. 
Gladiolus Society of Ohio, Cleveland, Ohio: annual 

exhibition. 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society, Boston, Mass.: 

gladiolus and phlox exhibition. 
Pasadena Horticultural Society, Pasadena, Calif.: 

picnic. 
New Rochelle, N. Y., Garden Club: meeting. 
Railway Gardening Association, New York: annual 

meeting. 
Nassau County Horticultural Society, Pembroke 

Hall, Glen Cove, L. I.: meeting. 
12-13. Newport Horticultural Society, Newport, R. I.: 

summer show. 
13. Worcester County Horticultural Society, Worcester, 

Mass.: exhibition. 
13-15. Newport, R. I. Garden Club show. 
15-16. New York Horticultural Society, Museum of Natural 



7-8. 
8-9. 



10 
11-14. 



12 



gladiolus show and 



History, New York City: 
meeting. 

Staten Island Garden Club, New Dorp, S. I.: meeting. 

Society of American Florists and Ornamental Horti- 
culturists. Boston, Mass.: annual convention and 
meetings. 

American Gladiolus Society, Boston Mass.: annual 
meeting. 

Worcester County Horticultural Society, Worcester, 
Mass.: exhibition. 

American Carnation Society, Boston, Mass.: meet- 
ing. 

American Rose Society, Boston, Mass.: meeting. 

Pasadena Horticultural Society, Pasadena, Calif.: 
meeting. 

Central New York Horticultural Society, New 
Hartford, N. Y.: second annual exhibition. 

Worcester County Horticultural Society, Worcester, 
Mass.: exhibition. 
Dates to be fixed later, according to local conditions: 

Ridge Women's Club, Tracy, Chicago, 111.: third 
annual flower show. 



17. 

18-19- 
20. 

20. 



21. 

26-27 
28 
27. 



Foreign Fixtures 

Berne, Switzerland: Exhibition May r5, to October 15. 

London, England: Anglo-American Exhibition at Shepherds Bush, May to October; Royal Horticultural Society's Hall, 

Vincent Square, Dahlias, September 8; Vegetables, September 22; roses, September 24; British-grown fruit, September 29, 30. 

Lyons, France: International Urban Exhibition, May 1st to November 1st, 1015. 

Moscow, Russia: Universal Exhibition of Trade and Commerce, spring, 1015. 

Note: — The Editors will be grateful for information about the doings of gardening societies, 
clubs, etc., and especially as regards coming events. In order to ensure timely publication, the 
information must reach the Editors by the twelfth day of the month preceding the date of issue in which 
the notice should appear. 



New Roses on Trial 

THE Judging Committee of the American 
Rose Society inspected the test plots in 
the Elizabeth Park, Hartford, Conn., on 
June 19th. It is interesting to note that 
some of the most promising novelties oh trial in 
this garden are of American origin. There are 
forty beds in the test garden, and out of all, the 
variety Panama, raised by John Cook of Baltimore, 
a cross between a Frau Karl Druschki and an unre- 
ported Hybrid Tea seedling, seems to promise well 
as a free flowering garden rose. The blooms have 
the palest flush of pink, are of large size, produced 
freely, and the petals endure quite a long time. 
The plant itself is vigorous. This variety received 
the silver medal in the trial last year. 

Radiance holds its record as a good outdoor rose; 
very vigorous, free flowering, and the individual 
flowers solid and brilliantly colored. Mrs. Wake- 
field Christy Miller, of a somewhat similar char- 
acter, was awarded the silver medal as a bedding 
rose. An unnamed seedling from Etoile de France, 
dwarf, sturdy, and full of bloom of rich, deep crim- 
son, dark shading, is a rose that will possibly 
attract attention in the future. Robin Hood, a 
similarly deep crimson rose, is said to be far superior 
in character in the fall. It has, in addition to deep 
color, good fragrance. 

W. R. Smith seems to be increasing in favor as a 
garden rose. The general tone of the flower is 
sulphur yellow, with the outer petals flushed pink, 
which it gets from its Tea parent. It is a free 
flowering variety and produces long stems. 

A single flowering climbing rose raised from Gruss 
an Teplitz was conspicuous because of its intense 
color, but having a tinge of purple over the other- 
wise white centre. It is a decidedly peculiar color, 
but may serve acceptably in special locations. 
The following awards were made on this year's 
inspection: 

point; 



William R. Smith, . 


Bed 11 


Conard & Jones 


81 


Defiance 


" 43 


Edward Kress 


77 


King George 


" 36 


Hugh Dickson 


80 


Mrs. David Baillie . 


" 37 


" " 


62 


Mrs. Sam Ross 


" 38 


" " 


76 


Mrs. Richard Draper . 


" 39 


" " 


75 


Souvenir de Marquis 








Louriero . . . . 


" 42 


Ketten Freres 


73 


Miss Ruth . . . . 


" 44 


Carl Peterson 


75 



Alabama, a Strawberry State 

THE census for 19 10 represented the state of 
Alabama as shipping 135 carloads of straw- 
berries. It is found on investigation that the state 
is shipping at the present time some 700 or 800 car- 
loads, so that the industry has been growing rapidly 
during the past few years. Alabama strawberries 
have a reputation for superior quality in the North- 



ern markets and, coming after Florida and some 
other states, have their own peculiar season in the 
markets. The great need has been cooperation 
and organization and the building up of the interest 
at a given point so as to ship in large quantities. 
Thorsby is a point at which fine berries are produced 
in large quantities, shipping 30 to 40 carloads. 
There is also a strawberry centre in the western 
part of the state at York and Demopolis, and a 
number of carloads are produced at that point. 
— E. W. 

The American Sweet Pea Society 

THE sixth annual exhibition that was held in 
the Museum of Natural History on June 
27th, resulted in the largest display that this 
organization has yet had. More than 2,000 vases of 
bloom were on exhibition. The most important 
display by Mr. W. Gray, of Newport, R. I., which 
won the A. T. Boddington cup, was of unusual 
quality. It will be of interest to know the varieties 
with which this exhibitor was so successful. They 
were Elfrida Pearson, Lady Evelyn Eyre, Charles 
Foster, Empress Eugenie, Martha Washington, 
Mrs. W. C. Breadmore, Prince George, Nubian, 
Queen of Norway, Dorothy Tennant, Wedgewood, 
Hercules, Mrs. Cuthbertson, Blue Jacket, Clara 
Curtis, Maud Holmes, Helen Lewis, Loyalty, King 
White, Rosabelle, Etta Dyke, America, Thomas 
Stevenson, Orchid, and John Ingman. 

The Garden Magazine Achievement Medal 
offered for the finest vase of sweet peas in the ama- 
teur section, was awarded for the variety Mrs. 
Cuthbertson exhibited by Mr. Gray. 

In the color classes, the prize winning varieties 
were: White, King White; light pink, Blanche 
Ferry and Elfrida Pearson, lavender, Dorothy 
Tennant; Salmon or rose, Salmon Spencer; crim- 
son or scarlet, Vermilion Brilliant; primrose, 
Isabellt Malcome and Primrose Beauty; any other 
color, Mrs. Townsend; rose or carmine, George 
Herbert: deep pink, Constance Oliver; blue, Blue 
Jacket: cerise, John Ingman; Salmon or orange, 
Edna Unwin; violet or purple, Purple Prince; 
picotee- edged, Elsie Herbert; striped or flaked 
red. America Spencer; striped or flaked blue, 
Loyalty: bicolor, Mrs. Cuthbertson; any other 
distinct from above, Senator Spencer. 

The Spencer varieties, it will be seen, were 
largely in the ascendant, comparatively few of the 
old grandiflora were seen . 

The election of officers resulted as follows: 
President, Lester L. Morse, California; Vice- 
President, A. M. Kirby, New York; Secretary, 
Harry A. Bunyard, New York; Treasurer, Arthur 
T. Boddington, New York. 



Write to the Readers' Service for information about live stock 



August, 19 14 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



27 




Madonna 
Lily 

(Lilium Candidum) 



_ On stems 3-4 feet tall, the de- 
liciously fragrant flowers are borne 
10-20 to each stalk. Keep in bloom 
June-August. 

The one pure white Hardy Garden 
Lily. Must be planted early to 
succeed. (Bulbs ready August 15th.) 



Large Bulbs 
Extra Size 
Mammoth 
Jumbo 



£ach 

$.12 

.15 
.20 
.30 



$1.25 
1.60 
2.00 
3.00 



100 

% 8.00 

10.50 

12.00 



We furnish the best northern 
grown bulbs. 

We wish to interest you in the 
growing of Narcissi and Daffodils 
to grace your home in winter, your 
grounds in early Spring. 
Tulips flaunting gay banners. 
Hyacinths to perfume your 
rooms and garden. 
Crocus and Snowdrops to gaily ring in Spring's advent. 
Lilies gathered in deep forests or mossy glens of Europe, Asia 
or your own Countree. 
Our Specialties of Magic Bloom fully described. 
Amaryllis of royal strain. 

Iris of many sorts, velvety petaled in thousand rainbow tints. 
Seeds to grow choicest Winter bloom. Seeds to sow in Summer 
and Fall for Hardy Perennials. 

Complete list of bulbs to grow in Our Prepared Mossfiber 
whereby you can successfully grow lovely flowers all thro' winter. 
Every bulb, every packet of seed is specially selected for you 
— and delivered post or express prepaid by us. 

Send for oar Fall Balb Book — // is free 
Send today. Early orders secure the best 

ADDRESS 

H. H. BERGER & COMPANY 

70 Warren Street, New York 



PEONIES 

Fifteen fine named Peonies for S2.50, or 25 for $5-oo all 
different and truly labeled, a chance to obtain a fine 
collection at half price, comprising such varieties as 
Festiva Maxima, Felix Crousse, Delachei, Achillea, Lady 
L. Bramwell, Couronne d'Or Prolifica Tricolor, Louis 
Van Houtte, and various other fine sorts. With any 
order of above for Ss-oo I will include one plant of 
Baroness Schroeder, free. I have the largest stock in 
America of Lady Alexandra Duff (absolutely true) and 
many other fine varieties. Send for catalogue. 

W. L. GUMM, Peony Specialist 

Remington, Indiana 



Biltmore Nursery 



Publishes helpful books 
describing Trees, Flower- 
_ Shrubs, Hardy Gar- 
den Flowers, Irises and Roses. Tell us about your intended plant- 
so that we may send vou the proper literature. Write today. 
BILTMORE NURSERY, Box 1782, Biltmore, North Carolina 




Make The Farm Pay 

Complete Home Study Courses in Agriculture, Horli- 
cnlture. Floriculture, Landscape Gardening, Forest rv, 
Poultry Culture, and Veterinary Science under Prof. 
Brooks of the Mass. Agricultural College. Prof. Beal of 
Cornell University and other eminent teachers. Over 
one hundred Home Study Courses under able professors 
in leading colleges. " 

230 paee catalog free. Write to-day 

THE HOME CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOL 

Depl. 8, Springfield, Mass. 



THREAD 

AND 

THRUM 
RUGS 



Made to order — to exactly match 
the color scheme of any room 

HAVE your fine rugs made to order, not 
cheap stereotyped fabrics, made in unlimited 
quantities; but rugs that are different and sold 
only through exclusive shops. We are only too 
glad to submit sketch in color to harmonize with 
surroundings of the room. Woven in selected 
camel's hair in undyed effects or pure wool in 
any color tone. Any length, any width — seam- 
less up to 1 6 ft. Order through your furnisher. 
Write us for color card — today. 
Thread & Thrum Workshop 
Auburn, New York 



Pocket 



KIPLING 

BOUND IN FULL FLEXIBLE RED LEATHER 

Light and convenient to carry, easy to read. Each, net, $1.50 



Edition 



Puck of Pook's Hill. 

Traffics and Discoveries. 

The Five Nations. 

Just So Stories. 

Kim. 

The Day's Work. 

Stalky & Co. 

Plain Tales from the Hills. 

Life's Handicap ; Being Stories of Mine 

Own People. 
The Kipling Birthday Book. 
Under the Deodars. The Phantom 

'Rickshaw and Wee Willie Winkie. 



The Light that Failed. 

Soldier Stories. 

The Naulahka (With Wolcott Balestier). 

Departmental Ditties and Ballads 

and Barrack-room Ballads. 
Soldiers Three, The Story of the 

Gadsbys and In Black and White. 
Many Inventions. 
From Sea to Sea. 
The Seven Seas. 
Actions and Reactions. 
Rewards and Fairies. 



Recently Issued: "SONGS FROM BOOKS" 

An interesting collection of scattered poems made by the author himself 



Net, Si. 40 



Many people cannot get books. If there is no bookstore near you we shall beglad to send books on approval. We do not 
wish to interfere with the trade of the bookseller: we wish that every locality in the United States had a good bookseller 
and that you would buy the books selected from him: our suggestion is addressed to readers who have no convenient book- 
store to go to. 

A " Kipling Index " will be sent free to any one on request 
Garden City DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY New York 




at all Seasons 
Growing in your Cellar 



oifS^ Mushrooms 

A(\ TTC ' n P nsta £ e stamps together with the name of your 
qv CL3. dealer will brin£ you, postpaid, direct from the 
manufacturer, a fresh sample brick of 

Lambert's Pure Culture MUSHROOM SPAWN 

the best high-grade spawn in the market, together with large illustrated book 
on Mushroom Culture, containing simple and practical methods of raising, 
preserving and cooking mushrooms. Not more than one sample brick will 
he sent to the same party. Further orders must come through your dealer. 

Address: American Spawn Co., Dept. 2, St. Paul, Minn. 



PEONIES 

PLANT THIS FALL 

Plant some of our new varieties originated 
here on our grounds. Free catalog describes 
them and the best old varieties. 

BRAND'S Faribault, Minn. 




Pot-Grown 
Strawberry Plants 

as shown in the cut are much the best. 
The roots are all there — and good 
roots, too. If set out in August and 
September will produce a crop of ber- 
ries next June. I have the finest stock 
of plants in the New England States. 
Send for Catalogue and Price List. 
C. S. PRATT. Reading, Mass. 



DAHLIAS 



MOST POPULAR GARDEN' 
FLOWER! Cordial invitation 
extended to all to visit my gard- 
ens during flowering season. 
Sample box containing 50 blossoms, different kinds, all labeled with names, 
for $1.00, to cover labeling and packing; express to be paid by purchaser. 

Geo. L. Stillman, Dahlia Specialist, Westerly, R.I., Box C-4 



MOLEPHER 



KILLS 

Ground Moles 

AND 

Gophers 

If you are troubled with them, order a Jar of Mole- 
pher, which we sell under a guarantee to kill them. 
Sent Post Paid on receipt of $1.00. 

MOLEPHER CHEMICAL CO. 

S09 Chestnut Street St. Louis, Mo. 



PEONIES AND 
PERENNIALS 

A word from you will secure our new 
catalogue describing and pricing the 
two hundred and fifty best Peonies 
which won the gold medal and silver 
cup, and other plants. Address 

E. A. REEVES 

South Euclid P. O., Cleveland, O. 




It's Six Miles Around the 
Clothes Line Every Year 

Those weary, back-breaking steps, lugging that heavy basket 
of clothes every wash-day, can be avoided. You can stand in 
one place and hang out a whole week's wash without tramping 
through the damp grass in summer or the snow in winter. 

HILL'S CHAMPION 
CLOTHES DRYER 

will do all this for you. Can be put up in one minute. No 
heavy lines to string up and pull taut — none to take down. It 
is ready to be used the moment you slip it on the pole and ooen 
its inverted-umbrella-like top. Simple, sightly, convenient. 

If your hardware dealer cannot supply you, write 
to us. Send for illustrated Folder No. 2. 

HILL DRYER COMPANY 
302 Park Ave., Worcester, Mass. 




28 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



August, 1914 





For Windows and Piazzas 

IDEAL Combination of Blind 

and Awning for town and 

country houses. More artistic 

and durable than unsightly 

fabric awnings. Very 

easily operated; slats open 

and close to admit air, yet 

exclude sunrays; can be 

pulled up out of sight 

if desired. Add unique 

architectural distinction 

to a house. 

For Illustrated Booklet 
Specify " Venetian 4 

Jas. G. Wilson Mfg. Co. 

l&3West29thSt.,NewYork 

Patentee and Manufacturer of Inside 

and Outside Venetians, Piazza, Porch 

and Veranda Venetians, Rolling Par- 

. titions. Rolling Steel Shutters, Hygi- 

CbrJ> " enic Wardrobes. Wood Block Floors. 



STANDARD 





Well Drilling Machines 

ested, Proved Reliable 

by forty-four years' use in nearly all 
parts of the world. Many men earn 
big incomes with some one of our 
59 styles and sizes. They use any power 
for drilling earth, rock and for mineral 
prospecting. Large catalog No. 1 20, FREE. 

THE AMERICAN WELL WORKS 

General Office and Works: 
AURORA, ILL. 

Chicago Office: First National Bank Bldg. 



. Destroy Tree Pests Hbf^SJESiSg 

'> and other enemies of vegetation by spraying with 

GOOD'SSKFISH OIL 

SOAP IM93 

\ Does not harm the irees — fertilizes the soil and aids 
■~ healthy growth. Used and endorsed by U. S. Dept. of 
Agriculture. rpPP Our valuable book on Tree and 
r IyLL Plant Diseases. Write for it today. 
JAMES GOOD, Original Maker, 931 N. Front Street, Philadelphia 




Brandyvvine Spawn 

"i ^r".'. '' Superior quality — used by leading mushroom grow- 
• -^--;2 1 ' ^'-~y ers tne country over. 

§T* GROW MUSHROOMS 

* jjjj for your home table and nearby markets. Illustrated book- 

• '■g ..,. let (ioc.) gives simple, readily understood instructions 
. &'■■"•''' ~'\ anyone can follow. Send $i for 3 bricks Br.imlywine Spawn 

*■■"* ; J and booklet, prepaid — enough for 30 sq. ft. of bed surface. 

S '^l'.-^-*f EDWARD II. JACOB, Box 014, West Chester, Pa. 



^ IRISES 


^fV, EXCLUSIVELY 


Wm 


'i3jC0Ftlfi <,l ' t • v " ur " r, ' ( ' rs 

ftW* "" in now for Aug. 
i^jKn?T and Sept. planting. 


IRIS S» 
Daytcfi 


hffllALlST! If y° u have not re- 
\JI ceived one of my cata- 
W ohio logs, send for it. 


vjrffliT/7 The most complete collec- 
NdflffcX tion in America. 


ERITH N. SHOUP 


THE GARDENS Dayton, Ohio 



Toward the End of Summer 

SOW pansies now. Prepare the soil by making 
it fine and loose, and fertilizing with some 
well rotted manure. Do not sow the seed too 
thickly, and cover it very lightly. Carefully firm 
the soil. Spread an old burlap sack over the bed 
and keep it well moistened until the seed begins 
germinating; then let in light and sunshine by 
degrees, until the seedlings are strong enough to 
stand the full rays of the sun. 

Chrysanthemums may be staked and disbudded 
to produce large, showy flowers. Also begin to 
give them liquid manure. If this cannot be had 
nitrate of potash and nitrate of soda are good sub- 
stitutes. 

Geranium cuttings can be made now. 

August is usually a dry month, and plants will 
suffer unless given water. If chrysanthemums are 
allowed to dry out for even a day it will seriously 
interfere with the size of the flowers; the plants must 
have plenty of water to produce big flowers. A 
mulch of green grass will help wonderfully to 
preserve the moisture, and to keep the soil around 
the roots cool. This helps, too, to increase the 
size of the flowers. 

Hollyhock, carnation, peony, and perennial 
phlox seed may be sown during the month; the 
seed beds must be kept moist to insure germination. 
Remember, begin to pot hyacinths and narcissus 
now for winter flowers. Get first size bulbs for 
this purpose. 

Order Madonna lilies at once, and plant just 

as soon as they arrive. Just think what a beautiful 

display a thousand bulbs will make along the 

roadside of your estate! You get earlier and better 

EVERYWHERE flowers by planting these bulbs now. 

Freesia and cyclamen make pretty plants for 
window gardens and may now be potted. 

Prune roses and flowering shrubs as they finish 
blossoming. Be sure the shears are sharp; dull 
ones bruise the bushes, which causes future trouble 
and loss of time in pruning. 

Keep flowers picked off so that plants will con- 
tinue flowering. There are many kinds of annuals 
that can be planted yet for fall flowers. Look over 
the seed catalogue, and some of the planting tables 
that have appeared in The Garden Magazine. 

IN 1HE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

Transplant celery now. Remember that rich 
soil and plenty of moisture are what it needs. 

Early bush beans and bush squashes may be 
planted up to the last of the month. 

Harvest onions now if the tops begin to fall. 

Fall cabbage may be set out during the month; if 
you have not grown plants, buy some. 

Cow peas may be planted in vacant spots in the 
garden so as to enrich the soil. 

Every home gardener that can afford the price 
(which is not high) should have a small greenhouse 
in order to furnish his table with fresh tender 
vegetables during the winter. 

IN THE FRUIT GARDEN 

Remember that no rotten or unused fruits 
should stay in the orchard, as they encourage diseases 
and borers. 

Blackberries and raspberries may be pruned now. 
Soil should be prepared late in the month for straw- 
berries. Potted plants should be set out dur- 
ing September; if you are not growing your 
plants, order them from a reliable nurseryman to 
be shipped next month. Remember not to prune 
grapes until winter; they will bleed to death if 
pruned when the sap is up. 

Cultivation of fruit trees may be stopped toward 
the last of the month, but be sure to get the soil 
free from weeds before stopping. Clover for a 
cover crop may be sown in the orchard the last of 
the month; it is better than rye for this purpose. 

WORK ON THE FARM 

Cotton picking is now the "order of the day" 
in the South. Keep it picked as fast as it opens, 
if possible. 

Cow pea hay will begin to ripen during the month 
and should be cut for winter grazing. Patches of 
rye should be sown during the month so that it 
will get a good start before grazing time. 

Georgia. Thomas J. Steed. 

The Readers' Service will give information about the latest automobile accessories 



Peonies 

From the Cottage Gardens 
Famous Collection 



"YY/E, OFFER a selection of over 
three hundred and fifty of the 
choicest varieties in one, two and 
three year old roots. 

Do not fail to send for ouir FREE 
CATALOGUE which gives authentic 
descriptions. It also tells you how to 
plant and grow this beautiful flower 
successfully. 



Shipping season commences September 
I st and continues during the Fall months. 



COTTAGE GARDENS CO., Inc. 

NURSERIES 

QUEENS, LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK 



German 
Iris 



THESE 
planl 



hardy plants should he 
planted now and get established 
tor winter. My catalogue offers about 
25 kinds of this wonderful group of 
the hardy iris, besides plenty of other 
cold-weather plants. You can't afford 
to miss the Horsford catalogue. Ask 
for it. 

F. H. HORSFORD, Charlotte, Vt. 



BINDER 



ATTACHMENT with corn harvester cuts 
and throws in piles on harvester or in win- 
rows. Man and horse cut and shock equal 
with a corn binder. Sold in every state. 
Price only $20.00 with fodder binder. J. D. Borne, Haswell, Colo., 
writes : "Your corn harvester is all you claim for it; cat, tied and shocked 
65 acres milo, cane and corn last year." Testimonials and catalog free, 
showing pictures of harvester. Address 

PROCESS MANUFACTURING CO.. SAUNA. KANSAS 




ILLETT'S 

Hardy Ferns and Flowers 
For Dark, Shady Places 

Buy your Fall Bulbs now. We have Lilies, Trilliums, 
Erythroniums. Claytonias and many others. 
Send for our descriptive catalogue of over 80 pages, which 
tells all about our Plants and Bulbs. It's FREE. 

EDWARD GILLETT. 3 Main Street, Southwick, Mass. 

SCHOOL OF HORTICULTURE FOR WOMEN 

( 18 Miles from "Philadelphia) 

Regular two-year course begins Sep- 
tember 1914. Practical and theoretical 
training in the growing of fruits, veg- 
etables and flowers. Simple carpentry. 
Bees. Poultry. Preserving. School 
Gardening and the Principles of Land- 
scape Gardening. Constant demand 
for trained women to fill salaried posi- 
tions. Write for Catalogue. 

Jessie T. Morgan. Director 
Ambler, l*a. 

BARTON LAWN TRIMMER 

Saves all the tedious trimming with sickle and 
shears. The best trimmer known. Send for 
booklet. E. BARTON, Ivyland, Pa. 




J fCEWANEE \ 



ate Water Supply Plants — Private Electric Light Plants 
'— Gasoline Storage Tanks and Pumps 
asoline Engines — Pumping Machinery 
t on Request 

KEWANEE WATER SUPPL;Y COMPANY 
New York City ' Kewanee, Ills: Chicago 




We have issued a very interesting 

catalogue showing a series of 

new designs in 

PERGOLAS" 

Lattice Fences, Garden-Houses and Arbors 

Can be had free on request. 
Catalogue "H 28" for Pergolas and Garden Accessories. 
Catalogue "H 40" for Exterior and Interior Wood Columns. 

Hartmann-Sanders Co. 

Main Office and Factory: 

ELSTON and WEBSTER AVES. 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

Eastern Office: 
6 East 39th St., New York 

Pacific Coast Branch 
A. J. Koll Pig. Mill Los Angeles, Cal. 





AMERICUS, the leader of the 

fall bearers, will give luscious, 

large, sweet Strawberries, equal 

to June fruit, if you set pot-grown plants in 

July and early August. 

Big pot- grown plants, 
$1.50 per doz., $10 per 100, delivered. 
Send your order early. 
sk for our Mid-summer Catalogue of Strawberries, Veg- 
" >le and Flower Seeds, Plants and Bulbs. Mailed free. 

WEEBER & DON, Seed Merchants 

114B, Chambers Street New York, N. Y. 



As Good as a Vacation! 

Burlington Venetian Blinds 

will make your porch a shady, airy summer resort with such 
perfect privacy that you can eat, sleep and live in the health- 
giving open air. The upper slats can be adjusted to admit 
light, while the lower slats are closed to shut out sun and 
gaze of passers-by. Easily lowered and raised. 

When you install Burlington Venetian Blinds, you will 
need Burlington "First Quality" Window Screens (inside and 
outside) and Screen Doors with Rust-proof Wire Cloth. 

Burlington Patent Inside Sliding Blinds take the place of 
old-style folding blinds. 

Write for Interesting Free Booklet 
Burlington Venetian Blind Co., 327 Lake Street, Burlington, Vt. 



Beautifies 
and Protects 
Your Grounds 

An unlimited range of designs to suit any purse 

or purpose — to harmonize with any house, garden 

grounds. Cost least, look best, last longest. Entrance 

gates a specialty. ___Cat ; dog on request. 




Address DEPT 



Stewart Iron 



Cincinnati, 0. 




Make your garden everlasting! 

Use Sunlight Double Glass Sash on this inexpensive 
ready-made greenhouse. 

The sash serve either on hot-beds or cold frames or on 
the greenhouse according to the season and the plants 
you want to grow. 

The greenhouse is so made that the sash are readily 
removable when wanted for other work. 

As the sash are double glazed they need no mats or 
shutters and are complete, profitable and long lived. 

Get our catalogue. It is free. If Prof. Massey's book- 
let on hot-beds and cold frames or the use of an inex- 
pensive greenhouse is wanted send 4c. in stamps. 

| Sunlight Double Glass Sash Co. 

927 E. Broadway 
Louisville, Ky. 





/ 



The Stephenson System of 

Underground Refuse Disposal 

keeps your garbage out of sight 
in the ground, away from the cats, 
dogs and typhoid fly. 

Opens with the Foot Hands never touch 



ti i i*^d-^:M:ki«i; i 



Underground Garbage 
and Refuse Receivers 



A Fireproof, sanitary disposal for oily waste and 

sweepings in your garage. 

Our Underground Earth Closet 

means freedom from polluted water. 

Sold Direct. Send for Catalogue. 

Ileivare of Imitations. 

In use lOyrs. It pays to look us up. 

Thousands of Users. 

C. H. STEPHKXSON. Mfr. 

40 Farrar St., Lynn. Mass. 




Hfl 



Last Fall this Lawn was full of bare spots. The grass was spindly 
and had all the looks of discouragement The soil was just plain 
"played out." Its lack of humus made it hard and "bakey." 



In September Alphano Humus was put on freely and thoroughly raked in 
and then seeded. This Spring the grass came thick and sturdy. All Sum- 
mer long it has been noticeably so and continued a deep rich green through 
the hot dry weather. Location and name of owner gladly furnished. 



Reasons Why Fall Is an Ideal Time for 
Making New Lawns or Repairing Old 
Ones When Alphano Humus Is Used 



OF FIRST importance — weather 
conditions highly favor Fall grass 
growth. The ground is warm 
through and through, so the seeds sprout 
quickly and grow rapidly. The hot, dry- 
ing winds and burning suns of Summer 
are over. The days are warm enough to 
stimulate growth ; the nights, agreeably 
cool, so top growth is checked just enough 
to promote strong and hardy root growth. 
After the middle of August, dews are 
heavy and rains more frequent. As the 
cold, frosty nights come, the stored-up 
heat of the earth keeps the roots growing, 
long after the tops are at a standstill. 

Fall-sown, or so-called "winter wheat," 
is richer in gluten and life-giving nitrogen 
than is Spring-sown. Richer, simply be- 
cause Nature, in her wisdom, fortifies 
the roots against the Winter; and the 
stronger the roots, the greater the back- 
bone or stamina is in the top growth. 

All this being so obviously so, then 
any time from the middle of August on 
till the first of October, is the ideal time 
for repairing old lawns or making new 
ones, provided only that your soil conditions 
are right. 

By "right," we mean right in the es- 
sential plant foods to induce rapid, un- 
checked root-growth; and sufficiently rich 
in humus to retain the necessary moisture 



and render the soil friable and open for 
its rapid and constant aeration. It's 
worse than folly to attempt lawn-making 
in the Fall, if your soil is not as rich as 
it should be. Roots that have to struggle 
for a living at the start surely can not be 
expected to endure the rigors of Winter 
and have much vitality next Spring. 

To scatter barnyard manure over the 
bare spots on your lawn now, would be 
so unsightly and obnoxious, it's out of 
the question. To mix lumps with the 
soil of a newly prepared lawn, as 
thoroughly as it should be, to be of the 
necessary immediate assistance to the 
roots, is neither an easy nor an inexpen- 
sive task. Right here it is then, that 
Alphano Humus in its granulated, odor- 
less form, steps in as your ideal grass 
food and permanent lawn soil-builder. 
You can put it on your old lawn; or 
spread it over your newly prepared soil 
and rake it in. 

Not only will this Alphano Humus 



'BAW^r, 



$12 a ton in bags. $8 a ton by the carload in bulk. 
F. O. B. Alphano, N. J. 



give to the roots the immediate foods 
needed; but its bacterial action will yeast 
up the soil for several seasons to come. 
It will constantly liberate the locked up 
elements in the soil. Absorbing as it 
does 14 times more moisture than sand, 
it acts as an internal mulch for the roots. 
Alphano Humus is not a temporary soil 
stimulant. It is a permanent soil builder. 

Just so you may know exactly what 
this Alphano Humus is, and exactly what 
it will do for you, as proven by what it 
has done for others, send for our Con- 
vincement Book. It tells the whole 
Humus story in a boiled down way. "Be- 
fore and after" effects are shown by 
numerous illustrations. The personal ex- 
pressions of users add further convince- 
ment. Send for this Convincement Book. 
Use Alphano Humus on your lawn this 
Fall. Dig it around your shrubs and 
Hardy Garden Plants. Start now build- 
ing up your vegetable garden soil with 
Humus, for next Spring. More Humus 
means earlier and better crops. Do all 
such soil enriching this Fall and be just 
that much ahead with your Spring 
work. 

The earliness and striking abundance 
of the results next Spring will convert 
you into an enthusiast of "gardening by 
pre-arrangement," as the Japs call it. 



AlpK 



ano 



H 



uncvc^s 



Co. 



17 C Battery Place 



New York City 



THE COUNTRY LIFE PRESS, GARDEN CITY, NEW YORK 



/oL XX, No. 2 



SEPTEMBER, 1914 



15 Cents a Co- 




country LIFE 

IN AMERICA 



DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & CO. 

Chicago GARDEN'CITY, N. Y. New-York 



WORLD'S 
WORK 




Woman's Work is Never Done 

A man's work gets done because he is quick to surround himself with labor- 
saving, time-saving devices. Women sacrifice themselves economizing — using the 
old methods year after year. 

HILL'S CHAMPION 
CLOTHES DRYER 

will save women 630 useless steps and close on to an hour every wash-day. No 
line to put up or take down. Just stand in one place and turn the revolving top 
until the entire wash is hung out. Can be put up in one minute. Compact and 
sightly. Made by the same company that makes Hill's Balcony Dryer for 
apartments, and Hill's "Hustler" Ash Sifter. 

If your hardware dealer cannot supply you, write 
to us. Send for illustrated Folder No. 2 

HILL DRYER COMPANY 302 Park Ave., Worcester, Mass. 



J 



HOLLAND BULBS 

HYACINTHS, 

TTI TI 10 Q Early Single 
1 ULllJ, and Double 

DARWIN TULIPS, 
DAFFODILS, etc. 



Choicest Selection of First-class Quality only. Delivered 
free in New York or Montreal, Duty Paid. 



CATALOGUE FREE ON APPLICATION TO 

ANT. ROOZEN & SON 

Bulbgrowers 
OVERVEEN, nr. Haarlem, HOLLAND 




When You Fence Your Home 

Combine long life with neatness. Rust is the great enemy 
of fence. When rust comes the fence goes. The only way 
to avoid rust is to erect a heavily galvanized fence. Its extra 
heavy galvanizing is one feature which distinguishes 




fences from others. The completed fence is immersed in the galvanizing 
spelter. Every crack and corner are covered much more heavily than is 
possible in any other method of galvanizing. Rust cannot get a hold — 
it has no chance to start. The fence lasts. 

The wide variety of Excelsior Rust Proof fences enables you to indulge 
your taste in fencing your home or estate. We also make Excelsior Rust 
Proof Trellises, Trellis' Arches, Lawn, Flower Bed and Tree Guards. Ask 
your hardware dealer, or write us for illustrated Catalog B. 

WRIGHT WIRE COMPANY, Worcester, Mass. 



W 



E have a man in our office who 
has a very interesting job. 



He receives letters from all over the world 
— and replies to every one of them, not with 
a mere printed form; but with a personal 
letter carefully thought out. 

Some days he travels pretty much all over 
New York City looking for the right answer 
to a single letter. 

This man conducts our Readers' Service 
Department. 

If you come across anything in any of our 
magazines, or anywhere else for that matter, 
about which you want more information just 
write him a letter. 

He'll answer it — that's his job. 

Address — 

Readers' Service Department, Doubleday, Page & Company 
Garden City. New York 



September, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



29 



Farquhar's 
BULBS 

FOR 

NATURALIZATION 

In Rock Gardens, 
Woodlands, Wild Gardens 

■HHH^l^^H^^Ki Mill I M IfE^^lMKMMn* 

and Shrubberies 

There is an increasing demand for 
Bulbs suitable for natural planting, 
which produces an effect nearer to 
nature than any other style of 
gardening. 

Our Autumn Bulb Catalogue con- 
tains a special list of bulbs suit- 
able for this purpose, which will 
be mailed free on request. 

R. & J. Farquhar & Co. 

Boston, Mass. 




m 




Things To Plant in September 



FIRST, there are perennials — the 
hardy old fashioned flowers that 
are now so new fashioned. For 
surest insurance of their blooming 
next Spring, plant them this Septem- 
ber. It's one of the secrets of hardy 
gardening. 

Then, there are evergreens. If 
planted in early September, before 
they make their second growth, you 
will have full advantage of that growth 
next Spring, besides the beauty of the 
trees all Winter. We strongly advise 
September evergreen planting. 



Shade trees and shrubs can be plant- 
ed all through October and right up 
to freezing. We recommend as much 
of such work as possible being done 
in the Fall. 

Our stock on all these things, is 
particularly adapted to Fall planting, 
because it is grown in this rugged 
New England climate of ours and 
has the stamina, the backbone that 
gives quick growing sturdy results. 

Send for catalog and place your 
order so we can ship in ample time to 
reach you when wanted. 




rsenes 



PEONIES 

Guaranteed true to name and at fair prices. Our 
stock this year is the finest ever and our list of 

ISO varieties includes the 12 best pinks for which 
we won First Prize at the American 
Peony Show at Philadelphia, 1912. 

We spare no expense or pains to produce the best 

stock from the best varieties. 

From many letters of commendation of our roots 

from other Peony Specialists and amateurs, space 

permits excerpt from one only. 

"I bought of seven or eight prominent peony growers in 

America and Europe last fall and your roots were among the 

best I received." 

An enthusiastic amateur in Tarrytown who had 

about ioo peony plants of us last year selected from 

our fields over 70 more this year. 

Your address on a postal will bring our fine catalogue of 
these and other specialties. September is the time to plant 
Perennials of which we offer a large list. 



S. G. HARRIS 

Tarrytown, Box A 



New York 



The Readers' Service will gladly furnish information about Retail Shops 



30 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 1914 



I -THE -TALK- OF- THE - OFFICE 




THE TWENTY-FOURTH OF JUNE 

THE books that are in the long run the 
most popular are the wholesome books. 
The books which treat of subjects 
which are included in the tainted class, no 
matter how brilliantly written, may have a 
temporary success, but never a lasting one. 
We believe that there will be a good deal 
of discussion on this subject arising this 
time not through the success of bad books, 
but through the large, sales of worthy 
books; and we offer as an exhibit in this 
type Mrs. Grace S. Richmond's new story. 
"The Twenty-fourth of June: Midsummer's 
Day." 

Mrs. Richmond's "Juliet Stories," and her 
books about Red Pepper Burns and Mrs. Red 
Pepper Burns have steadily increased in sales 
year by year, so that her audience is just ready 
for a great expansion, and this new novel will, 
we believe, bring it about. 

MRS. RICHMOND THE NOVELIST OF THE HOME 

Not only is "The Twenty-fourth of June" 
wholesome and really romantic, but it has 
that subtle home quality which Mrs. Rich- 
mond is able to put into her books to the great 
delight of her readers. In this novel the 
heroine is one of an interesting family whose 
domestic life is normal and charming. The hero 
has no such good fortune and he soon dis- 
covers that his money in no way compensates. 

It is the story of good, wholesome, high- 
spirited Americans, that gives this book its 
great charm. The publishers have tried to do 
well for the volume from its mechanical side; 
it is decorated by some delicate and appro- 
priate drawings, and printed in color through- 
out the whole book. We think that in 
appearance it is really as charming in its 
execution as the text is delightful. We may 
be claiming too much, but a first edition of 
25,000 indicates that booksellers agree with us. 

A NEW BOOK BY THE COUNTESS VON ARNIM 

For the last year or more an announcement 
has been going around in the newspapers that 
the Countess von Arnim was just about to 
publish a new book. The truth of the matter 
is that she has been working on this book for 
four years. Two-thirds of the manuscript was 



'To business that we love we rise betime 
go to 't with delight." — Anton) and Cleopa 



completed in July, 1914, and has just reached 
us from the Countess's home in Switzerland. 
If we are not mistaken, the book will be 




T. R. reading " Penrod," by Booth Tarkington 




Courtesy of International JVeios Service 

T. R. on Madrid train and the book is not "Penrod" 

received with the utmost delight by her large 
following of readers who enjoy her analysis 
of the German character as it comes in touch 
with people of other nations. The story 
concerns the adventures of a young English 
girl who is married out of hand by sheer force 
of domination by a German Lutheran minister, 
who is more of a scientist than he is a minister. 
The drawing of the character of Herr Dremmel 
is certainly as delightful and amusing as any- 
thing she has written. "The Caravaners" 
still goes on finding new readers month by 



month. It is a pleasure to be able to announce 
this new book, which will be published some 
time in October. 

THE PLACE BEYOND THE WINDS 

A new novel by Mrs. Harriet T. Comstock, 
whose "Joyce of the North Woods" has sold 
upward of a hundred thousand copies, will be 
published on September 15th. It is called 
"The Place Beyond the Winds." We be- 
lieve Mrs. Comstock's readers will enjoy it 
quite as well as any of her other books: in' 
fact, it is, in our opinion, a stronger and better 
piece of work. 

THE FARMER'S CYCLOPEDIA 

One of the greatest successes that Double- 
day, Page & Co. has made in the last few years 
is the publication of "The Farmer's Cyclo- 
pedia." The information contained in these 
seven volumes has been drawn from the De- 
partment of Agriculture reports, arranged and 
indexed and classified in such a way that all 
this vast amount of knowledge, on which the 
Government has spent millions of dollars, is 
available, illustrated with a host of valuable 
pictures for the farmer, .amateur or pro- 
fessional, in all parts of the United States. 
If you would like to have a set sent to you 
on approval, fill in the attached coupon. 



DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & Co., 

Garden City, N. Y. 

Gentlemen: 

Please send for ten days' examination, all 
charges paid, "The Farmer's Cyclopedia" 
in seven octavo volumes, bound in green buck- 
ram, and enter my name to receive Country 
Life in America for a year. If the books are 
satisfactory I agree to pay $2.00 a month 
for eleven months. Otherwise I will hold 
the books subject to your instructions. 

(If Country Life in America is not wanted, 
remit for ten months instead of eleven.) 



Name 



Address 

For cash a discount of 5% is allowed. 



September, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



31 




Why 

KELSEY HEAT 

Is Best For Fall 
Spring and Winter 



IN THE cool mornings and evenings of Fall and 
Spring you want a heat that can be easily 
started and easily stopped. One that you can 
hold for days and just temper the air — or that 
can be started up quickly and promptly begin 
creating that happy warm feeling so essential to 
comfort and contentment. 

This is just what the Kelsey accomplishes. But it 
does more; it not only heats but it ventilates as well. 
Shut your windows tight if you want to, and let the 
Kelsey supply the fresh air. 

When it's Winter time, and the keen cold and the 
strong winds forbid the opening of windows for ven- 
tilation; think how delightful it is to have your en- 
tire house not only warmed agreeably, but ventilated 
healthily. Think of getting up on cold mornings with 
that shivery dread— a thing of the past. No getting 
up early to close windows so it will be "warm enough 
for the rest to dress." The Kelsey comforts by giving 
comforts. It both heats and ventilates. It's an eco- 
nomizer and healthizer. Send for facts and figures. 
You need our catalog. 

--The f^LLSLV, 

anUr* I WARM AIR GENERATOR I l* y 



New 
ork 



232 James Street, Syracuse, 




g>c ^?^C^f^l^X>^f^^^ 




\Af HAT'S the sense of spending time and money 
putting up a short lived wooden fence, or one 
with only wooden posts; when for practically the 
same expenditure you can have one of our per- 
manent iron or wire fences that will just suit your 
purpose? Why deliberately buy something that 
constantly means repairs and eventual replace- 
ments when you can so easily avoid it ? 

Why not use a little Fence Sense and send for our catalog 1 
and let us know what your fence problems are so we can 
make suggestions? If anyone can sell you an enduring, 
every way satisfactory fence, we can. Write us, sending a 
sketch of your requirements. 



e 



rSTEl^PRISE 

Ifc>otN Worries 

1 120 East 24th St. Indianapolis, Ind. 




For the Man Who Wants 
A Small Greenhouse 



SAY, a house about 18 feet wide and 25 or 30 
feet long — is that about what you had in 
mind? Well then, this one above, comes 
pretty near filling the bill. It is attached to the 
garage, and the one boiler heats both. 

Do you know that after all the English come 
pretty close to having the right idea about their 
greenhouses. They treat them like regular gar- 
dens and have them directly adjoining their 
homes, as is their outdoor garden. 

Of course, there may be some disadvantages 
in such an arrangement, but they will all be for- 
gotten some Winter's day when you are blue as 
indigo, and you find a cheer and satisfying 
solace in turning to your plant friends for diver- 
sion. The necessity of having to put on a 



fur coat and tramp through the snow to reach 
one's indoor garden is not all it's cracked up to 
be. But of course without any knowledge of 
the conditions governing your particular case, 
we can't do anything here but talk generalities. 
So why not get together and with the aid of 
some specific information, see what is best for 
your particular requirements. 

If you prefer to correspond about it before 
seeing any of us, we will heartily welcome the 
opportunity of answering your letters. 

Right now we want to suggest your sending 
for our booklet — "Glass Gardens — A Peep Into 
Their Delights." It's an unusually interesting 
and informative bit of greenhouse information. 
Some of the illustrations are in nature's own colors. 



Lord & Burnham Co. 

Sales Offices 

NEW YORK BOSTON PHILADELPHIA CHICAGO 

42nd Street Bldg. Tremont Bldg. Franklin Bank Bldg. Rookery Bldg. 

TORONTO— 12 Queen Street, East 

Factories 

Irvington, N. Y. Des Plaines, 111. 



ROCHESTER 

Granite Bldg. 



CLEVELAND 
Swetland Bldg. 



EVERGREENS 

SHOULD BE TRANSPLANTED BEFORE THE END OF OCTOBER 

We have the finest, healthiest, stock of pines, hemlocks, cedars, etc., at reasonable prices. We 

also carry a full line of all kinds of shrubs and plants of the famous BEDFORD QUALITY 

Tell Us Your Troubles 





Catalog 



NEW ENGLAND NURSERIES 

Dept. H2, Bedford, Mass. 



The Readers' Service will furnish information about foreign travel 



32-34 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 1914 




Late Blooming Peonies for Cut Flowers 

What are a few of the best white, pink, and red 
late blooming peonies for cut flowers? — B. C. G., 
New York. 

— White: Marie Lemoine, Couronne d'Or, Ava- 
lanch. Pink: Bernard Palissy, Albert Crousse, 
Mme. Muyssart, Mme. Bollet, Livingstone, Charle- 
magne, Mme. de Galhau. Red: Rubra Superba, 
Delachei, Prince Imperial, Louis Van Houtte, 
Marechal Vaillant, Meissonier. 

Munstead Primrose 

What is the botanical name of the Munstead prim- 
rose, and where can I obtain it? — L. O., New Jer- 
sey. 

— The Munstead primrose has no botanical name. 
It is listed as Primrose-Polyanthus, Munstead Giant 
Strain, in the catalogue of A. T. Boddington, 342 
West 14th St., New York. 

The Hayes Grape 

Where can I procure plants of the Hayes grape? 

— E. S., New York. 

— The Hayes grape is offered for sale by the T. S. 
Hubbard Company of Fredonia, N. Y. 

Botanical Supplies 

Please refer me to a firm from whom I can pur- 
chase supplies needed by an amateur botanist for 
preparing specimens, etc. — S. L. E., N. C. 

— Botanical supplies can be obtained from the 
Cambridge Botanical Supply Company of Cam- 
bridge, Mass., or from the Kny Scheerer Company 
of 404 West 27th St., New York. Possibly your 
state experiment station at Raleigh might be 
able to give you the name of a dealer who is 
nearer to you. 

Apples for Market 

Last spring I set out 200 Baldwin, 50 Greening, 
and 50 Northern Spy apple trees. I am about 
five minutes' drive from a railroad station, and 
only twenty miles from a city of 160.000. Under 
these conditions do you think I should top-work 
the Baldwins to Spies, Mcintosh, Kings, etc., and 
try for a fancy trade; or is a good grade of Bald- 
wins profitable? — B. C. D., Massachusetts. 
• — The demand of your particular market is an 
important factor, but undoubtedly high grade 
Baldwins can always be marketed at profitable 
prices. We certainly do not advise -growing several 
varieties in one small orchard. Each kind requires 
special care and less than fifty trees of any one 
sort will not yield enough to warrant the expense 
associated with a fancy trade. If you do any top- 
working, make the other one hundred trees Baldwins 
and give all your attention to that variety. 

Arsenate of Lead in Combination 

Is it possible to combine arsenate of lead with 
kerosene emulsion; and if so, what proportions 
should be used? — L. V. N., New York. 
■ — There is no chemical reason why arsenate of 
lead should not be mixed with kerosene emulsion, 
but there might be serious mechanical difficulties, 
as the particles of the arsenate of lead would have 
a tendency to emulsify the kerosene. If it is 
necessary to use the arsenate in combination, the 
best way would be to mix it with bordeaux mixture. 
Kerosene emulsion is used for sucking insects: 
arsenate of lead for chewing insects. 

The Lupine Family 

Please tell me something about the culture of 
annual and hardy lupines. I have tried to grow 
the latter, but with no success. — M. A. H., New 
York. 



— The lupine consists of a group of about eighty 
species mostly confined to Western North America, 
a few growing in Eastern North America and in the 
Mediterranean region. All are of easy cultivation 
in any garden, except that they are said not to 
succeed in soil containing lime. Possibly this is 
your trouble. Some species prefer sandy land, 
others good garden soil, while others prefer gravelly 
places. 

The Peach Tree Borer 

How shall I treat peach trees infested with borers; 
some trees, not yet bearing, have the sap oozing 
out in a dozen places. — E. C. K., New York. 

— Wherever you discover a borer in your peach 
trees, dig it out of the cavity and destroy it. As 
a preventive measure there is perhaps nothing 
better than to coat the trunk and larger branches 
with a mixture of soft soap reduced, with a solution 
of washing soda, to the consistency of a thick 
paint; and, if a little carbolic acid is added, it will 
be even more repulsive to the beetles. Keep it on 
the trees during the summer months when the 
insect is injurious. We would advise clean culti- 
vation around the trees, which will remove to a 
great extent the danger of borers in the future. 

Propagating Hydrangeas 

I have several bushes of Hydrangea arborescens, 
and would like to start more from these. What is 
the best way to do it? — C. R., Wisconsin. 

— Hydrangeas are easily propagated under glass 
in summer by cuttings of half ripened or nearly 
ripened wood; also by hard wood cuttings, layers, 
suckers or divisions of older plants. They grow 
best in a rich, porous and somewhat moist soil and 
thrive well in partly shaded positions, but they 
flower more freely in full sun if they have sufficient 
moisture. 

Scale on House Ferns 

How can I exterminate scale, a black, oval, juicy 
substance which forms on the leaves and stems of 
house ferns? — A. M. J., 111. , 

— Once the scale has become established, it is very 
difficult to get rid of. The big scales on the leaves 
are the matured individual insects. Continually ■ 
keeping at the plant will control the scale, but even 
after the plant has been freed from the pest there 
is danger of reinfection. In one case that we know 
of, the scales were picked off by hand individually 
and allowed to fall on the table on which the plant 
was placed. The tips of the fronds touched the 
table and became infected. The most efficient 
remedy is hand treatment, using some oil, such as 
fir' oil, lemon oil, or even kerosene oil, but only 
enough should be applied to saturate the scale. 
The oil may be applied with a toothpick or fine 
brush and should come in actual contact with the 
scale. 

The Spit Bug 

In our garden we are plagued with the spit bugs. 
We never see them before they appear as pale green 
insects, enveloped in froth, well up the stem of the 
plant, preferably a chrysanthemum. Presently they 
develop jumping and flying powers which makes 
them almost invincible, and they then do endless 
harm to all flower buds. I have tried powdered 
hellebore, but they were found in it quite happy. 
Can you tell me where these bugs have their origin; 
for if one knew where to find the eggs or larvae 
they might be easier to destroy. — A. F. P., Canada. 

— The insect to which you refer is called in some 
sections the frog hopper, or spittle insect. It is a 
true bug or member of the Hemiptera and more 
specifically of the family Cercopidae. Compara- 



tively little is known of its habits and life history 
beyond the fact that eggs are laid on leaves and 
plants in the fall, hatching out in the spring. The 
insects live either singly or in groups of several in 
the masses of froth, which are produced from the 
anal secretions beaten up by the continued 
thrashings of the posterior part of the insect. Al- 
though no directions for its destruction are given 
by most entomologists, our opinion is that careful 
cleaning up and, if necessary, the burying of litter, 
dead grass, etc., in the fall and occasional sprayings 
with kerosene emulsion or whale oil soap in the 
spring, should prove sufficient. As the insect feeds 
on the juices of the plant, ordinary poisons are 
ineffective. 

Moving a Grape Trellis 

I have a row of grapes that I wish to move, pro- 
vided it can be done successfully. They are four 
years old, and growing and bearing well. If you 
advise it, at what time should it be done and how 
severely should the vines be pruned? — S. M. G., 
Conn. 

— Trellises, with grapes growing upon them, have 
been successfully moved. It should be done in the 
spring as early as possible, cutting back the vines 
severely. You must anticipate losing one season's 
crop. If you plant one Concord on your trellis 
you will probably get all the fruit you want. If 
the plants are very old and have very large root 
systems, it might be better to start with entirely 
new young vines. If all the vines are only four 
years old, they should be moved without any 
trouble. 

Trees For An Avenue Effect 

An old, abandoned, macadamized roadway 
through my property is to be made part of the 
entrance driveway and must be narrowed with 
an avenue of trees. What trees would you 
suggest for the purpose for this climate? — A. J. 
W., Maine. 

— The sugar maple will be perfectly satisfactory 
for your avenue as it is a native of the region and 
grows faster than the Norway. It is our feeling 
that a native tree should be used unless the treat- 
ment is very frankly a garden treatment, in which 
case arborvitas might be considered. Assuming 
that you prefer a quick growing tree the sugar 
maple is better than the other maples, but its wood 
is softer and more liable to damage by storms. 
The harder the wood of the tree the slower its 
growth, but it is also more stable. If you want 
quick results use soft wooded trees. White oak 
might be used if you can get it established, 
but again this tree has the disadvantage of slow 
growth. 

Buckwheat Hulls For Fertilizer 

Please advise me as to the value of buckwheat 
hulls as a fertilizer for my garden in which the soil 
is a fairly good loam with neither sand nor clay 
predominating. They can be obtained at the cost 
of hauling about six hundred feet.- — W. M. C, 
Pennsylvania. 

— On such a soil we would expect buckwheat hulls 
to do more harm than good. Although by chem- 
ical analysis they are potentially worth $2.26 a 
ton, they form an unbalanced fertilizer, being 
richest in potash, which the average soil contains 
in sufficient quantity. They decompose very 
slowly and being dry and flaky do not add to the 
humus content as peat, leafmold, manure or even 
sawdust would do. We can conceive of their 
improving the physical condition of a heavy, wet, 
sticky clay or muck, but do not advise their use 
by our correspondent, at least, until composted 
for a season or two. 



Contents Design — Rose or Sharon -- - Nathan R. Graves 



PAGE 

37 



The Month's Reminder --------- 

Why You Should Plant in the Fall A . E. Wilkinson 38 
Wall Gardens for America - - - - Fletcher Steele 39 

Photographs by Mary H. Northend 

Build Yourself a Greenhouse - - - F. F. Rockwell 41 

Drawings by the author; photograph by W. C. McCoUom 

Better Daffodils for American Gardens 

Sherman R. Duffy 44 

Photographs by Nathan R. Graves 

Grapes in Everyone's Own Small Garden 

J. R. Mattem 47 

Making a Lawn -------- H.W. Doyle 49 

Photographs by the author, H. E. Angell and N. R. Graves 

Using German Iris for Garden Effect B. Y. Morrison 51 

Photographs by G. O. Stoddard, A. G. Eldredge and N. R. Graves 



Society of American Florists' Meeting - 



PAGE 

54 



Flowers Most Easily Grown from Seed 

W. C. McCoUom 55 

Photographs by N. R. Graves and L. Barron 

Gardening for Young Folks . - - Ellen Eddy Shaw 56 

Planting the Small Hardy Border 

Cornelius V. V. Sewell 58 

Suggestions for the Home Table Effie M. Robinson 62 

The Middle South ------- J. M. Patterson 64 

Duties for the Lower South - - Thomas J. Steed 66 

Club and Society News ----------68 



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BOBBINK & ATKINS 

World's Choicest Nursery and Greenhouse Products 

Autumn Planting 

The Months of August and September are the Best Time to Plant Evergreens 

EVERGREENS, CONIFERS AND PINES. We have more than 75 acres 
planted with attractive EVERGREENS. Our collection is conceded to be 
the most complete and magnificent ever assembled in America. The varie- 
ties comprising same have been thoroughly tested and proved hardy. Our 
plants are dug with a ball of earth and burlapped previous to shipping. 
Before purchasing elsewhere intending purchasers should not fail to inspect 
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The Following Plants for Outdoor Planting, Interior and Exterior 
Decorations are Among Our Specialties 



STRAWBERRIES. Potted and fieldgrown 
in all the leading varieties. We have many 
thousands of Strawberries and are in a posi- 
tion to fill orders of any size. 

AUTUMN BULBS AND ROOTS. We 

grow and import quantities of Bulbs and 
Roots from all parts of the world. 

PEONIES AND IRIS. We have a com- 
plete collection of them ready for September 
delivery. 

ENGLISH IVY. We grow many thousands 
in trained forms and ordinary plants from 
two to eight feet tall. 



HEDGE PLANTS. We grow a quantity 
of California Privet, Berberis and other 
Hedge plants. 

HARDY OLD-FASHIONED PLANTS. 
Several acres of our Nursery are exclusively 
devoted to their culture. 
PALMS AND DECORATIVE PLANTS. 
We have several acres of Greenhouses in 
which we grow Palms. Ferns and a large col- 
lection of Plants for Interior and Exterior 
Decorations. 

PLANT TUBS, WINDOW BOXES. ENG- 
LISH GARDEN FURNITURE AND RUS- 
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and sizes. 



OUR NEW HYBRID GIANT-FLOWERING MARSHMALLOW. Every- 
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Flower now in bloom. 

OUR ILLUSTRATED GENERAL CATALOG NO. 25 and AUTUMN 
BULB CATALOG, describes our Products; mailed upon request. 

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Nurserymen, Florists and Planters Rutherford, New Jersey 



35 



H 



36 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 1914 



'/'^n' 



■ - 



Buy Your Peonies From the 
Originator's Stock 

'HIS year we have added to our great collection of Peo- 
nies the new introductions of Dessert, Lemoine, and other 
French specialists. These plants were grown directly 
from imported roots, and we are absolutely sure that 
they are true to name and color. 
The plants grown at Cherry Hill Nurseries are extra 
size and quality — in fact a little better than necessary — 
and our collection is one of the finest and most complete 
in the country. Most of the varieties in our list are rapid 
growers and early bloomers and will produce flowers next 
June if the plants are set in September or October. 

Our list of these new Peonies and the older standard 
varieties will be valuable to you in selecting the best varieties 
for your garden. We will gladly mail you a copy on request. 

CHERRY HILL NURSERIES 

T. C. Thurlow's Sons, Inc. 
Box 52, West Newbury, Massachusetts 







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The Story of the Dy- 
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Told by their Chiefs 

The chapter on Indian Imprints is unsurpassed by anything I 
have ever read in its vividness and beauty of expression and its ac- 
curacy and comprehensiveness of interpretation of the real inner 
life of the Indian. — F. H. Abbott, Secretary Board of Indian Com- 
missioners. 

Gives valuable information not only to those of this generation 
but to those who follow us. — Oscar S. Straus. 

Some of the characters in "The Vanishing Race" are wonder- 
ful, as is their story. I am impressed with the great composite pic- 
ture of the American Indian that is presented with sidelights on his 
virtues. — A. C. Nicholson, Supt. Menominee Indian Agency, 
Neopit, Wis. 

"Epic in thought and treatment. The illustrations are remark- 
able." — Los Angeles Times. 

8o Photogravure illustrations. Net $3.50. 

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To repair the ravages of summer sun — of 
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good growth of grass before frost sets in. 

To assure a velvety, green lawn in Spring apply 

Calcium-Humus 

now in accordance with directions given in 
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The Garden Magazine 



Volume XX 



|$9@HBj^i$'H5SKW»*4*;sV'" .S'"j 




SEPTEMBER, 1914 



Number 



HDi&@II 






Pi .1 siW; 



Vi 



! i-: 




the MONTH'S P 0TAT0ES ma y now be 



MAKE your plans now for a 
garden of beauty and joy 
next spring. During 
September you can ac- 
complish a great deal of work that 
will show in results next year. Not 
only is September the ideal month 
for planting peonies, iris, phlox, and 
a host of other herbaceous plants, 
but daffodils and other bulbs that 
were lifted earlier this year are better 
replanted now before the new purchases arrive. During this month 
too, you can plan quietly for actual planting of trees, shrubs, 
and herbaceous stock generally in October and November. 



REMINDER 



COMPILED WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE HOME GARDEN, FROM 
THE TEN YEARS' DIARIES OF A PRACTICAL EXPERT CARDENER 

For reckoning dates, the latitude of New York City is generally taken as a 

standard. In applying the directions to other localities, allow six 

days' difference for every hundred miles of latitude 



L 1 



Vegetables 
to be Sown 



ETTUCE is one of the big possibilities for September; sow a 
good big patch early in the month. Big Boston, May King, 
Maximum, in fact any of the big heading varieties can be used. 
Of course, protection will be required for these plants late in the fall 
but with plenty of good meadow hay or dry leaves this 
sowing can be kept out-of-doors until Christmas. 
Radishes are an excellent fall vegetable; two sow- 
ings can be made this month. A couple of sowings of spinach can 
also be made; sow in fairly liberal patches as that which is not 
used can be covered during the winter with a little salt hay or leaves 
and will be ready for use very early in the spring. 

This is the last chance to sow some French globe artichoke for 
next season. Plants from seed sown now must be wintered over in 
a coldframe. 

Two sowings of peas can be made during the month, using early 
varieties, of course. 

TZ~EEP a sharp lookout for the cabbage worm on the late crop. 

This is about the last of the insect pests, however. You can 

spray the plants with poison when small; but later on the worms 

had better be removed by hand picking. Cabbage and cauliflower 

„., . _, set out last month must not be allowed to suffer 

What Growing r . - , 

C N d want of water. 

Don't neglect to feed your celery occasionally. 
This has a tendency to promote fast growth and with celery that 
means quality. Liquid manures are the best feeding agents, with 
a dose of nitrate of soda once in a while. 

The final hilling can be given the leeks late this month; if you 
want size, feed freely. 

Does the rhubarb plot need resetting? If so, late this month is 
the time to get at it. If it seems overcrowded, dig up the old plants, 
cut them into four pieces and reset — which also gives you the 
chance to work some fertilizer into the bed. 

Keep tomato plants tied up well and keep the fruit picked clean 
as it keeps much better in a basket than it does on the vine. 

Roots of parsley can be transferred from the garden to greenhouse 
or frame; give a good rich soil and strip off the foliage when trans- 
planting. 

All winter crops, or crops that are intended for winter use, should 
be kept well cultivated. September is usually a good growing 
month and cultivation helps growth considerably. 



and stored, provided you have 
a good place to keep them ; if you 
haven't a good, cool cellar they 
Ha dli W ^ be b etter °^ ^t in 

Potatoes the 5 eld . S0 lon S as the 
weather is not too wet. 

When digging, use some care not to 

leave the tubers exposed to the 

sun all day; they should be left in the 

sun and air only long enough to dry 

them thoroughly. After storing the potatoes should be picked 

over occasionally and any rotted ones removed. And don't forget 

to sow rye on the plot immediately the potatoes are out of the way. 

A FTER crops have finished, and the space they occupied has 

been thoroughly cleaned, sow rye, which not only stops weed 

growth and makes the garden clean and attractive looking during 

the fall and winter, but is also very beneficial to the soil when 

turned under in the spring in supplying the essential 

humus. Make a rule not to allow any part of the garden 

to go into winter without a cover crop. 



Cover 
Crops 



PHIS is the ideal time to sow lawns. The ground should be 

well worked and made ready by several deep cultivations. 

This also kills weed growth. Use plenty of seed; from five to six 

bushels to the acre will insure a good stand. Lawns sown at this 

~ . time are very free from weeds. Some authorities use 

p . even much more seed than that and get a very dense, 

fine mat of young grass. The surest way to keep out 

the weeds is to keep in the grass. 

This is also a good time to sow pasture lots. These should be 
handled similarly to lawns, first plowing under a liberal supply of 
manure and after several good workings sowing the seed. 

Some claim that manure is conducive to weed growth, and while 
this is true in a measure, yet it will usually be found that so far as 
the average amateur is concerned, a good coating of manure is a 
very good way to establish a lawn; or commercial humus can 
be used. 

npHE herbaceous perennial borders grows constantly in popular 

favor, and it gives to the garden unusual opportunity for 

individual expression. No two borders can ever be exactly alike. 

If you are planning any such addition or extension now is a good 

Working Over time of the year to P re P a ^ e the site for Planting. 
p . . First of all, select a suitable place for the per- 

ennial border. Don't attempt to sprinkle plants 
promiscuously over the area; their proper placing is just as im- 
portant to the permanency of your place as the locating of a walk 
or drive. 

Thorough enrichment of the soil before planting is imperative 
if you want good flowers. Do this by incorporating some well 
rotted manure with the soil. Remember you want lasting results 
— the border is expected to endure for some years. Therefore, 
trench the ground three feet deep, reversing the soil, placing the 
top soil to the bottom and bringing the bottom soil to the surface. 



37 



38 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 1914 



Plant Peonies 
Now 



This is done in layers, using a foot of soil and about four inches of 
manure so that when finished it resembles in formation a layer cake. 
Young borders or plantings of perennials which are not to be dis- 
turbed for this year, should be carefully cultivated, being par- 
ticularly careful to remove by hand any weeds that are right at the 
base of the plants, as these weeds start off in spring with such vigor 
as to smother the plant. Also be sure that all labels are in good con- 
dition. This is a very important, but often neglected detail. 

A LTHOUGH a trifle early for most perennials, September is 
the accepted time for the planting of the peony. This well 
known herbaceous plant has become so popular that there are now 
a number of growers who specialize on the peony and have large 
and rich collections of this beautiful flower. By 
a careful selection of varieties you can prolong the 
season of peony bloom, which is desirable because 
the flowering season of any given variety is rather short. The 
dealers' lists convey very full information on this and other de- 
sirable points. 

(CANTERBURY BELLS, foxgloves, daisy (Bellis), etc., that 

are to be wintered over in 
coldframes, had better be planted 
in them soon so as to become estab- 
lished before winter arrives. This 
is a good time to 
start feeding the 
pompon chrysan- 
themum, also to provide some 
means of protection from early 
frost which ruins the flowers. A 
few stakes driven into the. ground, 
with wire stretched tightly over 
the tops, will support some heavy 
paper, old bed sheets, wagon 
covers, or anything of that nature 
which may be used as a covering. 

Dahlias should be doing well at 
this season. An occasional dose 
of nitrate of soda will improve the 
flower, providing the soil there is 
very fertile; if not, a good liquid 
food should be used in connection 
with the soda. It is also a good 
plan to thin out the lateral shoots 
on the plants; this reduces the 
number of flowers, to be sure, but 
gives much longer and stronger 
stems and far better quality 
blooms. 

Flowering spikes should be show- 
ing on the fall anemone at this 
time; an application or two of 
liquid manure will considerably 
improve the quality of the flower. 



you will deceive yourself because the border always looks as if 
there were an abundance of space when the foliage is off. 

It is not yet too late to move evergreens; but the sooner that 
work is completed the better. Remember to get as good a ball as 
possible when moving. Therein lies the secret of success. 

This is a good time to look up some protecting material for 
tender evergreens, such as rhododendrons; the common pine 
makes an ideal protection and arrangements can now be made to 
purchase the supply you will need later on. 

DLANT an orchard this fall, no matter how small. Now is the 

very best time to study what you really want in the various 

kinds of fruit and to get your order into the nursery. All fruits 

can be planted in the fall even better than in the spring, except 

the stone fruits in the colder sections, but they can 

be planned for now, and ordered. 

Cover crops can again be sown in the orchard. 
Rye sown at the rate of two bushels to the acre, mixed with a 
leguminous crop, such as cow peas or crimson clover, or the last 
named mixed with oats, makes a good crop. A good spring com- 
bination is turnips and soy beans; in every case sow thick enough 

to insure a good stand. 



Look to 
the Orchard 



Flowers 
Now Growing 



Trees and 
Shrubs 



DREPARE now for any con- 
templated changes in the 
shrubbery borders, and for setting 
out of deciduous trees or shrubs of 
any kind. While it 
is still too early to do 
any actual planting, 
the ground can be made ready so 
that when planting time comes 
there will be no delay. 

Take time now to look over old 
borders or plantings while the 
foliage is still on; you can see now 
where there is any crowding and 
can plan properly for any changes 
that may be desirable. If left 
until entirely devoid of foliage, 



Why You Should Plant in the Fall 

By A. E. WILKINSON, Cornell University 

<I If the home gardener is fully alive to the opportuni- 
ties, he will not only order his trees in the fall, but he -will 
plant his trees during the fall months, <£t e£t <£l 

^ Fruit trees and ornamentals may be planted with some 
assurance of success in the fall, especially if the location 
is thoroughly drained. Thorough drainage may mean a 
soil with tile or a soil with a gravelly subsoil. Land which 
has some slope would tend to have sufficient drainage. 

* ; The soil must be in " good condition." The meaning 
of good condition is : thoroughly supplied with humus, 
properly plowed and cultivated — and it should have 
been worked a year or two previous with other crops. 

<l In fall setting trees, notice whether the trees are of 
a stocky, well matured growth, that is, whether they 
are of a brown appearance with a thick, strong growth. 
They should not be in any way soft, green, and slender, 
because the latter are " stripped " trees. The former are 
thoroughly matured. Stripped trees will give weak, un- 
satisfactory growth. <£ t£ J& <£ <£ «J* 

<J Of the many advantages from fall planting, some of 
the most important are : The roots send out a small 
growth. Wounds on the roots have a tendency to callus 
over. The soil settles about the roots, and in every way 
the trees become established during the warm days in the 
fall. As the result of becoming established before winter 
the plants make an earlier start in the spring. They 
begin to grow long before others could be planted 
during the spring. As they are established and begin 
this growth early, they generally have a larger root sur- 
face and are, therefore, able to endure later droughts 
much better than spring-planted trees. <£* t£* <£ 

^ It is often noticed that young trees do not ripen 
thoroughly in the fall of the year, that even along to- 
wards frost the growth is green, and sappy, and not well 
hardened. Trees of this nature go into winter in a soft 
condition and are nearly always injured by winterkill- 
ing. This is often the condition of spring-planted trees. 

<J Trees planted in the fall have a tendency to mature 
the foliage and stem early, going into winter in a much 
better condition and suffering less from winterkilling. 

<J Since the weather is, as a general rule, settled in 
fall, the gardener can do much better work than during 
the unsettled weather of spring. <£ <£ <£ <£ 

<J The fall of the year offers more opportunity for 
planting than the hustle and bustle of the busy spring, 
when all the work of plowing and harrowing and planting 
the garden needs attention. <£* <£ <£* J& <£ 

<I In the fall of the year the soil is in workable form; 
much more so than in the spring, when it is wet and 
unyielding. <£ j£ <£* *£ <£ <£ <£* 

<l Fall planting facilitates spring cultivation ; about the 
time other people are beginning to dig holes for spring 
planting, it will be possible to cultivate fall-planted trees. 



"K'pMpP: 'ppI 4 '^PW'pPx. 44s 



V\Z"ORK under glass must now be 

given serious attention. 

Careless, indifferent methods cause 

more failures in most things, but 

j .. this is especially true 

Greenhouse °{ g reenhous <: work 
where attention to 

detail counts for so much. Keep a 
sharp lookout for pests of all kinds, 
and use preventives frequently 
rather than waiting until the plants 
have been weakened by being 
overrun with insects. Watch car- 
nations closely for green fly; chry- 
santhemums must be kept clear 
of black fly or they will not amount 
to much in November; roses must 
be kept after to keep green fly and 
red spider in check. And so it goes ! 
Every plant has its own enemy and 
one who has learned to fight these 
successfully has accomplished the 
greatest step toward success in the 
greenhouse. It is not hard if you 
will only take the matter in hand 
at the proper time, but once en- 
trenched the pests are very hard to 
rout out. There are many manu- 
factured preparations on the market 
that are efficient. Use them now. 

PHE greenhouse owner misses 
a great opportunity if he 
fails to raise some vegetables in- 
doors. Start now. 

Beans can be had 
all winter from suc- 
cessional sowings ; 
cauliflower can be had continuously 
by sowing every two weeks in small 
patches; lettuce sown now and 
forced indoors will come in about 
the time the outside crop is finished 
— sow in small patches and at two- 
week intervals. 

Beets and carrots can be easily 
forced. They do best in solid beds 
but can be grown very well on 
raised benches; sow every three 
weeks for a regular supply. 



Vegetables 
Indoors 




The ideal way in wall gardening is to place the plants in position when building the wall, thus giving ample soil for the roots and avoiding air holes 



Wall Gardens for America — By Fletcher Steele, rr hu 

REFUTING THE PREJUDICED IDEA THAT THESE CHARMING FEATURES ARE NOT FOR US — WHY THEY 
CAN BE INTRODUCED INTO OUR GARDENS — HOW TO MAKE THEM AND WHAT TO GROW IN THEM 



WALL gardens can be successfully 
made and maintained in America. 
It is frequently asserted that in 
summer our dry air and long 
droughts, and in the winter the damage 
done by expansion of freezing water will 
spell failure for wall gardens here. But 
these obstacles can be overcome. To be 
sure we cannot have the identical effects 
that are possible in the moist, equable 
climate of England, nor do we want exactly 
the same. American conditions call for 
American treatment. 

By a wall garden is meant, ordinarily, a 
wall from the sides of which grow tufted 
and trailing plants. In making such a 
garden all the steps should be planned in 




Just built The small plants are already set in the crevices 



advance. Select a retaining wall, or a 
place where a retaining wall can be easily 
built. 

A place on a slope is best where a terrace 
will add to the convenience and appearance 
of the grounds, or where it can be com- 
pletely screened off if it is a too sophis- 
ticated element in the landscape. When 
the place is decided upon, cut away the 
soil, to the depth of the finished wall on the 
lower side. The soil which is to be taken 
away from the lower side of the wall can 
generally be used to fill on the higher side 
to make a more or less level area. When 
all the soil is moved, dig a trench for the 
wall foundation, the bottom of which 
should be well below the frost line. 
Be sure that the foundation is 
wide enough. At the bottom of 
the foundation, a dry retaining 
wall (one built without mortar), 
should be at least one third as 
wide as the total height to the 
top of the wall. The width may 
be gradually reduced as the wall 
gains in height from the bottom. 
The batter, or slope, of an ordin- 
ary retaining wall may be on either 
side, but for a wall garden the 
slope should all be on the outer 



face. The steepest slope on which plants 
can be satisfactorily grown is four inches 
horizontal retreat to each foot in height. 

After the foundation has been laid as 
for an ordinary stone retaining wall, the 
gardening begins. For the wall must be 
filled with soil and planted as the stones 
are laid. Failure to do this is responsible 
for most of the unsuccessful wall gardens. 
If it is not done it is impossible thoroughly 
to fill the interstices with soil, and air holes 
between the rocks are fatal. 

In an ordinary dry wall small stones or 
spalls are used to fill up the holes between 
the larger rocks. In a soil wall, the holes 
are all filled with earth well rammed in all 
the horizontal and vertical spaces and 




The second year. The plants have grown and are conspicuous 



39 



40 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 1914 



joints. Only the best soil should be used. 
It is a good thing to mix with it well 
pulverized and rotted manure, five parts 
soil to one part manure. 

But no matter how well tamped the soil 
may be, our beating rains and winds would 
wash out much of it unless it be reinforced. 
This assistance is given by laying sods in 
with the soil near the wall face, roots out- 
ward. They hold the soil in place until 
the fibrous plant roots can grow sufficiently 
to bind. By the time this is accomplished, 
the sods have rotted, to become rich com- 
post. 

But it is not enough to tamp soil and 
sods into all the joints. When the wall is 
finished and afterward planted, the roots 
find it very difficult to get a start. 
As there is no way to fasten the 
plants securely, severe winds and 
rains are apt to pull them loose, 
permitting air to get at the roots, 
or tearing them entirely out of 
place. The only way is to set 
them in their permanent places 
while the wall is building. Then 
the roots can be properly embedded 
in soil and stones laid around them 
will hold them in place. 

When the wall is built up, there 
should be a hole between the wall 
and the bank to be retained at 
least 1 8 inches wide. This should 
be filled with good soil, well 
tamped down, to form a "back" 
for the wall, and a gold mine for 
such plant roots as penetrate to it. 

If these precautions are fol- 
lowed, the result should be a 
handsome wall garden providing 
it is not more than three feet high. 
This should not be exceeded with- 
out special irrigation facilities, 
except in unusually moist locations. 
With heavy baths on the upper 
side of the wall, water will sink 
down two feet to the plant roots. 
Watering at the bottom will take 
care of plants one foot up the side. 
'In a wall higher than three feet, 
a special provision must be made 
for watering the plants in the belt 
between two feet down from the 
top and one foot up from the bot- 
tom. The best way to provide 
this irrigation is with farm tile. 

When the soil back is being set, a line 
of tile should be laid to extend the length 
of the wall two feet below the finished grade. 
All the joints must be left open. At the 
ends and at intervals of not more than 
fifty feet between, a T shape tile should be 
inserted upside down, and the stems 
brought up to the finished grade for water 
inlets. At frequent intervals throughout 
the growing season, the hose should be 
played into each of the inlets until the 
long tile pipe is filled with water, which will 
seep out between the joints and through 
the wall to the plant roots. 

A considerable variety of small shrubs 
and herbaceous plants will thrive in a wall. 
In making a selection keep in mind the 



particular effect desired. In some places 
it will be desirable to plant quite bushy 
things that will grow out some distance 
from the wall face; in others it will be 
better to keep the surface flat. Here con- 
tinuous gay color is the thing; there simple 
grays and greens are better. As a general 
principle it is well to have a variety of 
effects in rather broad masses, letting the 
bushy plants and more vigorous vines cover 
for twenty feet or so, then using the smaller 
plants which leave more of the stone work 
exposed. The planting next the wall at 
the top and bottom will help very much to 
get the desired effect. Vines especially, 
are important. Do not use the rampant 
growers where pains has been taken in 




Wall gardening and rock gardening are closely allied. 

in planting 



Copy Nature's methods 



building up the wall with soil, as they will 
cover everything and the extra care will 
have been wasted. The one exception, 
perhaps, is the Roxbury waxwork (Celaslrus 
articulatus, the Japanese species, is better), 
which always looks its prettiest when 
clambering over a stone wall. But this 
should be sparingly used. 

The best vine for delicate lacy garlands 
is the biennial Allegheny Vine (Adlumia 
cirrhosa). As it usually seeds itself, it 
may be considered among the perennial 
plants. Bear-berry (Arctostaphylos Uva- 
ursi) half vine, half shrubby perennial, 
should be much used. Its fine leaves are 
evergreen, and in time it will drop streamers 
three or four feet long down over the rocks. 
Don't lose patience if it does not succeed 



at once. Sometimes it takes much coaxing. 
Leucothoe Catesbcei, too, has evergreen 
leaves of particularly good texture and 
color, with flowers in March. It grows 
well in stone work, but likes a protected 
location anywhere north of New York. 

The evergreen Euonymus radicans and 
its varieties are too coarse growing for the 
wall garden. But there is a new Euonymus 
Kewensis with small leaves of a fine green 
that keeps neatly in place, and promises to 
be an acquisition for wall gardeners. 

Among the small shrubby evergreen 
plants, none is prettier than the sand 
myrtle (Leiophyllum buxifolium, var. pro- 
stratum is best), which is covered with 
diminutive pink flowers in spring and early 
summer. The Garland Flower 
(Daphne Cneorum) make a some- 
what heavier mat of good green 
with deliciously fragrant masses of 
strong pink flowers in spring, and 
scattered blossoms late in the 
summer. Aaron's Beard [Hyper- 
icum calycinum) has leathery ever- 
green leaves which are dark aboA e 
and whitish underneath with scat- 
tering flowers all summer. Hyper- 
icum Buckleyii is smaller and more 
delicate, making a fine tuft eight 
or ten inches high, with yellow 
flowers from July to September. 
Evergreen candytuft (Iberis sem- 
pervirens and Tenoriana) accommo- 
date themselves very well to a wall. 
Some of the wood mosses do very 
well between the rocks in shady 
places, but it is not easy to find 
them in the nurseries. The little 
plant Arenaria glabra looks much 
like a moss, and is very satis- 
factory. It has white flowers in 
July and August. 

The low growing evergreen phlox 
are excellent for wall garden use. 
Phlox divaricata, a very good light 
blue; P. subulata, var. alba, white; 
P. Stellaria, lavender, are perhaps 
the best. It is well to avoid the 
old-fashioned moss pink, as it 
usually turns out a vile magenta. 
Saponaria ocymoides, var. splendens 
is an extra good trailing plant, 
which takes hold quickly and for 
weeks in June and July is covered 
with pink flowers. At the same time the 
best of the small leaved rhododendrons 
(R. Carolinianum) is in flower of the 
same shade. They should be used to- 
gether, as the rhododendron does very well 
on the rocks. 

The sedums are probably the best known 
rock plants, and are worthy of their fame. 
Golden stonecrop (Sedum acre) has yellow 
flowers in the late spring. S. stoloniferum 
has reddish leaves, and adjusts itself 
very quickly and picturesquely to the 
rocks. S. Sieboldii makes a pleasant 
accent in the wall. 5. spectabile, the 
pink stonecrop, is more seen than the 
others, but is the least desirable, as the 
pink is too assertive and not particularly 
good. 



September, 19 14 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



41 



Butterfly weed {Asclepias tuber osa) is 
somewhat similar in habit, thought very 
much larger and coarser. In mid-summer 
its brilliant orange panicles are something of 
a color problem, but it deserves a place 
somewhere. The old-fashioned hen and 
chickens {Sempervivum tectorum) must not 
be forgotten. Looking like a tiny squat 
century plant, it never fails to interest. 

No more delicate yet easily grown plant 
can be found for the wall than Dicentra ex- 
imia, with flowers and lacy foliage all sum- 
mer. The small veronicas, too, are worth 
trying. V. rupestris and V. repens are 
creeping plants with showy flowers, the first 
blue, the second white, in May and June. 

Thrift is an old favorite, and is usually 
advised for wall and rock gardens. Experi- 
ence, however, shows that it dies in shabby 
brown patches, rarely giving the expected 
satisfaction. Armeria maritima, var. alba 
is the best. Neat grass-leaved tufts, like 
those of the thrift are occasionally desirable. 
Where a somewhat coarser growth can be 
used, try common garden chives. It is a 
nice little plant, and in the flower garden 
will attract pleased attention that ignorantly 
scorns it in the vegetable border. 

Gypsophila repens is another creeper, with 
white flowers in July. This reminds me of 
another member of the family, Gypsophila 
paniculata, known usually by the wretched 
title of baby's breath. Here, at last, is 
one plant which we prefer to think of by its 
latin name, which is charming. Its other 
popular title, chalk plant, is quite colorless 
by comparison. It grows rather too large to 
put in the wall. But planted at the foot its 
cloud of white flowers makes a most inter- 
esting foreground. Sea lavender (Statice 
latifolia) should be used in the same way. 



Three plants that are exceedingly im- 
portant for the spring time are gold dust 
(Alyssum saxatile and its varieties) rock 
cress (Arabis albida, A. alpina) and false 
rock cress (Aubretia deltoidea). They are 
stunning and may be used in quantities. 
If closely pruned immediately after flower- 
ing, gold dust will repay with a second, 
though more scattered flowering in the early 
Autumn. 

Several of the herbs make good wall gar- 
den subjects. Pre-eminent stand the thymes. 
They are easily grown, are neat and hand- 
some, and have a strong agreeable frag- 
rance. The smaller varieties are best for 
the wall. Old-fashioned mother of thyme 
(Thymus Serphyllum) is always satisfactory. 
Rosemary delights by association as much 
as because of sterling garden qualities. In 
the North it would rather die than endure 
our wretched winters, and needs coaxing to 
pull through. Put it in a sheltered, well 
drained place. Plant a few waldmeister 
(Asperula). Try a sprig of it as the Ger- 
mans do, instead of mint in a julep. 
Calamint (Calamintha alpina) is worth 
a trial. 

Be generous in your use of periwinkle 
(Vinca minor). It is the best of evergreen 
covers around rocks. Another good trailer 
is moneywort (Lysimachia Nummularia). 

Many of the more loose growing plants 
do nicely in the wall. Coral bells (Heuchera 
sanguinia) is a constant pleasure all sum- 
mer, as is the Carpathian harebell (Camp- 
anula Carpatica) . If you have a moist spot, 
forget-me-nots will do finely. The colum- 
bines flourish, especially the common Ameri- 
can red and yellow variety, which is about 
the prettiest. Iceland poppy (Papaver 
nudicaule) is a great favorite with the 



discerning and thrives between the rocks. 
The various crane's bills should be included, 
of which the common wild Geranium san^ 
guineum is as good as any. Leadwort 
(Plumbago Larpentce) succeeds in most 
places, and is well worth a trial because of 
the continuous blue flowers. The woolly 
yarrow (Achillea tomentosa) with yellow 
flowers in the summer, is useful and pretty. 

Occasionally put in a strawberry. You 
will be delighted with the way it hangs 
down the wall. The same is true of the 
old-fashioned perennial sweet peas (Lathyrus 
latifolius). Be sure to get a white or good 
pink variety of the latter, as most of them 
are just off color. 

In shady places many ferns and mosses 
do finely. The most interesting way to 
do is to collect them in the woods and try 
them out. 

There is one shrub which must not be 
omitted. Cotoneaster horizontalis, planted 
at the top, will fall in long delicate sprays, 
to form one of the most ornamental features 
of the garden. 

It is important to build the garden at 
the right time. The wall might succeed if 
started in Autumn. But the chances are 
that the unaccustomed plants would be 
loosened by frost and wind without the 
summer's growth in place, and many things 
would probably winterkill next the cold 
stones. The foundation should be started 
as soon as the frost is out of the ground 
in the spring. After that it is safe to 
build and plant the upper part of the wall 
as soon as convenient. It is better to have 
everything in place before the new growth 
is completed. Planted at that season, the 
roots have ample time before winter to 
get a firm foothold and to bind the loose soil. 



Build Yourself A Greenhouse — By F. F. Rockwell, 



Connec- 
ticut 



A MISTAKEN idea as to the cost 
keeps many persons from trying 
to put up even a small house. 
The ready-made patent framed 
greenhouses, with all the latest devices and 
niceties of construction, are worth what 
they cost; but the man who cannot afford 
one of them can put up a perfectly practical 
house at a figure that he can afford if he 
buys his own material and does his own 
work. A small greenhouse will pay as good 
dividends as the frames or the garden. 
Now is the ideal time of year to build. 

SIMPLEST KIND OP HOUSE 

The simplest type of greenhouse is the 
"lean-to." It is the cheapest and easiest 
to put up. It may be constructed against 
the south wall of the dwelling or some other 
building. Or it may be built into the 
veranda. It is often possible to heat a 
house of this kind with the same heating 
plant that is used for the home. We have 
to supply a south wall, the two ends, and 
the roof. Sometimes the south wall has 



a row of glass which is desirable, but not 
necessary. 

The walls may be made of either concrete 
or post-and-board construction. Which 
would be best to use will depend largely 
upon how difficult it is to get sand and 
gravel in your locality. Once done, how- 
ever, concrete will last "till the cows come 
home." If concrete is used the wall should 
be put down at least to the frost-line, and 
be four inches or more thick above ground. 
Use more cement in proportion to the sand 




Detached even-span house with pipe post and purlin 



and gravel than for ordinary walls. A 
mixture of i to i^ parts cement, 2 of sand, 
and 4 of gravel or broken stone will be 
right. For the post-and-board construction 
posts are put into the ground every four 
or five feet apart, and the wall built on the 
outside. Cedar is the best wood to use 
for the posts, but chestnut or some other 
local sort which does not rot quickly will 
answer the purpose. The corner posts 
must be square, and it is better to have the 
others so. The posts are carefully "lined 
up"; a layer of boards, preferably tongued 
and grooved, is put on; over these a layer 
or double layer of building paper; another 
layer of boards; building paper; and then 
shingles or siding. 

On top of the front wall is placed the 
"eave-plate" or sash-sill which forms the 
support for the lower ends of the sash 
bars (the long narrow bars which support 
the glass). At their upper ends the sash- 
bars are held in place by the "ridge." 
The ridge, in the case of a lean-to house, is 
fastened securely to the wall of the house 



42 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September. 1914 



against which the greenhouse is being built. 
If the sash bars for the roof are not over 
six or seven feet long they will be strong 
enough to support the glass without any 
bracing, or "purlines" as they are called, 
under them. For sash bars longer than 
that some support is necessary, and the 
strongest and most convenient thing to use 
is pipe, an inch in diameter being amply 
strong for a small house. Second hand 
pipe is perfectly good for the purpose. 
At the ridge or peak of the house there 
should be one or more hinged ventilators 
to provide for cooling the house on bright 
hot days. At each end of the house, in 
place of the sash-bar, an "end-bar" or gable- 
rafter is used. This has the shoulder for 
the glass on one side only, and is grooved 
out on the other so that the glass in the 
end or gable of the house can fit into it, 
making a tight, secure joint. The forms of 
the various kinds of pieces or members 
used may be seen from the cross-sections 
in any greenhouse material catalogue. 

Let us figure out just what is needed for a 
lean-to house, twenty feet long and ap- 
proximately ten wide. Suppose we can get 
7 feet of headroom on the wall against 
which we wish to build. Then we can 
figure on a height of four feet for the front 
wall, which will require 6-foot posts, as 
they should be set at least two feet into the 
soil. For the front wall then we will require 
five 6-foot posts; double boarding enough 
to go from a foot below the surface to 2^ 
feet up the posts (twice 3^ feet x 20 feet), 
or 140 feet; 20 feet each of 2 x 4" eave-plate 
and 2 x 6" sill; and ten fights of 16 x 24" 
double-thick glass. For the ends there 
will be required 4 9-foot posts; approxi- 
mately the same amount of boarding as 
for the front wall; 20 feet of 2 x 4" sill; 50 
feet of "side-bars" (to hold the glass); and 
60 square feet of glass. It is 
usually possible to pick up a 
second hand door of some local 
contractor, at a very low price ; or 
one may readily be constructed of 
boards and roofing 
paper or shingles. 



For the roof there will be required 20 
feet of ridge, 13 10-foot sash bars, 2 10-foot 
end bars; and 3 ventilating sash. A little 
may be saved on the ridge by having it 
sawed in two vertically, as it will support 
the sash bars just as well and fit more 
snugly against the side of the house. Get 
the style of sash bars known as "drip" 
bars — which means that they do not 
drip. If you get the ventilating sash made 
the right size you can easily put the glass 
in yourself. Each sash will require a 
"header," or cross piece between the sashes, 
where its lower edge rests. 

To support the middle of the sash-bars a 
wooden rafter and wood posts may be 
used, but a much more convenient and 
lasting support may be had by getting 
20 feet of 1 -inch pipe — second hand will do 
— and two 1 j-inch pipe posts six feet long. 
If two additional pipe posts are secured and 
placed near the ends of the house they will 
both strengthen the construction and help 
make a neat, strong support for the middle 
bench, to be put in later. 

Itemizing these things, and including 
the glass for roof and the fittings, etc., 
which will be required, we have the follow- 
ing list of materials. The cost will vary. 

1 have built a house at the figures given 
here, but they are low, and I was able to 
get some material second hand. 

300 feet of inch boards, for walls . . . $9.00 

9 posts (5 6-foot; 4 9-foot long) . . 3.00 

1,000 shingles, for walls 4.50 

6 boxes 24 x 16 in. double thick glass, $18 to 24 . 00 

10 feet 2x4 in. ridge .80 

13 10^-foot drip bars, for roof . . . 3.25 

2 io|-foot end bars, for roof .... .75 
50 foot side bars, random lengths, for 

gables 2 . 50 

20 feet 2 x 4-inch eaves plate . . . 1 . 60 

20 feet 2 x 6-in. sill . . . ... 2 . 20 

20 feet 2 x 4-in. sill, for gables . . . 1 . 60 

20 feet i-inch iron pipe, second hand 1 . 00 

4 6-foot ij-inch pipe posts . .. . . 1 . 50 

4 ij x i-inch split-T's 50 

15 pipe-straps, to fasten purlin to bars .25 

2 gable end-fittings for purlin ... .20 

3 ventilating sash, for 3 lights, glass . 3 . 00 
3 continuous headers for same ... .50 
6 hinges, with screws, for ventilators . . 75 

1 roll building paper 2 . 00 

75 lbs. putty, greenhouse 3 00 

Hardware, paint, and miscellaneous $5.00 to 10.00 



Cross section of house 20 ft. x 9 ft . 10 in., with 

one lj in. flow and five 1 in. return 

hot water pipes under 

each bench 




The posts, 
boards, shingles, 
and the build- 
ing paper may 
be had at a local 
dealer's. The other 
things should be 
ordered from a 
regular greenhouse 
material company. 
If you happen 
to live in a section 
where many of 
your friends and 
neighbors have 
gardens, it will 
probably pay you 
well to put up a 
larger house and 
grow extra plants 
to sell in the 





Ground plan of house 

spring. For a small practical house of 
this sort, two good forms of construction 
are shown in the accompanying cuts. 
The details of construction are much the 
same as those shown for the former house 
already described. Special fittings are 
made to use in connection with the pipe 
posts, frame, and supports, and there is 
no reason why one ordinarily skillful with 
tools cannot do the biggest part of the 
work of building a small house himself. 
In many parts of the house 
iron may be used in place of 
the wooden parts I have de- 
scribed. The cost is more, but 
repairs are eliminated. Before 
building a house of any size, 
you should get catalogues from 
some of the greenhouse com- 
panies and make yourself fam- 
iliar with the different methods 
of construction. 

No matter how small your 
house is, however, plan it care- 
fully in every detail before order- 
ing the material. The plan and 
list of material above should not; 
be used unless it fits in with 
your particular requirements. 

As you may buy the posts, 
boarding, shingles, etc., locally, 
you can get the work well under 
way without waiting for the 
other materials to arrive. Level 
off the site you have selected, 
and make your measurements 
carefully. To get the plan square, 
be sure that the diagonals, from 
opposite corners, are of exactly 
the same length. Mark the lines 
for the outsides and ends plainly 
by stretching stout cord or 
a garden line to stakes set 
a couple of feet beyond 
where each corner is to be, 
so that the points where 
the strings cross will in- 
dicate the exact point where 
it is desired to have the 
outside corners of the greenhouse. All 
the posts should be set in very firmly ; the 
best way is to pour concrete around the 
bases. Set the two corner posts first and 
line up the rest carefully with these. The 
best way is to have the posts a little 
longer than needed, and saw them off 
level after they are set. The 2x4 
inch eave plate can go into place next. 
And then, leaving just enough room for a 
light of glass to go in the 16-inch way, fit 
the 2x6 inch sill 16 inches below this, 




Detail of side wall 



September, 19 14 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



43 



mortising it out carefully to fit snugly about 
the posts. The bevel or shoulder in the sill 
should come just even with the outside of 
the posts, so that the latter will not be in 
the way of the glass, which may be put in, 
without any side bars, in a continuous 
row. The walls may then be constructed, 
fitting the boards snugly under the 2x6 
inch sill, and working down toward the 
ground. Put the ridge in place, being 
sure that it is very secure and makes a 
water-tight joint with the side of the house. 
(If this cannot be secured by the use of 
white lead, use a strip of roofer's tin.) Then 
mark off carefully on both ridge and eave 
the places for the sash-bars. Then start 
with one end-bar, and nail the bars into 
place, using finishing nails. Try every 
third or fourth bar with a light of glass to 
be certain that you are getting them spaced 
exactly right. The purlin, or pipe, which 
supports the sash bars does not have to be 
directly on the middle. In this lean-to, 
for instance, it comes a little to one side. 
Ascertain carefully, however, just where 
it is to come, and mark the bars on the 
bottom side with a chalk-line. Then, with 
the purlin clips, fasten the purlin into place. 
Put the pipe post supports in place, being 
careful to get them perpendicular and in 
line, and set the bottoms in concrete. Do 
not touch the posts while the concrete is 
setting, which will take two or three days, 
during which time the doors and gable 
bars may be put in place. All will then be 
ready for the glass. Put the ventilators 
on first. In putting in the glass you will 
notice that each light is slightly curved. 
Put the convex side up. Put in one com- 
plete row at a time, beginning at the eave- 
plate, and letting the glass come down just 
flush with the outer bevel. "Work up" 
a generous supply of putty until it is very 
soft and elastic. (If necessary add a little 
linseed oil.) Put on the putty so thick that 



the glass can be firmly imbedded in it, by 
pressing down hard along each edge of the 
glass. The lights should be lapped slightly 
— I to j of an inch — and held firmly in 
place by greenhouse glazing points. There 
are several types of these, but I like best 
the style known as Siebert's. After a 
complete row of glass is put in, scrape off 
the surplus putty on the under side. Go 
over the outside edges of the glass with 
linseed oil and white lead, mixed to the 
consistency of thick paint. 

One of the secrets in building a house 
that will last is to have the painting done 
thoroughly, and all crevices and holes 
filled with paint or white lead, and all joints 
white leaded. Go over the whole frame 
carefully after it is put up, before putting 
in any glass; and again after the glass is put 
in. Be sure to buy a good paint. If you 
do not know about it, write to your State Ex- 
periment Station for information. 

In the estimate for material I have not 
included benching. Two by four scantlings 
and second-hand or second-grade boards 
may be used; but as a general rule, the 
cheaper the bench put up the sooner it will 
have to be repaired. For a house like the 
lean-to described, if you can't afford a tile 
or slate bottom bench, I would recommend 
concrete for the bottom and sides of the 
walk, and iron pipe posts and cross-pieces 
for the benches. Split-fittings, especially 
designed for making bench-frames, may 
be bought quite cheaply, and with them 
such a frame may easily be put up. Then 
boards are used for the bottom of the 
bench, and may readily be replaced. 

If hot water or steam is used in the 
dwelling house, the heating of the small 
greenhouse is an easy matter. Where a 
hot-air system is used for the house, a 
small hot-water coil may be placed in the 
top of the fire-box, and connected with the 
heating pipes in the greenhouse. Two 



"coils" of pipe of five i-inch returns each, 
fed by two if -inch flows, would heat a 
lean-to, like that described, with hot water. 
The boiler should be placed as much lower 
than the piping as is practical — an ad- 
vantage already at hand when the green- 
house is heated from the house cellar. 
For the detached small greenhouse it is 
usually possible, if one will look around a 
bit, to pick up a small second-hand hot- 
water heater, and second-hand pipe, which, 
while not as neat and trim as new material 
would be, will give satisfaction as far as 
supplying heat is concerned. The heating 
system should be installed under the direc- 
tion of some competent person. A small 
house, especially if it is to be used only for 
starting plants in the spring, may be heated 
by a flue, although this method is not so 
reliable as hot water. In case a flue is 
used, the chimney should be built on top 
of the furnace. The flue should then be 
carried to the other end of the house, or 
near it, and back to the chimney. This 
provides a forced draft, as the air in the 
chimney is heated as soon as the fire is 
started, and sucks the hot air from the 
fire-box around through the flue after it. 
If a flue is used, care must be taken not to 
have any woodwork come in direct contact. 
If you must have bedding plants you 
need a greenhouse to raise them from cut- 
tings, or you must buy from a florist; and 
you can't begin to get as fine plants as you 
could raise yourself. Among this class of 
plants are coleus, geranium, alternanthera, 
canna, aceranthus, etc. You will be amazed 
at the contrast between the flowers and 
vegetables started out of doors and those 
sown inside — you get larger flowers, larger 
and healthier plants— which of course means 
more flowers — and you get a much longer 
flowering and fruiting period. Some plants 
that don't take kindly to transplanting are, 
of course, best sown in the open ground. 





Types of daffodils: on the left, Henry Irving, large trumpet yellow with rather narrow perianth rays. Compare with Empress, bicolor, on the right, which has very massive 

perianth segments. In the centre is the double flowered favorite Sulphur Pheonix 



Better Daffodils For American Gardens — By Sherman r. Duffy, 

AN AMATEUR'S EXPERIENCES WITH SOME OF THE BETTER, NEWER KINDS, 
AND SOME OLD FAVORITES THAT SHOULD BE IN UP-TO-DATE GARDENS 



Illi- 



IT IS a very difficult matter to tell the 
exact truth about daffodils. Not that 
there is anything corruptive to good 
morals in this alluring spring flower, 
but somehow or other it leads to exaggera- 
tion in description in proportion to the state 
of mind of its observer. Daffodils have 
an enthralling charm about them. They 
seize upon one's imagination and take 
possession. It is related that once upon a 
time a mother sent her daughter, who was 
named Proserpine, on an errand telling her 
to hurry right straight home as fast as she 
could. But Proserpine saw daffodils glow- 
ing golden in a meadow along her way, was 
beguiled into stopping to gather them, and 
straightway went to Hades and became 
queen of the underworld. This story is 
mythological but the daffy daffodilists are 
following the trail blazed by Proserpine 
in going to great lengths over daffodils. 
Daffodil catalogues begin to read like 
mythology. I have one before me which 
offers a single bulb of a trumpet variety 
to America for $250. The myth would be 
complete if somebody bought it. 

This $250 bulb travels exclusively on its 
shape. It is not a large flower nor any- 
thing extraordinary in color, according to 
the catalogue description which may be 
relied upon to omit nothing, but it has a 
most refined shape. American gardeners 
haven't reached the point where they will 
give $250 for a refined shape in a daffodil, 
one of the reasons being that a very, very 
few of them could afford to do so and a 
very very few of the few who could do so 



wouldn't because they couldn't see where 
they would get value received. It is a 
matter of education. 

There are hundreds of daffodils bearing 
different names and different prices which 
are so much alike that only an expert can 
tell the differences among them. A half 
of an inch difference in the diameter of the 
flower may make a difference of many 
dollars in price. Does it add to the beauty 
of the flower? That is a question which 
is open to debate. 

To the daffy daffodilist this half inch 
is as important a matter as the proverbial 
half inch on the end of the nose which, 
theoretically, is the greatest half inch in the 
world. For example take three daffodils 
which are almost identical in coloring, 
Emperor, Glory of Leiden, and Van 
Waveren's Giant. Emperor is big, Glory 
of Leiden is bigger, and Van Waveren's 
Giant is biggest of all. Emperor costs five 
cents a bulb, less than that when bought by 
the dozen. Glory of Leiden is fifteen cents 
the bulb but Van Waveren's Giant is one 
dollar and a quarter a bulb, and this is the 
lowest price at which it has been quoted. 

Van Waveren's Giant is Emperor exag- 
gerated, magnified a diameter. It is a huge 
daffodil, the largest of them all. To my 
mind it is not so beautiful as Emperor. Glory 
of Leiden, the intermediate in this trio, has 
a character all its own on account of its up- 
standing flower and widely flaring trumpet. 

Emperor, well flowered, is about three 
inches in diameter. Van Waveren is five. 
Glory of Leiden about three and a half. 

44 



The principal factors that go to make up a 
first class daffodil are beauty and grace of 
form, size, purity of color. One daffodil 
may be notable for its fine form and grace- 
ful beauty but be lacking in size. Another, 
which is all that can be desired in size, is 
quite likely to be lacking in gracefulness. 
And with these two requisites, there may 
still be something lacking in the way of 
color. Another factor is the quality of the 
flower. Some daffodils have much more 
durability than others. The perianth will 
last as long as the trumpet in one variety, 
while in another the perianth divisions 
wither while the trumpet still is fresh. 

However, when it comes to growing 
daffodils outdoors as garden flowers the 
factor that is more important than any of 
these just mentioned is — Will it grow? 
Has it a good constitution? Will it remain 
vigorous and multiply? Will the flowers 
hold their color? Here is where the 
difficulty in telling the truth about daffodils 
comes in. Many of the new and expensive 
daffodils are not good garden flowers. 
Many others are excellent subjects. In 
buying them we have only the word of the 
originators who have grown them abroad. 
This article, the writer hopes, will encourage 
those who have tried some of the newer 
daffodils to send their experiences to the 
editor of The Garden Magazine in order 
that a list of good garden daffodils may be 
made up. A daffodil may succeed ad- 
mirably in one locality while in another it is 
a failure. We must learn the likes and 
dislikes of the bulbs. 



September, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



45 



The following notes should be prefaced 
by a statement of soil conditions. The 
soil in which I grow my daffodils is light, 
a mixture of black earth and silver sand. 
The bed has been well worked for several 
years, manure being trenched in on several 
occasions. The bed is given a dressing of 
fertilizer in midsummer after the bulbs have 
died down. The fertilizer is composed 
of bone meal and sulphate of potash 
mixed ioo pounds of bone meal to 25 
pounds of sulphate. This is spread 
thinly and hoed in. Another and 
heavier dressing is given early in October 
and hoed in. The bulbs are grown be- 
tween rows of peonies, the red stems 
of the peonies forming a pleasing con- 
trast to the blossoms. Later the foliage 
shades the ripening bulbs. 

Here follow some notes on my exper- 
ience with these gems for spring bloom, 
and which should be planted as soon as 
possible now, that is to say plant daf- 
fodils just as quickly as you can get them 
from the dealer. Every day's growth 
before winter means increased vigor in 
flowering time. 

YELLOW TRUMPETS 

King Alfred. The finest pure yellow 
trumpet daffodil and costing a dollar a 
bulb ! A huge flower of bright, golden 
yellow. Grows nearly two feet tall. 
Early- Broad petalled with a diameter 
of 4f to 5 inches. Trumpet very wide 
at the brim with reflex of about a half 
inch, gracefully rolled back. Edge of 
trumpet beautifully fringed or crimped. 
Not reliable in all situations. Prefers 
rather heaw moist soil. In lighter 



soils it must be watered liberally and can- 
not be expected to attain its finest pro- 
portions and is not a certain bloomer. 
A magnificent pot plant. A hybrid 
inheriting its weakness for moist, heavy 
soil. 

Maxunus, the darkest, deepest yellow 
of the trumpets but is a shy bloomer 





Conspicuus, the most popular of the Barri group, 
is shorter than in Incomparabilis 



King Edward VII, a good representative oi the newer poeticus 
varieties: large, massive with showy shallow cup 



except in heavy wet soil. Will 
not flourish in an ordinary 
garden. 

Van Waveren's Giant. Mid- 
season. The "prize beef" of 
daffodils and suggesting the fat 
cattle and fat chrysanthemums 
of fall shows. The giant of the 
trumpet section. A strong, 
sturdy grower, with blooms like 
an Emperor magnified. Five 
inches across. Perianth light 
yellow, trumpet bright yellow. 
Leaves very wide and heavy. 
Attains a height of two and a 
half feet when at its best, some- 
times close to three feet. Towers 
above other daffodils. Lacks 
the refinement and graceful 
beauty of the smaller trumpets. 

Cornelia, a very handsome, 
vigorous growing all yellow 
trumpet with big flowers and a 
fine flanged trumpet. Some 
catalogues call it an improved 
Emperor, but it is quite differ- 
ent. The yellow is of a pleasing 
light tone. It grows about 
eighteen inches tall. A very 
fine trumpet. Increases ra- 
pidly. 

Beethoven, a cheap daffodil 



with a rather thin perianth but a fine 
trumpet. The petals are narrow and lack 
substance. The trumpet is long and nar- 
row but beautifully slashed and crimped at 
the brim. It is a vigorous grower and 
makes a fine display. Early. 

Henry Irving, a cheap early deep yellow 
daffodil but a doubtful grower. Does not 
flourish for me. Good for only one sea- 
son, then dwindles. 

Shakespeare, advertised in some Amer- 
ican bulb catalogues as a new seedling 
which it is not. It is more than ten 
years old. A yellow trumpet about a 
week later than Golden Spur, remark- 
able for the length of the trumpet. 
Perianth weak in texture and the bulb 
has not proved of strong constitution 
with me. Did not increase and 
dwindled away in three seasons. 

Golden Spur, the earliest to bloom, 
golden ' yellow with a finely slashed 
trumpet brim. Absolutely reliable, and 
a quick increaser. A garden standby. 
Emperor, the oldest yellow trumpet 
in general cultivation and still hold- 
ing its own as one of the very best 
garden daffodils. Pale yellow perianth, 
bright yellow trumpet. Very suscep- 
tible to cultivation and the excellence 
of the bloom is in direct ratio. Varies 
from an inch and a half to three. Fails 
only when allowed to become too 
crowded. 

Golden Bell, another handsome and 
vigorous very early bright yellow trum- 
pet. Flowers have a graceful drooping 
habit. 

Glory of Leiden, a most independent, 
stocky looking daffodil that always 




The cup 



Sir Watkin, the sturdy representative of the rncomparabilis 
type with medium sized cup 



46 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 1914 



seems to point its huge flaring trumpet 
directly at you. The trumpet seems a little 
out of proportion to the perianth. Needs 
to be lifted every two years to be kept 
vigorous in my garden. Not as vigorous as 
Emperor and deteriorates rapidly if left 
to itself for more than two years. 

Obvallaris, the Tenby daffodil, an old 
timer and an old reliable in the garden. 
Early. Deep yellow. One of the cheapest 
daffodils but one of the surest for massing 
in the spring border. 

BICOLOR TRUMPETS 

Wear dale Perfection, another dollar a 
bulb giant. Worth the price. A huge 
cream white perianth, and pale yellow 
trumpet with strikingly serrated edge. 
About four and a half inches in diameter. 
Petals very broad and overlap. About 
twenty inches high with fine foliage but 
increases very slowly. It is more than forty 
years old and still high priced on this ac- 
count. A fine garden plant and a beauty 
indoors. Well worth growing. 

Victoria, more vigorous than Empress 
with me and a finer flower all around. 
Petals broad and overlapping, creamy white, 
with fine bold yellow trumpet. 

Mrs. Walter T. Ware, a sturdy bicolor 
flowering earlier than Victoria. Not as 
graceful a flower as Victoria but finely 
formed. Fine for succession. 

Madame Plemp, a bicolor blooming at 
the same time as Victoria but of quite 
different character. Instead of the smooth 
overlapping petals it has twisted petals 
and a longer trumpet. It is very reliable 
with me and strong grower. 

Empress, not reliable for more than a 
season with me. Begins to dwindle, and 
bulbs break up. 

WHITE TRUMPETS 

Mme. de Graajf, one of the handsomest of 
all the trumpets. Flourishes in sandy 
soil and increases rapidly. One of the 
surest spring displays. The one sure 
blooming big white trumpet within the 
reach of an ordinary purse. 

Mrs. H. D. Betteridge, called an improved 
Mme. de Graaff. The petals are a little 
wider, the trumpet a little longer and 
paler and it becomes more nearly an all 
white daffodil than Mme. de Graaff. Has 
grown well for one year for me. A very 
beautiful daffodil but by no means dis- 
places Mme. de Graaff. 

Mrs. Thompson, a smaller and earlier 
white trumpet than Mme. de Graaff but 
with me not so robust, although it is 
reputed to be one of the best growers among 
these daffodils. The trumpet is more 
deeply frilled than that of Mme. de Graaff. 

WHITE INCOMPARABLES 

Lady Margaret Boscawen, this is the place 
where the daffy daffodilist begins to throw 
fits. The best description of this magnifi- 
cent daffodil I think is to say that it is a 
white Sir Watkin. At least that gives 
an idea, for most gardeners have grown or 
seen the fine yellow Sir Watkin. Lady 



Margaret is a fine big short trumpet with 
white petals, and a flaring bright yellow 
cup. It is the most graceful and perfectly 
formed daffodil I ever grew. It seems to be 
of strong constitution and vigorous, although 
I have grown it only two seasons. It is 
still rather expensive, fifty cents a bulb, 
but well worth it. 

Lucifer, not so devilishly handsome as its 
name might indicate. In fact to my way of 
thinking it doesn't quite live up to speci- 
fications. Its chief beauty is its long, narrow, 
fluted cup of orange scarlet, a gorgeous bit 
of color. The petals are disappointing. 
They are long and narrow and not of very 
substantial character. However, the bril- 
liant cup makes it well worth growing. 

Lulworth or Lulworth Beauty, another 
red cup and to my mind a handsomer 
daffodil than Lucifer although not so 
bright. It opens pale yellow and fades to 
a creamy white, the whole flower having a 




Irene, representing the Poetaz group, a hybrid of the 
tender tazetta and the hardy poeticus groups. Very 
fragrant and hardy generally 

slight droop. The petals are wider than 
in Lucifer. The cup is bright red although 
the brightness fades when the sun strikes 
it. Both Lulworth and Lucifer seem to be 
good growers. 

YELLOW INCOMPARABLES 

Homespun, a yellow rival of Lady Mar- 
garet Boscawen and even more perfectly 
formed. It is almost too faultless. A 
glorious big yellow flower, with heavy 
overlapping petals and a widely expanded 
crown or short trumpet. A striking flower 
and one of its finest qualities is its durabil- 
ity. It is good for two weeks. I have 
grown it two seasons and it seems strong 
and sturdy. It would be a real calam- 
ity if Homespun and Lady Margaret 
Boscawen should prove to be poor garden 
flowers. 

Firelight, is a highly colored little daf- 
fodil that is sure to be popular when better 



known because of the gorgeous mass of 
color it can furnish in the early spring. 
The petals are bright yellow and the cup is 
orange stained and streaked with vivid 
orange red. 

Beauty, is fairly well known but an ex- 
cellent garden plant. It is a clear yellow 
with a well formed flower that lasts well. 
The long cup edged with orange adds to 
its beauty. 

Autocrat, another reliable garden daffodil, 
all yellow, and well set up. It likes good 
treatment and the quality of the flowers 
varies accordingly. 

Princess Mary, a very pretty daffodil 
noted for its flaring orange stained cup 
but as a garden plant it is of little value. 
At least, that is my experience. I have 
to plant the Princess every year if I want 
a display. This daffodil seems to be 
dyspeptic by nature, weak constitutioned 
and prone to die without adequate pro- 
vocation. It cannot be induced to make 
a decent leaf growth and no daffodil can 
survive without good foliage. It is one 
of the parents of a vast quantity of very 
beautiful hybrids and it is to be regretted 
that many of the hybrids inherit the weak- 
ness of Princess Mary. It makes a very 
handsome pot plant indoors. 

Sir Watkin, the first of the giant in'com- 
parables to become a garden favorite and 
a thoroughly reliable and altogether satis- 
factory big yellow short trumpet. 

BARRII 

Conspicuus, the one sure daffodil I have 
discovered in this section. Absolutely 
the hardiest daffodil I ever encountered. 
Will stand any treatment and give good • 
bloom. One of the "can't kill " plants. 

Circlet, beautiful but transitory. Ex- 
pensive luxury and seems sure to die 
in the garden. Won't make leaves. A 
magnificent big round white flower with a 
flat cup edged with scarlet. 

Sequin, another flat cup, sure to die. 
Several catalogues omit it this year. 
One of the Princess Mary-poeticus 
hybrids formerly classified as Englehearti 
but now included as Barri. Sequin has 
white petals with a flat plaited yellow cup 
lying like a gold coin in the centre of the 
flower. Another weakling is 

Cresset, likewise sure to die according to 
my experience. 

These new Barri daffodils have proved a 
great disappointment. Perhaps they will 
grow in heavy soil. I should like to know 
the experience of other daffodil growers 
with them. 

I had a number of Princess Mary- 
poeticus ornatus seedlings which had reached 
blooming size and they were showing pro- 
mise of developing some fine things. A 
hot two weeks toward the close of May 
finished them. One notable exception is 

Firebrand, a very striking flower, petals 
cream or ivory white with a glittering 
fire red cup. It was one of the most 
brilliant daffodils in my collection. The 
leaf growth was fairly good and I have 
hopes this one will survive. 



September, 1 9 1 -i 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



47 



LEEDSI 

A class containing some unusually fine 
garden flowers, in fact I have never had a 
failure with a Leedsi. They are all white 
petalled and very much alike in coloring 
but they have a style and individuality 
about them not found in other sections. 
They are the most delicately tinted of all 
the daffodils and have one great advantage, 
a delicate fragrance inherited from their 
poeticus blood. At the top of the fist as a 
garden flower I should place 

White Lady, a daffodil of sterling worth 
and having almost every good quality. 
It is big but not too big. It is beautifully 
formed and gracefully carried. The cup 
is beautifully ruffled and crimped and 
is cream colored. It has a fine fragrance. 
It looks delicate but is a robust hardy sub- 
ject that need cause no worry. 

White Queen is larger and much more 
expensive. It is a magnificent daffodil 
something after the general style of Sir 
Watkin. The petals are broad and smooth. 
The cup is unusually large, flaring and 
frilled. It is a haughty looking showy 
flower but slow to increase. It was intro- 
duced fifteen years ago but still retails 
around a dollar and a quarter the bulb. 
I could be perfectly happy with White 
Lady if I didn't have White Queen. 

Waterwitch is another type of Leedsi. 
It is one of the most delicately graceful 
daffodils I ever saw. The flowers have 
long stems and are rather pendulous, the 
petals being long and the cup less imbri- 
cated than in many others of the class. It 
is very floriferous. The entire flower is 



creamy white. Some growers say it has 
a pinkish tint at sunset or in the twilight 
although I never could detect it. 

Ariadne is a very durable flower and 
has a peculiar yellowish cast. The cup is 
especially fine, being large, well expanded 
and beautifully frilled. It is a fairly large 
flower and an excellent garden plant. 

Mrs. Langtry, I believe, multiplies faster 
than any other daffodil. It furnishes 
quantities of flowers making up in quantity 
what it lacks in quality. Beside White 
Lady, Ariadne, Waterwitch or other modern 
Leedsis it is a poor thing indeed. 

Minnie Hume, another very cheap var- 
iety, is valuable because it is one of the 
parents of the fine race of giant Leedsi. 
It seeds very readily and scores of magni- 
ficent flowers are the result of crossing 
Minnie Hume and Mme. de Graaff. Any- 
one is reasonably certain to secure seed from 
this cross and it is interesting and well 
worth while to try to raise seedlings. 

POETICUS 

To an ordinary gardener, there may be 
distinctions but precious little difference 
among the varieties in this class. They are 
the very- hardiest of all the narcissus. The 
chief distinctions are in the season of flower- 
ing, roundness of the perianth, the shade and 
quantity of-red in the edge of the eye, some 
of the newer kinds being solid red eyed. 

I have grown five kinds, King Edward 
VII, Horace, Chaucer, Glory, and the old 
fashioned poeticus, early and late. Of these 

King Edward VII is the strongest grower 
and most showy flower. It is much larger 
than the type and a handsome plant. 



Chaucer comes earlier than King Edward, 
has a larger eye edged with brighter red. 

Horace is late. It is a big poeticus and 
its chief distinguishing mark is a brilliant 
all red eye. 

Glory is another late poeticus something 
after the style of King Edward VII but 
with more regular petals and nearer to a 
circular flower. 

POETAZ 

Twice I have bought collections of this 
class but in each case was disappointed 
with one exception. Poetaz Elvira flourishes 
with all the vigor of a true poeticus, multi- 
plies freely and makes a fine display. 
Klondike survived one year, gave poor 
flowers and died. Others did not survive 
the winters of Illinois. It is possible that 
the soil does not suit them. 

DOUBLE DAEFODILS 

A reader of this magazine wrote me some 
time ago asking how to make Sulphur 
Phoenix and the double poeticus bloom. 
Frankly, I don't know how. I have come 
to regard their blooming as an act of Prov- 
idence. If Providence sends a cold wet 
spring, they are reasonably certain to 
furnish good bloom. If Providence pro- 
vides a warm spring and only fairly wet 
they are sure to bud and the buds are sure 
to blast. However, concerning the double 
poeticus, it does not do well in light soil. 
Sulphur Phoenix likewise wants a heavy 
soil but even then is a mean subject about 
developing its blooms in this section. 

The double Van Sion is good for two 
years or so and then turns green for me. 



Grapes In Everyone's Own Small Garden — By J. R. Matte™, 

QUALITY VARIETIES SELECTED TO FIT THE DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE COUNTRY 



Mary- 
land.. 



ON THE smallest bit of ground 
you can grow enough grapes of 
the finest quality to keep your 
family eating from August, when 
they first ripen, till 
after Christmas, and 
even then the long 
keeping sorts may not 
begin to fail. They 
are particularly suited 
to home gardens be- 
cause they may be 
grown about the 
edges, on trellises or 
on the fence, and be- 
cause proper varieties 
will give you fruit no 
matter much how 
severe the winters or 
how bad the spring 
frosts. 

Good vines will live 
and bear longer than 
their planter lives, 
and they begin to 
yield the second or 



third year. If spring frosts kill the first 
blossoms most varieties will put out a 
second bloom. In cold sites plant the 
grapes on the sunny side of a stone wall 




A single grape vine may be counted upon to yield from thirty to eighty bunches every season 



or a building, and in your garden any- 
where set them so they get all the sun- 
shine there is. Planting can be done in 
fall or spring, as you like. 

It is said that 
grapes prefer a loose 
and fertile loam but I 
should not hesitate to 
plant them in any 
garden without re- 
gard to its type of soil. 
I would give the 
ground a thorough 
working, and feed the 
plants a little at 
planting time. The 
roots of the vines 
ought to be set shal- 
low — the lower tips 
no more than six 
inches beneath the 
surface. About eight 
feet apart is the pro- 
per distance, though 
this may be reduced 
to six feet in cramped 



48 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 1914 



gardens, and increased to ten feet where 
there is unlimited space. 

The amount of grapes that an average 
family will use will be about one hundred 
pounds, and this quantity can be grown on 
about eight vines. If you wish to count the 
quantity by bunches, each good vine should 
produce from thirty to eighty of them every 
season. Eight vines can be grown about 
the corners and edges of an eighth-acre fruit 
garden without taking much space from 
other fruits. In a larger garden, say of a 
half acre or an acre, where the family 
likely will give away or sell more fruit than 
it uses, plant more vines. Twenty vines 
should produce 250 pounds of grapes. 
This is a large quantity when it comes to 
eating them, even over a four month period. 

There are grape varieties that reach 
perfection in every part of America and you 
should select carefully from the hundreds of 
varieties available the half dozen or less that 
will grow best in your garden and yield the 
biggest crops. You should select varieties 
also on your own preferences, on the colors 
you like best, on ripening dates, and above 
all, on high quality. There is little excuse 
for planting a low quality variety when a 
high quality one will thrive just as well in 
your garden. 

The varieties in the following table are 
selected because they succeed in the sections 
designated, and because they, in general, are 
superior to all others. They are grapes 



suited for eating, not wine making, unless 
that is incidental. A garden is too small 
to grow enough grapes to make any wine 
worth the trouble. Any of these varieties 
are good, but for planting in your garden I 
recommend that you select from the list 
those credited with the highest quality. 

Some of the varieties are noted for long 
keeping qualities. Among these are Salem, 
Vergennes, Agawam, Brighton, Wilder, 
Catawba, Lindley, Herbert, and Goethe. 
The varieties described as having pulpy 
flesh are better than the tender, juicy sorts 
for cooking into preserves and butters. 
For eating raw the juicy sorts usually are 
most liked. In selecting varieties take a 
thought as to whether you likely will culti- 
vate and feed and spray your fruit garden 
as it should be. If you will, you need 
have no fear of planting the finest possible 
varieties. But if you have doubts about 
the care your garden will receive, it might 
be wise to choose such varieties of grapes 
as Concord and Moore's Early and Niagara, 
which are known to yield well even when 
left pretty much to " hoe their own row." 

It may be asked why, when high quality 
sorts are so desirable in the home gar- 
den, the list includes Concord, Moore's 
Early, Niagara, and other varieties that are 
marked poor or only fair in quality. The 
reasons are that in the far South these, with 
two or three only of the high grade varieties, 
are the only ones that succeed, and that in 



VARIETIES THAT THRIVE, IN GENERAL, FROM TEXAS TO NEW BRUNSWICK. AND THAT BEAR 

WELL WITH LEAST CARE 



NAME 


color 


FLAVOR 


FLESH . 


GENERAL 
QUALITY 


RIPE 


REMARKS 


Delaware 


Red 


Sugary, 
musky 


Juicy, tender 


Very best 


Midseason 


With rich soil and good 
care a heavy cropper 


Brighton 


Red 


Sweet 


Juicy, tender 


Very fine 


Midseason 


Best south of Vermont 


Diamond 


White 


Fine 


Juicy, tender 


Very fine 


Midseason 


Productive, healthy and 
vigorous 


Niagara 


White 


High, musky 


Melting pulp 


Fair 


Midseason 


Sure to grow and bear 


Worden 


Black 


Rich 


Coarse 


Fair 


Early 


Better than Concord 


Moore's Early 


Black 


Fair 


Pulpy 


Poor 


Very early 


Productive on rich soil; 
best south of Vermont 


Concord 


Black 


Sweet 


Pulpy 


Poor 


Midseason 


Sure to grow and yield 



VARIETIES THAT IN GENERAL ARE SUITED TO CONDITIONS PREVAILING FROM TENNESSEE 
TO VERMONT. SOME REQUIRE SPECIAL ATTENTION TO YIELD WELL 



NAME 


COLOR 


FLAVOR 


FLESH 


GENERAL 
QUALITY 


RIPE 


REMARKS 


LlNDLEY 


Red 


Rich, aromatic 


Tender pulp 


Splendid 


Midseason 


Unusual and good flavor 


Agawam 


Red 


Rich, aromatic 


Tender, juicy 


Very good 


Very late 


Splendid under good 
conditions 


Vergennes 


Red 


Sweet 


Juicy pulp 


Fine 


Midseason 


Satisfactory bearer 


Campbell's Early 


Black 


Sweet 


Coarse 


Good 


Very early 


Don't plant north of Pa. 


Salem 


Red 


Rich 


Tender pulp 


Good 


Midseason 


Dependable bearer 


Eclipse 


Black 


Sweet, rich 


Tender, juicy 


Good 


Early 


Heavy bearer 


Banner 


Red 


Sweet, rich 


Tender pulp 


Good 


Late 


New variety; plant from 
Maryland to Ten- 
nessee 


Massasoit 


Red 


Very sweet 


Tender, 
aromatic 


Fine 


Very early 


Moderately productive 


Catawba 


Red 


Rich 


Pulpy 


Best* 


Very late 


Don't plant north of 
Maryland 


Green Mountain 


White 


Sweet, rich 


Tender pulp 


Very best 


Very early 


The best early white 
variety 


B ARRY 


Black 


Delicate, rich 


Tender 


Fine 


Late 


Large and fine 


Herbert 


Black 


Rich 


Coarse 


Fair 


Early 


Hardy and productive 


Wilder 


Black 


Good 


Pulpy 


Good 


Midseason 


Good growth and yield 


POCKLINGTON 


White 


Rich, sweet 


Rich, coarse 


Fine 


Late 


Reliable in growth and 
yield 



VARIETIES TO PLANT IN SOUTH FLORIDA AND TEXAS — DETAILS AND CHARACTERISTICS NOT 
NEEDED HERE: Of native varieties, Goethe only. Of Muscadine varieties, Meisch, James. Scuppernong 

VARIETIES FOR CALIFORNIA AND OREGON: Delaware, Brighton, Diamond, Green Mountain, Tokay, Black 
Hamburg, and Thompson's Seedless 

VARIETIES FOR GROWING UNDER GLASS ANYWHERE: Without heat, Black Hamburg. With heat, Black 
Hamburg, Bowood Muscat, Chasselas Musque and Muscat of Alexandria 



any section it may be desirable to plant 
varieties that will yield heavy crops of fair 
fruit in rather poor soil, or, as noted above, 
with little attention. The poor and fair 
quality sorts named are very vigorous, 
very healthy, and very dependable bearers. 

You will have little trouble getting the 
right varieties and grades of young vines 
from nurserymen. Don't let the nursery- 
men select the varieties for your garden, 
however, because an examination of many 
catalogues shows several of the better kinds 
missing from lists of many firms, and some- 
times new and unproved sorts are offered 
with high endorsement. These home 
planters should not be made to test at their 
own expense. 

For extremely cold localities in Canada 
and elsewhere select the ordinary varieties 
named in the list and lay them down after 
the fruit comes off each fall. This you 
should do the first fall as well as later. 
You can lay down and cover the dozen or 
so vines in a garden with half an hour's 
work. The practice is a good one in the 
colder sections of the Allegheny Mountains, 
or anywhere that the thermometer drops 
lower than minus fifteen degrees. 

In California few of the native American 
sorts are grown, and in Oregon they take 
second place. The bigger, richer European 
sorts, that belong to another family or type 
of grape, and that are too tender for grow- 
ing north of Florida and Southern Texas 
in the East, are the ones given first place. 
Among these Tokay or Flame Tokay, 
Black Hamburg and Thompson's Seedling 
are the table grapes for the West. Other 
varieties such as Malaga, Sultana, White' 
Muscat, and Muscatel are grown in com- 
mercial vineyards especially in California, 
because of their superior shipping qualities. 

But these European sorts do not succeed 
in Florida and Southern Texas as well as 
Meisch and James and Scuppernong. No 
detailed description of any of these varieties 
is necessary because there is no doubt about 
their adaptabilities in the sections named, 
and there are no other varieties to compete 
with them. They are of the finest quality 
and flavor. If it is desired to grow those 
sorts farther north than middle Florida, 
it can be done under glass, either with or 
without artificial heat. If without heat, 
Black Hamburg is the best sort, but all the 
others, together with the additional varieties 
named in the table, grow equally well with 
heat in a glass house anywhere. Concord, 
Moore's Early, Goethe and other varieties 
on the list succeed to a certain extent as 
far South as northern Florida and in Texas. 

If your grapes have been troubled with 
the grape berry moth, pick off all infected 
berries and plow under all fallen leaves, 
either now or in the spring. Spray with 
arsenate of lead, three pounds per barrel, 
or one-half pound of Paris green, applied 
with bordeaux mixture, to which a soap 
"sticker" has been added. Make the first 
spraying before the blossoms open, the 
second as the grapes finishblooming,andthe 
third early in July. The clusters, as soon 
as set, might also be protected by bagging. 




Lawn Making Made Easy— By h. w. Doyle, 

TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE FALL SEASON FOR WORKING OVER THE 
NEW LAWN, AND HAVE THE GRASS ALREADY GROWING BY SPRING 



kHE lawn 
is such a 
common 
t h ing. 
the making of 
the ordinary 
medium-sized lawn is no small man's 
job. It requires considerable skill and 
hard labor. The much practiced method 
of ''leveling down" the subsoil excavated 
to form a cellar is responsible for many 
woeful failures. A good lawn cannot be 
established on subsoil, because it is sour, 
lacks humus, nitrogen and other elements 
of fertility, and needs the mellowing effects 
of the weather. It pays to put the subsoil 
underneath, where it belongs. There is 
just one way to do it, and that is to scrape 
off the surface soil to a depth of eight or 
ten inches; then, when the subsoil comes 
from the cellar it may be evenly spread out 
and the top replaced on top. 

With large lawns not affected by cellar 
excavation, or where the subsoil is hauled 
away, ordinary methods of soil preparation 
are sufficient. 

Nothing makes more for a spotted con- 
dition of the lawn than depressions or 
basins in which water will stand after heavy 
showers, and in the winter to freeze and 
winter-kill the grass. Consequently the 
surface should slope in all directions from 
the house, and on poorly drained soils, nat- 
urally cold and heavy, it may be necessary 
to tile drain in order to bring out that 
bright green appearance of the lawn which 
is so gratifying. Three-inch tile 
may be laid in the fall three or four 
feet deep in lines twelve to sixteen 
feet apart. 

After clearing off sticks, stones, 
stumps and rubbish, and under- 
draining if necessary, the land 
should receive its rough grade, that 
is, graded to the general lines or 
contour desired. 

For small areas the contour 
should be simple, and more or less 
uniform and level. A perfectly 
flat grade is very unnatural, and 
gives the impression of limited 
space. A rounded and curved 
outline is much more natural and 
beautiful; the convex surface tend- 
ing to give the idea of increased 
area, while the concave surface 
seems to shorten the distance. The 
most pleasing results are probably obtained 
by grading to a curved line, slightly con- 
vex, running from the base of the building 
to the outer edge of the lot. A man with a 
"good eye" can often grade a small lawn 
without the aid of instruments, but if a 
craftsmanlike job is desired it is best to 
use a carpenter's or mason's level, a straight 
edge, stakes and lines. 

Having in mind the general outline to 
which it is intended to grade, select points 
over the area and at regular intervals drive 



rows of stakes. By laying the straight 
edge from stake to stake one can determine 
their comparative heights by the use of 
the level. Fasten near the tops of and 
stretch the line or string between the stakes 
and drive each stake so that its top will 
correspond with the surface line, thus show- 
ing the necessary depth to fill or excavate. 
In some places holes will have to be dug 
and the stakes driven to the desired depth. 
Remove the line and level with a team and 
scraper, cutting down mounds and filling 
depressions. Then spread evenly over the 
surface any top soil which may have been 
taken to one side. 

Any soil with the right amount of humus, 
fertility and drainage will grow a good 
lawn. The other parts of the garden can 
be replanted from year to year, while the 
lawn is a permanent institution. It is 
well, then, to see that the soil is thoroughly 
fertilized. A large supply of humus to 
absorb and hold moisture is necessary if the 
grass is to withstand summer drouths. 
Humus can be bought "ready for use," or 
it can be grown. A very good way is to 
turn under stable manure at the rate of 
twenty-two horse wagon loads to the acre 
in the spring, and, delaying the seeding of 
the lawn for some months, or even a 
year, sow cowpeas, soy beans or some- 
thing similar. Turn these under in the 
fall, at which time also give a top dress- 
ing of thirty bushels of air-slacked lime 
to the acre. 

If it is intended to wait until the follow- 





A good start is essential, 
around on the surface. 



Be sure that the soil from the cellar is 
Either remove it or cover with good top 



ing year to seed, allow the soil to stand 
throughout the winter in a rough lumpy 
state, so that the frost may have a chance 
to pulverize and mellow it. Whether the 
grass is planted in the spring or fall the soil 
should be thoroughly harrowed and kept 
in a fine loose condition, allowing no weeds 
to get a start, until the time of sowing. It 
is a good plan to harrow in four or five 
hundred pounds of bonemeal to each acre 
just before planting. 

Now as to fall or spring planting: there 

49 



are ardent advo- 
cates of each, and 
no general rule can 
be laid down. What 
is best in one sec- 
tion may not do 

at all in another. The latitude, rain- 
fall, temperature and so on — the climate 
— are important factors in such matters. 
It has been my experience in Kansas, 
and I believe it is true in all places of 
similar climate and conditions, that lawns 
are easiest and best established in early 
fall. Here the hot sun and often pro- 
tracted rainfall of mid-summer have an 
injurious effect on young and tender grass 
plants. They do not soon enough acquire 
sufficient root systems to penetrate to the 
more moist soil beneath. Whereas seed 
sown in very late August or early Septem- 
ber is just in time to get the full benefit of 
fall rains. Under other conditions, where 
rainfall is sufficient during the months of 
July and August, one can get as good if not 
better stand by planting in early spring 
when the peach trees blossom. If the 
ground can be prepared in the fall before 
freezing a very good stand may often be 
obtained by sowing in the winter on the 
snow, which washes the seed into the earth 
to germinate at the earliest possible time 
in the spring. 

The passerby should see a harmonious 
whole, a pretty picture, rather than have 
his attention diverted to curious oddities or 
the disintegrated parts of a whole. Walks 
and drives should be as few and 
simple as possible, and the reason 
for every curve apparent. Have 
them as narrow as practical con- 
venience and relative proportion 
with the size of the area will per- 
mit. It is well to have them sev- 
eral inches below the surrounding 
level of the lawn in order that they 
may be less conspicuous. All trees 
and shrubs are best planted before 
seeding as the lawn would be 
badly cut up by the planting op- 
erations. 

The final smoothing and pul- 
verizing before planting is very 
important. First give the area a 
thorough harrowing, or if the 
space is too small go over it with a 
steel hand rake, leveling, smooth- 
ing and breaking up the larger 
lumps. Now roll, going one direction and 
back again on the same track, then change 
directions and roll at right angles to the 
first rolling. Rake again, filling up any 
depressions made by the roller, breaking up 
lumps and loosening the surface to a depth 
of about one inch. Repeat this treatment 
if necessary to bring the soil into a fine 
loose condition. 

The best grass seed to buy is that known 
as "fancy recleaned." Don't buy cheap 
seed, and buy by the pound. Fourteen 



not left 
soil 



50 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 1914 



pounds is regarded as standard bushel, al- 
though good clean seed, containing no chaff, 
may weigh twenty or twenty-five pounds to 
the bushel. Lawn grass should form a firm, 
thick sod, which will lie close to the ground, 
spread rapidly, and throw out many creep- 
ing stems and leaves, so that it will stand 
close and frequent clipping. 

In a general way I advise as the basis of 
all mixtures: Kentucky bluegrass in the 
Middle and Eastern states, with its Cana- 
dian variety in the North; Bermuda grass 
in South; and the several varieties of 
buffalo grass in the Western Plains where 
water is somewhat scant. Of course there 
are particular sections where certain special 
varieties have proven better, and one can 
readily find them out by noting what his 
successful neighbors use. 

Personally, for this section of the country 
at least, I prefer not to plant complex 
mixtures, as I believe Kentucky 
bluegrass with a one-eighth mix- 
ture of white clover does better 
in the long run. There are many 
people, however, especially in other 
parts of the country, who prefer 
to plant the mixtures, with a view 
to getting quicker results and be- 
cause of the varied conditions of 
shade and moisture existing upon 
the lawn because of trees, shrubs 
and architectural objects. Some 
of the various other grasses used 
in combination are red top, Rhode 
Island bent, creeping bent, the 
fescues, etc. The leading seeds- 
men have special lawn mixtures 
put up for special purposes, and 
their use saves bother. 

Where Kentucky bluegrass and 
white clover only are sown they 
may be used at the rate of four 
bushels of bluegrass and two pecks 
of white clover to the acre, or one 
quart of bluegrass and one-fourth 
pint clover to each 300 square feet. 
Bermuda grass is generally pro- 
pagated by cuttings or small roots 
placed in rows several inches 
apart, which finally grow together. 
Buffalo grass seed is not now avail- 
able on the market in commercial quanti- 
ties and it is necessary to establish a lawn 
by turfing. 

Mixtures may be sown generally at the 
rate of 3 to 5 bushels to the acre. For 
sunny areas some people recommend the 
sowing of two parts (by weight) Kentucky 
bluegrass to one part red top, and add a peck 
of white clover to this combination. Others 
substitute Rhode Island bent or creeping 
bent grass in place of the red top. Rhode 
Island bent, creeping bent, red fescue and 
sheep fescue are said to be desirable as 
shade grasses. A general mixture for all 
purposes, which is well recommended, con- 
sists of "one-third Kentucky bluegrass, 
almost as much red top, with Rhode Island 
bent, creeping bent, sheep fescue, red fescue, 
and a little sweet vernal grass to give the 
lawn a pleasant odor when cut." 

A still day is best for sowing as one can 



more easily place the seed where it is in- 
tended to go. Divide your seed in half 
and sow in swaths, first in one direction 
and then at right angles to the first sowing. 
This will help to avoid leaving bare spots. 
Take your time, swinging the hand low 
in a semi-circular motion and allowing the 
seed to escape rather freely between the 
slightly separated fingers, principally from 
the upper portion of the hand. Now rake 
it in very, very lightly. Remember that 
grass seed is small and has a very low per- 
centage of germination as it is, and that if 
covered too deeply it will rot in the ground. 
After raking give a good rolling. 

While turfing is not often the best way to 
establish a lawn it is desirable on banks or 
terraces. It is merely the transplanting of 
old sod from one place to another. Cut the 
edges of pieces about a foot wide by three or 
four feet long, run a spade underneath the 











■ 

* 







It is worth while taking pains to get a good lawn because it is the basis of 
the garden picture. Keep the centre open to get distance 



pieces and roll them up. Transport them 
to the place it is intended to turf and hold 
in position with pegs. The soil below should 
be loose and the turf laid evenly and thor- 
oughly tamped and pounded into contact 
with it. Watering often is a necessity. 

I am never in a hurry to make the first 
cutting of newly sown grass, and like to 
wait until it has grown to a height of, say, 
six inches. Usually, when fall sown, it is 
better not cut until the following spring. 
For the first cutting, instead of a regular 
mower, use a scythe or sickle and cut it to a 
height of about two inches. After that, 
every week or ten days, or longer in drouthy 
weather, mow it again — often enough to 
keep it at a height of about two inches. 
After the first cutting allow the clippings 
to lie where they fall, unless they are un- 
usually long and unsightly. A dull cloudy 
day is best for mowing. 



Persistent rolling, especially in the early 
spring, is good for the lawn. It firms the 
grass plants into the soil, makes a smooth 
even surface and tends to make a larger 
supply of water available to the plants 
through capillarity. There are not many 
times during the year when watering must 
be resorted to with a properly prepared 
lawn, but in times of extended drouth, or on 
porous, quickly drained or sandy soils it 
may be well to give waterings as often as 
once a week. When you water, water 
right. Frequent and light surface sprink- 
lings are of little value, for they cause the 
roots to habitually seek the surface few 
inches for moisture rather than go down to 
the lower layers of soil. Lay the hose on 
the ground and let the water flow from it 
on one spot for an hour or more, and then 
move to another spot. Do this continually, 
day or night, cloud or sunshine, until the 
whole lawn has been covered. 

Grass, like all other plants, takes 
fertility from the soil, and eventu- 
ally it is desirable to give old lawns 
a dressing of some fertilizer. Well- 
rotted stable manure is effective 
though unsightly. It may be ap- 
plied in the fall after the ground 
freezes, allowed to lie all winter, 
and the coarse material raked off 
in the spring. Finely ground bone 
meal and sifted wood ashes of 
equal parts in weight applied to the 
lawn in the spring at the rate of 
one ton to the acre is another good 
dressing. Sometimes nitrate of 
soda in solution is used, applied 
at the rate of 500 pounds to the 
acre, each pound dissolved in forty 
gallons of water. It is better to 
make several applications of this 
at short intervals rather than put 
it all on at once. 

To keep up a fine uniform texture 
it is often necessary to reseed parts 
of a lawn. This may be done by 
simply sowing the seed on the spot 
to be repaired, lightly raking it in, 
and rolling. If a blank develops 
weeds will creep in, and they are 
often troublesome to get rid of. 
Dandelions, dock, plantain and crab grass 
ought to be dug up root and all. This and 
the regular clipping should keep the lawn 
fairly clear of weeds. Ants and grubs 
usually fight shy of a lawn that is frequently 
rolled. Neither does the mole delight in 
a tightly packed soil, although if he gives 
trouble the trap is the only ready means 
of control. 

The essential tools required in maintain- 
ing a lawn are the mower, roller, rake and 
hand sickle to get in the corners, around 
trees and the edges. It is good policy to 
buy a hand mower that will cut at least a 
sixteen-inch swath, while those for large 
areas may be run by horse or steam power 
and have a much wider swath. Three hun- 
dred pounds is all one man wants to handle 
in a roller. Do not use the ordinary steel 
pronged garden rake to tear up the grass. 
Buy a lawn rake, one with arched teeth. 



Using German Iris for Garden Effect — By b. j. Morrison, s 

SELECTING KINDS TO FIT THE SPECIAL SITUATION — HOW DISTANCE 
MODIFIES OR CHANGES THE EFFECTS OF MINOR COLOR MARKINGS 



Tacoma Park, 
C. 



EVEN to-day, when we hear frequently 
of the beauty of the German iris, we 
are likely to question the enthusiasm 
of the speaker and coldly admit that 
we have always loved the old blue fellow and 
that we have always kept some in 
our gardens. Some few of us may 
add that we know Kochi and Mad. 
Chereau, Florentine or pallida Dal- 
matica, Queen of May or Maori 
King or some such lot; but the 
great majority of us do not know 
the range of possibilities which the 
German iris offers to the amateur 
gardener. For German iris, with 
their immediate allies, are "easy" 
plants and are, therefore, plants 
for everyone, because given a 
fairly good soil, plenty of sun 
shallow planting and a 
thorough division when 
crowding commences, 
they will flourish as the 
proverbial green bay 
tree. 

This very vigor and 
ease of growth brings about a great multi- 
plication of roots, which in turn assures a 
wonderful sheet of color in the spring, be it 
late May or early June. Many of us, of 
course, with tiny gardens and a 
passionate love for varieties 
of flowers, do not allow our- 
selves the luxury of great 
masses of many plants. Ger- 
man iris should be one of the 
favored exceptions, because 
of the marvelous garden effect 
of the mass of delicate flowers, 
either in the full sun of midday 
or in the softer light of dawn 
or evening. 

In studying the German 
iris for garden effect, one. 
should choose varieties with 
color that will carry well. 
Moreover, if the picture is to 
be seen from any distance the 
color should be studied, if 
possible, from that distance be- 
cause many iris colors change 
quite as much with distance as 
flower colors do with quality of 
light. For example, there is an 
exquisite iris, Mrs. G.Reuthe, of a 
delicate pearl gray color, with a 
wonderful feeling of blue through it, 
which near by in the garden is more 
than charming. Across the garden, 
this becomes a dirty gray, especially 
in strong light, and from the garden 
entrance the color is quite lost. The 
popular variety, Queen of May, is 
another example of change of color 
effect. This is one of the so-called pink 
irises. The underlying color is un- 
doubtedly a lovely shade of old rose, 
but the falls are veined and the claws 
and style-arms are suffused witb yellow 




in such a way, that in the diffused lights of morning 
and evening, the rose color is peculiarly browned. In 
strong sunlight, the color carries well in the 
garden but is not quite so good from the dis- 
tance. Again, the great group to which Mad. 
Chereau belongs is not a group for distance 
effects because the frill of color on the white 
ground is practically lost in the distance and 
the flowers serve merely as tiny white ones. 
Similarly there are many varieties in the 
Neglecta group which have an undertone of 
warm bronze in the blue, which serves to dull the 
blue from a distance. In the Squalens group also, 
the brown color, which has become more ruddy or 
more coppery in color, still serves to dull the 
ground colors, which here are yellows and 
crimsons. And so one might multiply 
examples, but the question of 
personal taste plays so great a 
part in deciding what changes 
are pleasant and what are not 
that further examples would be 
quite useless. 
Aside from the matter of pure 
color, the texture of the 
petal tissue plays an im- 
portant part in the iris 
effect in the gar- 
d e n . Roughly 
speaking, from 
this point of 
view, iris may be 
classified into 
two groups; those 
in which both 
standards and 
falls are of the same 
texture and those in 
which the textures are 
different in the dif- 
ferent sets of peri- 
k anth segments. 

The first 
group is 
well illus- 
trated b y 
such species 
flavescens, 
pallida Dalma- 
tica, florentina, 
Kochi and soon. 
In these, the tissue is of a very trans- 
parent quality which becomes almost 
luminous in certain lights but which is 
veiled to some extent by pigment in 
some of the forms. This is especially 
noticeable in dark colored selfs such as 
Kochi and spectabilis. Then, too, 
there is a sub-class of this group in 
which all the slightly veined selfs come, 
such as Mad. Chereau, Bridesmaid, 
Cypriana, Mrs. H. Darwin and many 
others. These all lose just a little in 
transparency but are of the same gen- 
eral character. 

The other great class is well illus- 
trated by the common German iris 
with its violet blue standards and more 
or less velvety purple falls. An ex- 



51 



52 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 1914 



treme example is Victorine, in which the 
standards are white delicately splashed with 
purple and the falls are pansy purple, almost 
of pansy quality in texture. Members of 
the Variegata, Squalens and Amcena groups 
are likely to be of this nature and are 
valuable for their contrast of colors rather 
than for any particular transparency. 

A rather pleasant advantage may be 
taken of the degree of transparency of the 
petal tissue by arranging the plants in 
certain ways within the garden. Varieties 
with similar texture throughout and with 
considerable luminosity from delicacy of 
color are more attractive if they are planted 
in some portion of the garden where light 
may shine through 
them. Planted 
against a background 
of higher perennials 
or shrubs, it is often 
impossible to stand 
so that such an effect 
can be noted, but by 
planting in a more 
central garden bed the 
light can play from 
all sides and yet the 
flowers will have the 
background of the ad- 
jacent beds. On the 
other hand, the two- 
textured varieties, 
save those of the 
Squalens group which 
need illumination, 
gain somewhat in 
richness if they are 
planted against some 
great background of 
green, so that the line 
of sight follows the 
direction of the light 
which illumines the 
flowers. 

As may have been 
guessed before this, 
light plays an im- 
portant part in the 
effects made by iris. 
From the obligate cul- 
tural requirements, there must be sun in the 
parts of the garden devoted to iris, yet 
within that sunny area one has considerable 
opportunity for placing iris so that certain 
light effects can be enjoyed. This is 
especially true in the morning and evening. 
Pure, clear blues such as we have in pallida 
Dalmatica, Celeste and similar forms, look 
equally well in shadow and in sun; all of 
the yellows and yellow-and-browns look 
better in full sun, where they make very 
glowing color. The bronzes and copper 
reds improve with full sunlight because the 
yellow in the color is intensified and the 
tendency to brown is overcome. All of the 
pinks, in which there is any yellow, look 
better in sun than in shadow. This is 
true of Queen of May, Miralba, Rose 
Unique and others. On the other hand, 
pinks like Mrs. Allen Gray, in which there 
is an undertone of blue, look well in shadow 
where the blue enters into the shadow 



effect and leaves a clear pink. The yellows 
in which there is a pink caste are equally 
unpleasant anywhere. Darius, Princess of 
Teck, and Rigoletto are good examples of 
this class and are distinctly poor in color. 
Of the remaining purples, purple blues, 
and red violets, personal taste must decide. 
On the whole, the more red in the color, 
the more sunlight is possible for good effect, 
and the more blue in the color, the more 
pleasant the color in shadow. For example, 
Edouard Michell, a wonderful new hybrid 
of rosy plum color, looks well in either 
position but is a little more sparkling in the 
sunlight; on the other hand, Kochi and 
spectabilis, dark claret varieties, are both 




I"he collector will find abundant interest in the German irises, which give a wonderfully fancy border 

a little better in shadow, as strong light 
gives a slightly faded feeling to the color. 
The matters are purely relative, however, 
and often may be modified by the plant 
next to the iris. 

The matter of neighboring plants is no 
small question. After the passing of the 
flowers, iris maintain a fairly good appear- 
ance through the season. Members of 
the Pallida group have noticeably fine 
foliage. Unlike other plants, iris will not 
tolerate crowding neighbors, useful to 
cover up any shabbiness of summer dress. 
They will survive, of course, and flower 
sparingly, but they are not the iris to be 
desired. Many plants can be used, how- 
ever, and often wonderful effects may be 
had with the colors. In a friend's garden, 
Phlox divaricata was planted so that it 
formed a mass just below the delicate pink 
iris, Mrs. Allen Gray. The blue of the 
phlox absorbed, in visual effect, the blue 



cast of the iris and left a clear pink color. 
This is quite similar to the action of lightly 
cast shadows on the same variety. Then, 
of course, we have the time-honored custom 
of combining pallida Dalmatica with 
H enter ocallis flava. The orange colored 
Hemerocallis Dumortierii is too strong in 
value for pallida Dalmatica but is very 
effective with some of the darker blue 
purples as some of the Cypriana varieties, 
or Neglecta varieties such as Perfection. 
Another charming combination noted in 
the same garden is flavescens, a delicate 
sulphur-colored species, with one of the low 
Veronicas as V. amethystina or spicata. 
This iris looks well near pallida Dalmatica 
but often passes its 
best bloom just a few 
days before pallida. 
Iris spectabilis, a rich 
and purple self, Kochi, 
a similar one, and the 
varieties of Florentina 
bloom together and 
open the season of 
German iris in May. 
The color contrast is 
somewhat violent 
when they are com- 
bined, and they are 
best used separately. 
The globe flowers 
(Trollius spp.) all look 
well with spectabilis, 
especially the darker 
orange kinds. And so 
combinations might 
be multiplied. There 
are so many plants 
in flower with the 
German iris that ma- 
terials are not hard 
to find. Perhaps on 
the whole it is safest 
to avoid pink flowers 
of any sort in the 
garden, at iris time, 
especially near any 
varieties of the pink 
or claret color. Haunt- 
ing recollections of 
late Darwin tulips like Clara Butt and 
Gretchen near Florentine or Mrs. G. Reuthe 
are persuasive but dangerous in the garden 
whole, which must contain many brilliant 
yellows and red violets. White from 
Stellaria, Phlox subulata, Cerastium, Iberis, 
and Arabis is always safe; soft lavenders 
from some of the varieties of Phlox subulata 
and Phlox Stellaria are good; Mertensia, 
Pulmonaria, Philox divaricata, veronica 
gentianoides , Omphalodes verna, Myosotis, 
Veronica spicata and amethystina, all give 
good blues and related purples; yellows we 
can get from late tulips such as the ex- 
quisite retroflexa, Mrs. Moon, Miss Will- 
mott, Prince of Orange and so on, also from 
various ranunculus, trollius, Aquilegia 
chrysantha, Hemerocallis, Alyssum saxatile 
and such plants. Since we are keeping 
fairly close to complementary colors, ar- 
rangements are more or less inevit- 
able. The rose and yellow, copper, and 



September, 19 14 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



53 




Madame Chereau 
edged blu; 



white, 



b r o n z e - c o 1 o r e d 
irises are the most 
difficult to handle 
in combination, 
but since they all 
appear best in 
strong sunlight we 
have that saving 
factor in working 
out our color 
scheme. Then, 
too, gradations can 
be played within 
the groups leading 
them over to the 
safer colors. 

Aside from these 

matters of garden effect, the big Ger- 
man iris family offers a wealth of in- 
dividuality to the garden lover who knows 

his plants very intimately and makes the 

most of their personalities in his garden. 

There is, of course, a wide play of color. 

To the Pallida group we turn for pale blues 

and blue lavenders, and of late for fine 

pinks and clarets. The flowers are, almost 

without exception, unveined selfs of very 

delicate texture. The blood of Cypriana, 

a near relative, appears in 

the veined falls of some of 

the hybrids. Pallida Dalma- 

tica is the favorite pale blue ; 

Celeste, Juanita, and Albert 

Victor are good; Queen of 

May, Rose Unique, Her 

Majesty, Trautlieb, Lohen- 
grin, Mrs. Allen Gray, Sur- 
prise are all good pinks and 

near pinks, Mad. Paquitte 

is an excellent claret and 

Edouard Michell is a wonder- 
ful new hybrid showing the 

waved margin characteristic 

of Mad. Chereau rather than 

of the Pallida type. Earliest 

of all the groups is the old 

germanica group together 

with Iris Florentina. Here 

Kochi (syn. atropurpurea) , 

Purple King, and spectabilis 

are excellent dark red purple 

selfs. Amas (syn. macran- 

tha), Kharput, and Siwas 

are splendid two-colored 

varieties. Among the 

Neglecta varieties we have 

the fine new Perfection, light 

and dark blue purple with 

showy orange beard; Miss 

Maggie, silvery lavender and 

rose; Wagner, lavender and 

lavender violet, small and 

dwarf but valuable for late 

bloom; Sappho, Cythere, 

Frederick and many others. 

In the Amcena section, we 

have the beautiful Victorine 

and Thorbeck, with white 

standards and deep purple 

falls ; the exquisite Comte de 

St. Claire, Mrs. H. Darwin; 

and the new Rhein Nixie. Best 

of all in the Plicata section, 



is the old and well known Mad. Chereau 
and Bridesmaid. The Squalens group gives 
us Jacquesiana (syn. Conscience) and Dr. 
Bernice, similar flowers with old gold 
standards flushed with crimson and dull 
crimson falls; A. F. Barron with queer 
bronze standards and dark falls, and 
Miralba which nearly approaches old rose. 
For pure yellows we turn to the Variegata 
section which gives us aurea and Mrs. 
Neubronner, together with the late white 
Innocenza. Here too, are the old favorites 
Honorable (syn. San Souci), Gracchus, 
Darius and Maori King; and besides the 
old, a group of splendid new hybrids. Per- 
haps best of all is Iris King, a cross between 
pallida Dalmatica and Maori King, with 
large flowers, rich yellow standards and 
crimson falls, bordered yellow. Here too, 
comes Mithras, similar but without the 
yellow border on the falls. Nibelungen 
repeats the same scheme with a dull olive 
caste over the standards. Pfanenange is 
reported similar with more purple in the 
falls. It has not flowered with us as yet. 
These last two please our fancy but they 
are unpleasant to many because they are 
not brilliant and sparkling in color. And 




Victoria veined falls with 
self standards 




Good sized individual clumps of one variety make striking effects in the flower garden 
pallida, var. Dalmatica at the Country Life Press Gardens 



as always, personal 
taste must be the 
ultimate judge in 
matters of this 
sort. 

Then aside from 
the strict ger- 
manica groups of 
the nurserymen 
come some valu- 
able related species 
with their varie- 
ties. Flavescens 
is an indispensable 
sulphur self; Flor- 
entina and its var- 
ieties give won- 
derful gray and lavender whites; albi- 
cans Princess of Wales is a fine dwarf 
white; lurida a showy red copper. Then 
too, are the closely related Intermediates 
aiid Crimeans which prepare the way 
for the great Germans which follow. 
Of the Intermediates, Walhalla and Inge- 
borg are favorites. And among the pumilas 
and Crimeans the clear colors are best for 
garden effect although the queer green 
yellows are charming in themselves and 
well worthy of a place for 
themselves. 

But from all of this, it is 
more than evident that what 
will please one will not please 
another. For me, there has 
been the great collection of a 
friend where I might study 
and question to my heart's 
content. We do not agree, 
this friend and I, on many 
things, and some third per- 
son might object to our 
choices in any case. So for 
each one it is well to visit 
some large iris collection in 
bloom whether in the garden 
of a friend or at some of the 
nurseries, of which there 
are several in this country 
which have exceptionally fine 
collections, and then choose 
those plants which most suit 
his fancy. 

The planting time for the 
German iris is either fall or 
spring, or the plant may be 
lifted and divided just after 
they have finished flowering ; 
indeed that is the ideal time 
for propagation. Trans- 
planting in early fall — Sep- 
tember and October — offers 
many practical advantages 
too, because following so 
closely on the summer's 
pageant of color the garden's 
effectiveness is still well in 
mind and plantings can be 
carried out with a fuller 
realization of what the final 
results will be next year. 
Indeed the iris, like the peony, 
is better seen to at this time 



Iris 



of year than in spring. 



THERE were three exhibition cen- 
tres of interest for the gardener 
in connection with the thirtieth 
annual convention of the Society 
of American Florists and Ornamental Horti- 
culturists in Boston, Mass., August 18 to 
21. Each had its own special character 
and served a different purpose. 

From the larger viewpoint of latent inter- 
est to the great body of amateur gardeners 
and the general public the ten acre Con- 
vention Garden, in the Back Bay Fens, was 
the most notable because of the permanency 
of actual growing plants. In Mechanics' 
Hail was a "trade" exhibit, comprising 
commercial plants for the decorative flor- 
ists' trade and the appliances and sundries 
that enter into the production of plants and 
the ultimate handling of the product, and 
also the display under the direction of The 
American Gladiolus Society. 

In Horticultural Hall, the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society had a great display 
of flowers in season — which resolved itself 
largely into a display of gladiolus — two 
exhibitors, W. Sim and B. H. Tracy, be- 
tween them completely filling the available 
space in one large hall. Here let it be 
noted that the present year has been gen- 
erally most favorable for the development 
of the gladiolus, and the New England 
growers had wonderfully fine material to 
stage in quantity. But they had no mon- 
opoly on quality, for A. Cowee and T. 
A. Havemeyer from elsewhere had dis- 
plays impelling attention. Messrs. T. A. 
Havemeyer, C. F. Fairbanks andT. Cogger 
each received awards in the open classes 
for this flower. If never before the 
gladiolus has assuredly come into its own 
this year, and has ably demonstrated its 
worth as the garden standby for August, 
whether for outdoor effect or for cutting. 
The abundant, seasonal rains have given 
ideal conditions, and growths of even six 
feet (too large indeed) have been told about! 
Turning now to the impressions gathered 
from these combined displays, a few among 
the host of varieties seem to stand out pre- 
eminently — which is not to be understood 
by any means as suggesting that any not 
named here are necessarily inferior; our 
purpose being rather to convey to the 
reader the "crystallization of impressions" 
of the various displays. Among them are 
naturally well known names. Probably, as 
the one best of all for general all round use, 
America would be the selection — strong, 
massively flowered, delicate clear pink, it is 
a flower that fits in to any purpose. In 



yellow, Canary Bird; in blue (really purple, 
however) Baron Hulot — and those two, be 
it noted, make a splendid combination; for 
bright salmon, Dawn, with its wonderful 
luminous quality, with Mrs. Francis King 
on a more intense or deeper general tone of 
color; Hollandia, a "terra cotta"; Schwaben 
as a delicate, yet rich, cream yellow. 

Among other worthy kinds sown in much 
smaller numbers, we must name Badenia, a 
"pale blue" or deep blue-lavender; Mag- 
num, pale delicate lavender; Panama and 
Niagara, now fairly well known; Pink Per- 
fection, perhaps well described as a lighter 
Dawn; the richly colored Mrs. Frank Pen- 
dleton, recalling forcibly an old-time show 
pelargonium; El Capitan, pale yellow and, 
as shown here, with solid spikes of re- 
markable length. Orange Glory, the latest 
addition to the frilled "Glory" family, has 
an attractive color with the characteristic 
form of flower that marks that group. 

Among the white flowers Europa made 
the greatest impression on the eye, but the 
growers agree it needs more water than most 
other varieties. 

Mrs. A. H. Austin and Mrs. Francis 
King offered prizes for the decorative uses 
of the gladiolus, and in each case, Mr. 
Cowee won, showing effective baskets and 
corsage arrangements. Eugene Fisher was 
awarded the Gladiolus Society's Award of 
Merit for a set of new seedlings not yet 
named or introduced. 

The growing exhibits in the io-acre con- 
vention garden could well have been put 
into a much smaller area and would have 
gained considerably in effectiveness thereby. 
The exhibits comprising this garden will re- 
main on the ground till frost comes and nec- 
essarily show changes from time to time. 
Among the more notable plants was a violet- 
blue petunia, Velchenblau, of distinct merit 
and pure deep color; a maroon flowered form 
of Salvia splendens may or may not be quite 
new, but it had a decidedly "different" ap- 
pearance. Several varieties of Aconitum 
Napellus demonstrated the great value of 
this fine blue flower at this season. They 
came from the Mount Desert Nurseries and 
showed a range of form from a dense lark- 
spur like habit (var. Meilichoferi) to a free 
branching, loose panicle of which the best 
was named acutum. A more compact yet 
graceful form, was seen in Sparks' variety 
(Farquhar), deep indigo blue; and from the 
same source the splendid new lilies myrio- 
phyllum, Sargentae and the older Henryi, 
Cinnabar yellow, that best of all lilies for 
August flowering. An unnamed snap- 

54 



dragon, of fine pastel pink shade, was from 
two sources (Fletcher and Sims.) Del- 
phinium Capri, likened to a pale azure bella- 
donna, was also noted (Eastern Nurseries). 

A few striking kinds of canna are: Fire- 
brand (Vaughan), glowing deep red, green 
foliage, with large individual flower; Pan- 
ama (Boddington and Conard & Jones), 
light red edged faintly with yellow, dwarf 
and sturdy. And from the last named also 
Colossal, a giant orchid flowered, dark 
orange; Kate F. Deemer, medium pale yel- 
low; William Saunders, dark red, bronze 
foliage; Meteor, brilliant dark red, green 
foliage; Gigantea, deep pink; Mrs. A. F. 
Conard, light pink. 

Of geraniums, only a few are on view: 
Maryland (Vincent), a good free flowering, 
short jointed, dark scarlet semi-double; 
Everblooming Scarlet, large scarlet, single 
(Manda); Paul Crampel, dark red single 
(A. N. Pierson). • 

Of decided interest to the amateur 
bothered with the problem of watering, was 
the Skinner Irrigation Company's new auto- 
matic irrigating device. A water driven 
motor (using the same water as is being dis- 
tributed later) turns a length of pipe fitted 
at intervals with special nozzles) over any 
desired arc and back, at any desired speed. 
In this way a central line of removable pipe 
can cover with water any ordinary lawn, or 
vegetable garden with a regular distribution 
of artificial rain. 

The next convention will take place in 
San Francisco, August, 191 5. President, 
P. Welch of Boston; Secretary, John Young, 
New York. 

The usual summer meetings of the "spe- 
cial" societies were held during the conven- 
tion week as follows: 

Sweet Pea Society. Although no definite 
action was taken on the place of next meet- 
ing, an invitation was presented from New- 
port, R. I., and the probabilities are that 
the summer show of 191 5 will be there. 

Carnation Society. Annual convention 
and exhibition to be held at Buffalo, N. Y., 
January 27 and 28, 1915. 

Gladiolus Society. Annual meeting at 
San Francisco, August, 1915. The election 
of officers resulted: President, C. F. Fair- 
banks, Boston, Mass.; Secretary, H. Youell, 
Syracuse, N. Y.; Treasurer, A. E. Kunderd, 
Goshen, Ind. 

Rose Society. After some discussion on 
an invitation to meet at Buffalo, N. Y., for 
the slated annual exhibition, the matter was 
referred to the executive committee for 
decision later on. 




ipVERY person owning a small green- 
house is anxious to have something 
that, not costing much, will add to the 
variety of flowers that can be procured from 
the house. A great many garden flowers 
can be forced in the greenhouse but they 
require close attention and skilled culti- 
vation, and this is just what the beginner 
tries to avoid. He is seeking something 
that is not exacting, which can be depended 
upon to flower even though here and there 
a little bit of neglect crops up in their 
cultivation. 

The "rough and ready" nature of the 
plants named below makes them popular; 
but their greatest asset to my mind is the 
fact that they fill in well when a person finds 
that he has room for more, or where, through 
the finishing of crops or other causes he 
wants something that will produce quickly 
and which does not have to be thought 
out and provided for a year in advance. 

There is no finer flower of this type any- 
where than the dainty, chaste, and delicate 
little baby's breath {Gypsophila elegans), 
a garden annual which for cutting purposes 
is unsurpassed. A continuous supply of 
flowers can be had all winter by sowing 
seed every two or three weeks. I usually 
start sowing seed about October ist and 
make a point to sow it every three weeks 
during the entire winter. Not much need 
be sown at one time — a seed pan will be 
an abundance for ordinary needs. Sow the 
seeds thinly and water carefully until they 
are large enough to handle, when they can 
be transplanted into boxes or directly into 
the greenhouse bench. A night temperature 
of 45 to 50 degrees suits them best. Plant 
the seedlings about four inches apart each 
way and have a good rich soil. Use 
almost one half sifted cow manure in 
preparing your soil. Plant just enough 
of the seedlings each time to supply 
your needs until the next sowing comes 
into flower. The plant is very frail 
and delicate, and care must be taken 
in watering. A few strings run along 
the rows will serve to support them, 
although I have always got along 
without them. After the flowers are 
cut the roots can be torn out and the 
space utilized for something else. 

The schizanthus has become very 
popular of late years, for which the in- 
troduction of many new varieties has 
been responsible. It is one of the showiest 
of all pot plants when well grown, attaining 
a height of from three to four feet and being 
absolutely covered with beautifully colored, 



By W. C. McCollom, York 

orchid-like little flowers. It is an easy 
plant to grow and can be had in flower 
at all seasons. 

Start sowing schizanthus seed during 
October and sow a small amount about 
every four weeks. The young plants, 
when large enough, must be transplanted 
into pots or benches. The better way is to 
pot up all you need in thumb pots. When 
they are well rooted, the ones wanted for 




The stock, though one of the really old fashioned flow- 
ers, is as great a favorite today as ever it was 



X L 1 



WKWMWB 






J*H \ 






^ 



The 



tobacco plant is better for winter than for summer flowering 
as the blooms do not close up in the dull days 

pot use can be transferred to larger pots; 
the others can be planted in the benches, 
about one foot apart each way. A rich 
soil, as recommended for gypsophila, should 

55 



be used. These plants are not troubled 
with insects of any kind — only the cus- 
tomary green fly which, however, is easily 
kept in check by spraying or fumigating. 
A night temperature of about 50 degrees 
suits them best, and plenty of liquid feeding 
just before flowering starts. A 6 or 7-inch 
pot is large enough to flower them in. 
Quite a range of colors can be had in this 
plant. 

Something rarely seen in greenhouses 
during winter is the tobacco plant (Nicoi- 
iana data, or Sanderce hybrid), which forces 
well and the hybrid varieties contain a fair 
range of color. It is of such easy growth 
that it could be easily called "weedy." It 
requires about the same general care as 
the schizanthus. 

The rhodanthe is a nice little flower for 
pot work. It has delicately colored flowers 
of the everlasting nature, and being a sort 
of trailer requires a simple support of some 
kind to keep it upright. The vine is a 
very graceful one and makes admirable 
material, when cut, for table work. About 
three sowings of this will carry you through 
the winter. The plant should always be 
grown in pots. A simple method of sup- 
porting it is to place about four stakes 
around the inside of the pot and lace a 
few strings around the stakes. 

Although it has been before us for years, 
the old-fashioned stock still holds its own. 
It is a good thrifty pot plant and has a wide 
range of colors. Some people grow it in 
pots, flowering the plant in a 6 or 7-inch 
pot; others have it in a much smaller pot, 
feeding freely at flowering time. This 
method gives quicker results. Others would 
never dream of having it any place else than 
in the benches. Personally, I grow 
stock in pots of the larger size and 
bench a fair proportion for cut flow- 
ers. For winter flowers, start stock in 
August and sow about every four 
weeks. You can use the "cut and 
come again" type, but my experience 
has always been that the finest flowers 
are always to be had from the second 
cutting, and it takes this stock al- 
most as long to come into bearing 
again as it would if you had a nice 
batch of young, healthy plants all 
ready to bench as soon as you had com- 
pleted your first cut. Stock thrives 
in a cool house, about 45 degrees 
suits it best, but you will get more flow- 
ers at a night temperature of 50 degrees 
and the soil can hardly be too rich for 
them. 



: ^^*i«liM^i»l , sil^l 



rasl! 



SJJte^c^^^^^rr: 



-.---... 





GARDENING 

YOUNGFOLKS 

CONDUCTED BY ELLEN EDDY SHAW 



ssr^g^ta^^a^i 



Garden Exhibits 

THE exhibits of children's garden products are 
usually far from effective. This is due either 
to one of two things: first, poor arrangement; and 
second, the wilted condition of the products. And 
so greater care should be taken to make the display 
itself more effective, easier to judge, and to have 
products in better condition. 

So often the material is placed perfectly level 
upon the tables or benches. It is easy to arrange 
for a series of temporary shelves on 
the benches, using the front of the 
table as the first level. Then, by 
means of two blocks or boxes and a 
board, make the next display, a shelf 
rising about eight inches from the 
table level. Back of this first shelf 
arrange a second rising eight inches 
above the first shelf. Thus, with al- 
most no expense, there will be ob- 
tained on one narrow table three 
levels for display. At a glance the 
judges can see the entire exhibit if it 
is well placed and spaced. 

Put the largest vegetables and the 
tallest flowers in the background, and 
thus leave the front or table level for 
the smallest and least conspicuous 
material. Do not huddle products 
together; let each exhibit stand out 
as a unit with spaces between it and 
its neighbours. It is better to have 
all the vegetables together in one place and all the 
flowers in another. If then there be a third class 
of exhibits, school exhibits, place these by them- 
selves. If one section of a show is given up to the 
children's work, put the individual vegetable and 
flower exhibits around the room; then run a table 
through the centre of the space and upon this table 
arrange the school exhibits. 

Cover the benches and tables with dull green 
paper, wrapping paper or burlap. Crepe paper 
is the poorest material to use for this purpose be- 
cause when wet it looks so wretchedly. Whatever 
signs are needed should be clearly printed on heavy 
white paper. If it is possible have exhibitor's tick- 
ets printed; then these tickets may be placed by the 
individual exhibits. 

Neatness, uniformity, and proper labeling go far 
toward making an exhibit attractive. Ask those 
entering the flower contests to bring containers for 
their flowers; such receptacles as plain bottles like 
olive bottles, easy to obtain, may be used to advan- 
tage. A conglomeration of receptacles detracts 
from the general appearance of the show. The 
centre of interest is the flower itself and whatever 
detracts from that should be eliminated 




Such a prize as this would 
appeal to most children. The 
shield is of wood, with the 
inserted panel of metal 




The pasteboard picnic plate may be used for the 
vegetables where plates are needed. These are in- 
expensive. Certain vegetables, when laid upon the 
tables, stain the bench coverings and so the exhibit 
as a whole, soon looks quite untidy. The paste- 
board plates prevent this. 

We cannot expect the children to present their 
products in the best of condition unless we give them 
some directions. If flowers are entered pick your 
specimens the night before they are to be submitted. 
Pick long stems, perfect blooms with green leaves. 
Avoid choosing those flowers upon the 
stems of which are imperfect leaves. 
Place the stems in water and keep in a 
cool place. Wrap the specimens in 
damp and then dry newspapers when 
ready to carry to the exhibition hall. 
If the entry calls for seven specimen 
zinnias, do not carry in eight zinnias. 
Follow the entry conditions absolute- 
ly. If a potted plant is to be entered 
(like lobelia, for example), pot it up 
some days before the time of exhibit 
and keep it in a shaded place in the 
garden. Thus the plant becomes used 
to its new quarters before the great 
day and looks fine and fresh when 
needed. If potted up the day of ex- 
hibit, the plant always presents a 
drooping appearance. 

Vegetables should be cleaned before 
entering. Vegetables covered with 
soil should never be accepted. Cut 
off the tops of beets, carrots, radishes and any others 
which show wilt quickly. Wilted radish leaves add 
nothing to the effect of the exhibit as a whole, but 
rather detract. Lettuce heads should be well 
sprinkled with fresh water so they keep a 
fresh, crisp look. The fine appearance 
of a vegetable exhibit ought to present 
a temptation to the public. Instead of 
this the general droop of the foliage and 
the clinging soil often makes the public 
feel like running away. Some attempt at 
decoration and attractive setting adds 
greatly to the general effect; asparagus 
vine, smilax, bitter sweet, ampelopsis 
might all be used to trail along the 
benches. 



was not like the other beds. In my three other 
plots were growing tomatoes, carrots, radishes, 
turnips, corn, onions, string beans, and lettuce. 
From the tomatoes I received eleven pounds of 
green ones. 

I received a few carrots which were of medium 
size. I planted three crops of radishes and re- 
ceived for my labor about one dollar's worth. In 
my three plots were eleven stalks of corn which pro- 
duced nineteen good ears. Very few onions came 
up. My string beans flourished and from twenty- 
seven plants I got two quarts of beans. From the 
lettuce I received nineteen heads. So you can see 
it paid me to work that half day for six weeks; and 
besides the vegetables, I received the honor of hav- 
ing the best plot in the garden. 

New York City. Isaac Ratjch. 

MY PLOT at the Rockefeller Garden was 5 feet by 
10 feet. May 9th I planted lettuce, beans, beets 
and radishes. June 9th, I picked my first radishes, 
123! Then I planted zinnias and had great bunches 
of them during the fall. The sixteenth of June was 
the first picking of lettuce; there was about one peck 
of this. But later in July the lettuce headed and 
from my plot I took twenty-six heads. 

There were two crops of beans and I had two 
quarts each time. The first picking of beets was on 
July 9, the last on August 29. I had forty-one 
beets. I planted sweet alyssum as a border in my 
garden and that blossomed profusely. 

New York City. Minnie McKenna. 

I WAS given a piece of land ten feet by twenty feet. 
When father had his garden plowed, he had my 
garden plowed also. 

I then raked off the piece of land which was to be 



Roger 
This won 



Reports of Garden Results 

THE Children's Home Garden, Jer- 
sey City Heights, covers a piece of 
land 70 feet by 90 feet and forty children work in 
the area. The harvesting covers a period of time 
from May 4th to September 2nd, so that the report 
here given does not represent the entire yield: 




William Park School garden exhibit. Providence 
the first prize in our national contest 



R. I. 



Beans, lima 


21 qts. 


Lettuce 


i6pks. 


Beans, strin 


g . . I3pks. 


New Zealand spinach 6 qts. 


Beets 


. . 987 " 


Onions 


. . 283 " 


Cabbage 


. - 13 " 


Peas 


2 " 


Carrots . 


. . 1783 " 


Peppers 


. . 91 " 


Corn. 


. . 370 " 


Radishes 


1242 


Cucumbers 


18 " 


Squash 


38 " 


Eggplants 


■ • 9 " 


Tomatoes 


• • 1293 " 


Kohlrabi 


84 " 







The prize-winning home garden of a Toronto boy. Note 
the pleasing general effect of this small backyard garden 



There was plenty of parsley also. 

The flowers raised in the flower section were as 
follows: geraniums, baby's breath, ageratum, cos- 
mos, zinnias, portulacca, asters, sweet alyssum, nas- 
turtiums and salvia. 

Jersey City. Anna Molten, Supervisor. 

PERHAPS you would be interested to know how 
a city boy raised vegetables in the city to re- 
duce the cost of living for his parents. 

I spent one entire morning of the six weeks of 
school vacation in planting, cultivating, and water- 
ing my four garden plots. In one of my plots I 
raised tomatoes. I did not plant the seeds but was 
given young tomato plants to transplant. This 
plot was known as an observation bed because it 

56 



my garden to make the soil as fine as possible. Next 
thing I did was to make this land into a large bed, 
to separate it from the other soil. After I had fin- 
ished I bought my seeds. I asked for two packages 
of lettuce, two packages of radish and one package 
of cucumbers. I had some bean seed which I kept 
from last year. I received a small package of sweet 
corn from the Agricultural College, and father gave 
me a few cabbage plants. These seeds which I 
have mentioned are all that I planted in my garden. 

My corn proved to be Golden Bantam. I gath- 
ered enough for a day's dinner. This corn had a 
very good flavor. 

About this time my beans and other vegetables 
were ready to eat, excepting my cabbage, which 
was the only vegetable that did not turn out well. 
We had quanities of beans. I did not have many 
cucumbers, but what we did have were very good. 
I did not expect to have many out of the few seeds 
that I planted. 

One row of lettuce was head lettuce but the other 
was not; it was just the plain leaf lettuce, but was 
very good. After the radishes came out I planted 
fall beet seeds. In about a week they came peeping 
out of the soil. I got about a peck from what I 
have planted. 

Massachusetts. Henrietta Worthington. 



September, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



57 



Peterson's Perfect Peonies 



are the standard by which others are 
judged, a fact recognized by those who 
know. They're the logical result of 
twenty years of enthusiastic 
devotion and effort. 

The Peony, as the most 
hardy and lasting, as both 
the most gorgeously and 
delicately beautiful flower, in its 
modern varieties, that grows, ap- 
peals to you for recognition — an 
appeal, which, if heeded, will leave 
you its grateful and joyous debtor 




And when you plant a flower that 

will last as long as you do — and 

longer, plant the best, and plant in 

the fall so that blooms may be 

enjoyed next spring. 



Any business can be 
made to look good in ad- 
vertisements, but this is a business 
of achievement. Peterson Peonies 
are noted for their absolute true- 
ness and the remarkable size and vigor 
of their roots. 



Read what a trained representative of "The Florists' Exchange," the leading trade paper, says in part in a lengthy 
article after a visit here last June. 

"THE BEST IN PEONIES — A NOTABLE COLLECTION 

"In the first place, the 250 varieties in the exhibition garden and the 60,000 or more clumps growing in 
the nurseries were especially notable for their strong, vigorous growth and their uniformly healthy appearance. " 

Are you interested ? Beautiful and helpful catalog sent on request. 

GEORGE H. PETERSON, Rose and Peony Specialist, Box 50, Fair Lawn, N. J. 






Specialists 

WE GROW PEONIES 
—NOTHING ELSE 

ESTABLISHED PLANTS ONLY GUARANTEED TRUE 

"OUR REPUTATION HAS BEEN BUILT 
ON THE QUALITY OF OUR STOCK" 

Every root we send out has been given individual and inten- 
sive culture — the kind of care it should receive in a private 
garden — grown until it has attained an ideal size and quality 
fit to send to you who want— not a flower or two— but a dis- 
play of perfect blooms the first season after planting. 

— and they cost no more from us 

DISTINCTIVE CATALOG NOW READY 

MOHICAN PEONY GARDENS 

Box 300, Sinking Spring, Penn'a 




He Has Taught 50,000 People 
How to Grow Mushrooms 

$10 to $50 a Week Easy in Spare Time 

AV. JACKSON has made mushroom-growing easy. 
Under his direction success is practically assured. 
• Mushrooms can be grown in cellars, chicken-houses, 
sheds, barns, etc. Big incomes can be made. One custo- 
mer with #2.00 worth of spawn raised #56 worth; another 
invested #75, raised #680 worth. Hundreds of testimonials 
can be given if desired. 

Mushrooms sell for 50c to #1.00 a pound. From 50 to 
100 pounds can be grown on a single bed, 5 x 10 ft., which 
costs practically nothing to start. And the work is not 
A. V. Jackson on )y profitable, but highly fascinating. 

Many women raise this delicacy for their own table, or for an added income. 
Often people have started mushroom growing as a pastime — then have found it 
so profitable that they have given up everything else. 

The instructions are easy to follow. Mr. Jackson's book is used by State 
Agricultural Colleges. The biggest crops ever grown were raised from his spawn, 
and by his scientific method. 

Mr. Jackson has been growing and studying mushrooms for twenty years. 
He built and owned the largest mushroom plant in the world. He is now at the 
head of the most modern and scientific plant in the world today — the Falmouth 
Mushroom Cellars, built at a cost of #150,000.00. 

He tells exactly the methods to use, the cost, how to sell them, etc. Write 
for his book, "How to Make Money in Mushrooms." Address 

[jllj A. V. Jackson, Falmouth Mushroom Cellars, Inc 
212 Gilford St., Falmouth, Mass. 

Falmouth Cellars -which A/r. Jackson directs 



■***"**+> 




II 



(i: 



m 




AT V<- \ 



V. Juekson, Falmouth Mu 
212 (Jifford Street, Fain 



'&, Inc., 



Please send your book "How to Make Money in Mushrooms," and other 
information, without obligation to me. 



The Readers 1 Service gives information about real estate 



^^Hl 



58 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 1914 



Hardy English Walnut Orchards? 



No longer an experiment 
In Zero Climates 

Plant an English Walnut orchard this Fall. Make a beginning 
and add to it each season. No bank failures, business depres- 
sions, nor trust investigations can interfere with this source of 
pleasure and income, for its rock foundation is the development of a 
natural resource. Start "with rugged, acclimated trees, grown 
under severe climatic conditions, with temperature far below 
zero at times. Conditions that breed iron-clad vigor and 
vitality; and that produce trees so hardy, they may 
be planted in cold climates with the same assurance 
of successful fruiting as Peach trees. 

We believe this is the only northern locality, where commer- 
cial orchards of English Walnuts may be seen, some of them 
containing hundreds of trees which have been bearing regu- 
larly for more than twenty years. 

For the lawn or driveway, English Walnut is exquisitely beau- 
tiful with its smooth light gray bark, luxuriant dark 
green foliage, lofty, symmetrical growth. A home- 
ful tree to plant about the home. Rochester parks 
and public streets contain many beautiful bearing 
trees, apparently as hardy as the Maples and Elms. At 
least, thriving under the same conditions, and pro- 
ducing annually delicious nuts as well as shade. 
Truly a most delightful combination. 

We have unlimited faith in trees bred and grown under 
these conditions, and are sure that those who plant 
our hardy strains of English Walnuts will be well 
pleased. 

The picture shows a Mayo English Walnut tree planted in 1907, began 
bearing in 1911. Superior quality, extreme hardiness, early 
bearer, safe to plant. 

Our 1914 Catalog and Planting Guide — 
includes Nut Culture, Fruits, Roses, Shrubs, 
Evergreens, etc., Mailed FREE on Request. 

GLEN BROS., Inc., Glenwood Nursery 
Estab'd 1866 2260 Main St., Rochester, N. Y. ^^ 





Lil. Candidum 

(Madonna Lily) 

Must be planted late August to 
end of September to assure good 
results. They are the ONLY pure 
white HARDY GARDEN LILIES. 

Wherever planted, singly, in 
groups or in rows, they are beauti- 
ful. The glistening snowwhite 
flowers adorned in the depth of 
their chalices with golden anthers 
are matchless. The perfume they 
exhale is delightful. Plant blue 
Larkspur together with them, the 
color effect is superb. They bloom 
at the same time. 

Plant NOW do not miss the time. 
We will send you Delivery Paid. 

Strong Superb Bulbs 

Each 12 ioo 
Large Bulbs $.12 $1.40 $10.50 

Mammoth Bulbs .20 2.25 12.50 
Jumbo Bulbs .25 2.75 15.00 

Three at Dozen rates 



The Larger the Bulb 
the More Flowers 



Send for our 
ready. 



Fall Hull. Hook Non 
A postal brings it. 



You will find a complete assortment of: 

Bulbs lor Fall and Spring flowering Bulbs for growing indoors 

Bulbs for outdoor planting Bulbs to grow in our Mossfiber 

New Varieties Best Collections 

Seeds for- Perennial Garden Seeds for winter bloom 

Address H. H. BERGER & CO. 

70 Warren Street, New York 



GROWING BULBS 

by Maurice Fuld 

is the name of a book just published that is 
needed by every reader of the Garden Mag- 
azine. It shows you how to use 20th Century 
Methods in planting and caring for bulbs, 
and is written so as to help the Amateur Gar- 
dener to get the best results. Describes 
Original Cultures in complete detail, by an 
eminent Bulb Specialist. A necessity to 
every one who has a garden and wants to 
enjoy the beauty of bulbs next Spring. 

Send for your copy to-day 

KNIGHT & STRUCK COMPANY 

1 Madison Avenue, New York 



Price 

$1.99. 

postpaid 




Wars to Replace 
A few Hours to Save 



ivery lost tree means a bare spot 
for years. Stop this useless sacrifice 
of your finest trees. Davey Tree Ex- 
perts can save them by effective, 
scientific treatment. 
Write today for beautiful book 
giving details of the work of genuine 
Davey Tree Surgeons, the 
only kind good enough for 
the U. S. Government. Go 
direct to headquarters. 
The Davey Tree Expert Co., Inc. 
922 Elm St., Kent, Ohio 




Stained luith Cabots' Shingle Stains 
Da-vis, McGrath Cr Shipard, Architects, N. Y. 




Summer Camps and Bungalows 

can be stained at half the cost of painting — and the 
colorings are incomparably more beautiful and appro- 
priate for this type of house. 

Cabot's Creosote Stains 

give soft, rich coloring effects that harmonize perfectly 
with natural surroundings, where a "painty" effect 
doesn't fit, and besides being much more artistic and 
one-half cheaper, they preserve the wood far better 
than paint, because they are made of Creosote, " the 
best wood preservative known." 

You can get CaboVs Stains all over the country. Send 
for stained wood samples and name of nearest agent. 

SAMUEL CABOT, Inc., Manfg. Chemists, 1 Oliver Street, Boston, Mast. 



Planting the Small Hardy Border 

THERE is not much opportunity for elaborate 
floral display on a small place, nor much 
occasion for it; the garden is generally confined to 
a border, reenforced, perhaps, by several smaller 
borders or beds, but supplying with its color most 
that is cheerful in the garden design. It is neces- 
sary, then, that great care be taken in the 
selection and arrangement of the plants, as the 
colors will be brought into close relation to the 
house and will influence the occupants almost as 
much as the decorations of the rooms. Consider 
the garden as an apartment, treat it as such, and 
give the same consideration to the materials for its 
adornment as you would to the decorations for the 
interior of your home. 

Nowadays small houses are usually of simple de- 
sign, and I mean by small houses those costing 
from five to ten thousand dollars and occupying 
plots of from half an acre to an acre and a half. 
The gardens, or yards, of these houses should be in 
keeping. 

If one is limited to a border there is no reason 
why some of the beauty and effect of a garden can- 
not be achieved in a small space. A border will be 
more impressive if it has the support of a stone or 
brick wall, a hedge, a picket fence or even a bank 
of turf, for flowers are much happier with a back- 
ground that will bring out their form and color, 
and the perpendicular lines of the tall plants will 
gain in value by repetition. A border should not 
be simply a garnishment for a path; the temptation 
to repeat, in the planting, the usually straight lines 
of the right-of-way is subconsciously compelling 
and dismal in its results. If the hedge or wall is 
so situated that it forms, or even suggests the out- 
lines of a forecourt the border will gain in effective- 
ness, for then it will truly be a part of the house. 

On a small place it is better to avoid a "one color 
scheme," for the plants upon which one has to de- 
pend for midsummer effect in this climate are not 
too reliable in the way of tones. And in a small 
enclosure a border of pink, or mauve, or lilac 
would soon become deadly monotonous because 
there would be no escape from it; it would dog the 
eye and the mind whenever one came out of the 
house or looked from a window; it would end in a 
delirium tremens of color before the season was 
half over. To have the border interesting one should 
avoid monotony. 

In studying the English gardens and borders, 
than which there are none more colorful and dig- 
nified, one is impressed by the simple planting 
which does not depend for its success upon a great 
variety of flowers, but rather upon the perfection 
of the individual specimens and the composition of 
the groups. In every garden there are a few, and 
generally only a few, plants that thrive and do well; 
one soon discovers which flowers are happiest in the 
setting that has been provided, and it would be 
wise to devote one's attention to these. In one 
English garden hollyhocks may be the dominant 
feature, the borders being skillfully planted up to 
them with forms and colors that will intensify 
their beauty. In another garden larkspur may be 
the keynote, or campanula, or pyrethrum, or strik- 
ing combinations of these old favorites. 

As the success of the border depends largely upon 
the continuity of its bloom, much thought should 
be given to the plan of planting. The temptation 
to which most gardeners succumb is ambition, the 
endeavor to produce in a space of fifty by eighty 
feet the effects of elaborate plantings that could 
scarcely be crowded into a garden ten times the size. 
Would it not be better to have the flowers open a 
little late, even toward the middle of June, and 
reach their maximum in August, than to sacrifice 
the finished effect for a little evaner cent color earlier 
in the season? For this reason I have omitted from 
the accompanying plan such plants as peonies and 
irises, for although they are beautiful when in 
flower, when the bloom has passed their shabby and 
bedraggled foliage is an eyesore and difficult to 
hide. It is necessary to plan in the beginning to 
hold the color after the climax has been reached, 
to make the planting interesting until fall. When 
the plants are growing and the flowers unfolding, 
they are attractive in themselves; the freshness of 
their leaves, their life and movement stimulate the 
imagination and the many different tones of blues 
and greens aftd grays are satisfying to the eye. The 



September, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



59 




FIBROUS ROOTS — THE RESULT OF ROOT-PRUNING 

EVERGREENS FOR AUGUST 
AND SEPTEMBER PLANTING 

They save you 5 to 10 years 

WHITE SPRUCE. 5 feet high, and White Pines. 12 
to 16 feet— choice ones, all prepared for successful 
transplanting. All of them have been several 
times transplanted, grown wide apart, and root pruned. 
It's this unusual care and attention that makes our 
evergreens dense and vigorous after vou buy them. They 
possess stamina. They cost more than smaller trees, or 
those of the same size of less root pruning and less space; 
but they are worth more. Decidedly more. They save 
you anywhere from 5 to 10 years. 

If results— quick, lasting results — are what you want, 
then buy these trees. 

We guarantee all evergreens planted in August and 
September, replacing any that fail. 

PRICES REDUCED 

S r-t 'hese rates — 

White Pine 12 ft. high 9 ft. spread 13 years old giq.oo 
White Pine 6 ft. high 4 ft spread 7 years old 4.50 
Also — 

White Spruce 3 ft. high 50 trees for 40.00 
I'"or a hedge, plant 3 ft. apart 




CK5 jre^5 

Isaac Hicks &>Son 

Westburu . Lontf Island 



Lilies 



Fresh From Beds 

When you get lily bulbs fresh from 
thebeds,with roots left on and packed 
in damp sphagnum moss, you often 
gain a whole year on them, because 
they don't need the time to recover 
that store bulbs demand. 

My spring catalogue and autumn 
supplement offer a long list of the 
kinds of hardy plants that can be 
grown in cold Vermont, besides a 
long list of bargains for those who 
have room to plant liberally. 

Don't fail to send for my catalogue before ^ou order 

F. H. HORSFORD. Charlotte. Vt. 



Landscape Gardening 

A course for Home-makers and 
Gardeners taught by Prof. Beal, 
of Cornell University. 

Gardeners who understand up- 
to-date methods and practice are 
in demand for the best positions. 

A knowledge of Landscape 
Gardening is indispensable to 
those who would have the 
pleasantest homes. 

250 page catalogue free. Write today 

THE HOME CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOL 

Dept. 9, Springfield, Mass. 




Prof. Beal 




Fairs New%(pdlinglrises 



This illustrates one of Farr's new 
Seedling Irises, raised at Wyomis- 
sing and introduced last season. 

The collection of Irises at 
Wyomissing Nurseries is not only 
the largest in the world, but in- 
cludes many varieties of my 
own hybridizing which cannot be 
obtained elsewhere. 

Farr's collection of Japanese 
Irises is unusually fine, and is 
the result of many years' study; 
the plants may be depended upon 
to come absolutely true to de- 



scription, as they are grown at 

Wyomissing. August and early 

September is considered the best 

time to plant all varieties of Irises. 

Farr's Superb Peonies 

My collection numbers over five 
hundred named Peonies, and includes 
the rarest and most beautiful varieties 
from Europe and the Orient. I have 
spared no effort to insure absolute cor- 
rectness as to name, color and type of 
flower. Peonies from Wyomissing will in- 
crease the pleasure you derive from your 
garden, and add to its value each season. 



Farr's Hardy Plant Specialties accurately describes all the Irises, 

Poppies, Peonies and other hardy plants grown at Wyomissing. Mailed on request. 

BERTRAND H. FARR 

Wyomissing Nurseries 104 Garfield Avenue, Wyomissing, Pa. 



Start a Fernery 

Brighten up the deep, shady nooks on your lawn, or that dark 
porch corner- just the places for our hardy wild ferns and wild flower 
collections. We have been growing them for 25 years and know 
what varieties are suited to your conditions. Tell us the kind 
! of soil you have — light, sandy, clay — and we will advise you. 

Gillett's Ferns and Flowers 

will give the charm of nature to your yard. These include not only hardy wild 
ferns, but native orchids, and flowers for wet and swampy spots, rocky hillsides 
and dry woods. We also grow such hardy flowers as primroses, campanulas, 
digitalis, violets, hepaticas, trilliums, and wild flowers which require open sunlight 
as well as shade. If you want a bit of an old-time wildwood garden, with flowers 
just as Nature grows them — send for our new catalogue and let us advise you 
what to select and how to succeed with them. 

EDWARD GILLETT, 3 Main St., Southwick, Mass. 




The Readers' Service is prepared to advise parents in regard to schools 



60 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 1914 




^mimm^»»ss^^S!m^ 





The Kind of Fence 
Offer We Make 

WHEN you secure our catalog you will find that 
it shows either iron or wire fences and gate- 
ways for practically "every place and pur- 
pose." Simple ones. Strictly utilitarian ones. Or- 
namental ones. Elaborate ones. Any of them we 
can turn out quickly and deliver promptly. 

But — if there seems to be nothing in the catalog 
that quite meets your requirements or taste, then we 
will gladly make up for you a special design based on 
either your ideas or our suggestions, or a combina- 
tion of both. 

One thing certain, if you want a fence of highest 
endurance, and of finished workmanship, at a price 
that is obviously reasonable; then we ought to be 
able to do business together. Send for a catalog and 
let us know something of your fence problems so we 
can offer suggestions. 

American Fence 
Construction Co. 

92 Church Street, New York City 



iN E ^ lc Al 



YS More Water 

raised and delivered by the 



ii 



American" Centrifugal Pump 

than by others because the 
impeller is accurately ma- 
chined to the casing, prevent- 
ing any sudden change in di- 
rection of the water. Not an 
ounce of power is wasted. 
Every "American" Centrifu- 
gal absolutely guaranteed. 
Write for new catalog 120. 

THE AMERICAN WELL WORKS 
Office and Works, Aurora, 111. 

First National Bank Building, Chicago 




The Biltmore Nursery Books 

■Contain practical helps for planters of trees, shrubs,' 
and perennials. The titles are "Hardy Garden 
Flowers" "Flowering Trees and Shrubs," "The Iris 
Catalog," "Biltmore Roses" and "Biltmore Nursery 
Catalog." Write for the book you are interested in. 
BILTMORE NURSERY, Box 1792, Biltmore, N. C. 




Make the Farm Pay 

Complete Home Study Courses in Agriculture, 
Horticulture, Floriculture, Landscape Gardening, 
Forestry, Poultry Culture, and Veterinary Science 

under Prof. Brooks, of the Mass. Agricultural Col- 
lege, Prof. Beal of Cornell University and other 
eminent teachers. Over one hundred Home Study 
Courses under able professors in leading colleges. 
•250 page catalog free. Write to-day 
THE HOME CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOL 
Oept. 18, Springfield, Mass. 




'AEOWAY 

PoTtery 

IS THE SETTING EXQUISITE THAT ENHANCES 
THE BEAUTY OF FLOWERS 



Send for our illustrated' — ■> 
'catalogue of Flower Pots. 
Boxes,\ases.Benches, Sundials. 
Gazing Globes, Bird fbnts and 
other Artistic Pieces for Garden 
and Interior Decoration. 

Gauoway Terra CoTta Co. 

3214 WALNUT ST. PHILADELPHIA. PA. 



border may be made cheerful in early spring with 
scillas, narcissus and cottage tulips, for they may 
be so placed as not to interfere with the permanent 
planting and their foliage will wither and disappear 
in a short time. Pansies used along the edging 
will be spent before their room is required. 

When planting a border I am always tempted to 
provide a liberal supply of white flowers for August, 
the effect is so cool and refreshing, and it is easy to 
accomplish with phlox, mallow, funkia, Michaelmas 
daisy, dahlia, lilies and petunia, the latter flower 
especially developing a charming wild abandon as 
the season advances. I would not have the border 
entirely white, but just enough to suggest a sprink- 
ling of snow over the sun-parched greens. 

FoUowing is the key to the plan of a border some 
forty feet long. The motive may be repeated or 
varied to suit the ideas of the owner, the clumps en- 
larged or contracted, but if the suggestions are fol- 
lowed in a general way there will be plenty of color 
for several months. The path in front of the border 
might be of turf, and quite wide, fully as wide as the 
border. A path of tanbark is good; the color is 
soft and harmonizes with the flowers and it is always 
clean and dry to walk upon. But unless there is a 
tannery in the neighborhood it is difficult and ex- 
pensive to procure. 



Yk 


Lj&WALZ, W1TM FICKEiT 


te,*jg& 


6 't' 'OVCH AZ.Z, 


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GBA<S\2 On TAUBARH VALtt 



NUMBER NAME 

i, 15 Rosa rugosa. 

2 Yucca filamenlosa. 

3 White phlox. 
4, 19 Hollyhocks. 

5 Japanese anemone. 

6 Coreopsis in variety. 

7, 21 Delphinium Belladonna. 
8 Brilliant phlox. 
9, 20 Fringed white petunias. 
10 Dahlia Geisha. 



NUMBER NAME 

11 Lilium umbellatum, erec- 

ium, grandijlorum.specio- 
sum, and vars. album, 
rubrum. 

12 Phlox, pink shades. 

13 Aster Nova Anglo?. 

14 Half-dwarf antirrhinum, 

17 Dahlia Perle de Lyon. 

18 Brilliant phlox. 

21 Delphinium formosum. 



Rosa rugosa is desirable on account of it substance 
and the perpetual freshness of its foliage. If it is 
slightly pruned it will bear many flowers through 
the summer, and the white hybrid, Blanc Double de 
Coubert, will bloom again profusely in August. 

The groups of hoUyhocks should be composed of 
plants of different stages of development. To those 
that are already established in the border should 
be added some of last summer's seedlings that have 
been wintered in the coldframe and some from the 
open seed bed, together with a few self-sown plants 
and annuals. By using growths of different heights 
and degrees of robustness the composition of the 
clump will be improved. 

It is better to mass Delphinium Belladonna near 
the light colored hollyhocks than to mix the light 
and dark blues indiscriminately. When the flowers 
begin to fade they should be cut back to bloom 
again, and some of the seedlings that were started 
under glass in the early spring should be planted in 
the clump, for these will be late to mature and will 
prolong the freshness of the undergrowth. 

The fringed petunias and antirrhinums will 
flower through the season with a little care. They 
should be allowed plenty of freedom, even to over- 
flowing on to the path and kept well cleaned of faded 
blooms. Many of the phloxes should be pinched 
back and some of the flower heads plucked before 
they are full blown so as to keep the clump in color 
until frost. As some of the whites and desirable 
pinks are quite late, the different timed varieties 
should be well mixed in the planting. 

Lilium umbellatum, gratidifloriim and erectum 
are most effective near larkspur and easy to grow, 
but as the bulbs increase rapidly they should be 
separated and replanted every three or four years. 
The season of this lily is rather early, so it would be 
well to combine Lilium speciosum with it to pre- 
serve the balance of the border in August and 
September. On the wall I would train Clematis 
panictdata, var. grandiflora at intervals of ten feet, 
with the large leaved euonymus between. The 
great masses of white overhanging the border in 
late summer are very acceptable, and the glaucous 
green of euonymus is a delight to the eye. 

New York. Cornelius V. V. Sewell. 




Many exclusive varieties of bulbs 
for bowl or bed culture are illus- 
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are thoroughly tested, assuring the very high- 
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catalogue on request. 

Carters Tested Seeds, Inc. 

104 Chamber of Commerce Bldg. 
Boston, Mass. 




II IS MAJESTY K I NG GEORGE V 



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if not 

satisfied 




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Leather Lined. Three Pockets. French Sewed Edges. Solid Corners. 
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AUSTIN'S SHOPS 38 Court Street, Uingliamton, N. Y. 



Brandywine 5pawn| 

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'S& for your home table and nearby markets. Illustrated book- 

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'\ anyone can follow. Send Ji for 3 bricks Brandy wine Spawn 
J and booklet, prepaid — enough for 30 sq. ft. of bed surface. 
■J EDWARD H. JACOB, BoxOU. West Chester, Pa. 



'■Jtk 



SCHOOL OF HORTICULTURE FOR WOMEN 

U8 Miles from "Philadelphia) 

Regular two-year course begins Sep- 
tember 1914. Practical and theoretical 
training in the growing of fruits, veg- 
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Bees. Poultry. Preserving. School 
Gardening and the Principles of Land- 
scape Gardening. Constant demand 
for trained women to fill salaried posi- 
tions. Write for Catalogue. 
I Jessie T. Morgan, Director 
Ambler, Pa. 

BANISH SPARROWS 

The famous Dodson Sparrow Trap catches as many as 75 to 100 a day. 
Successfully used all over America. 

Get rid of sparrows; native birds will return to your gardens. Sparrows 
are most easily trapped in July and August, young birds being most 
plentiful and bold. The Dodson Sparrow Trap 



jr«f ?»at* '"M 




Strong wire, electrically welded. Adjustable needle points at mouths of 
two funnels. Price $5 f. o. b. Chicago. 

NOTE.— Mr. Dodson, a Director of the Illinois Audubon Society, has been 
building houses for native birds for 19 years. He builds 20 kinds of houses, 
shelters, feeding stations, etc., all for birds— all proven by years of success. 

Free booklet— (ells how to win native birds to your gardens. Write to 

JOSEPH H. DODSON, 709 Security Building, Chicago, 111. 



Write to the Readers' Service for information about live stock 



September, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



61 







1 zM 




^^ 








^■ki ill 
E£ I 

l; 1 


,-Jl 




11 










1 

II 


B* 





Modern Sleeping Porch Fitted with Wilson's Blinds 

Practically makes an Outdoor Room of the or- 
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WILSON'S VENETIANS 

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Special Outside Venetians 

most practical and useful form of 
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For illustrated Bookltt specify " Venetian 4" 

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Also Inside Venetians; Rolling Partitions, 
Rolling Steel Shatters, Burglar and Fire- 
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HARDY PHLOX 

Your garden is not complete without a large assortment 
of Hardy Phlox, there is nothing finer. The foliage is 
refreshing, a wide range of color and the odor is exquisite. 
300 varieties. Send for list. 

W. F. SCHMEISKE 

Box 6, Hospital Station Binghamton, N. Y. 



PEONIES? 

Yes, good ones — Send for List 

GEORGE N. SMITH (THE PEONY MAN) 
WELLESLEY HILLS, MASS. 



DAHLIAS 



MOST POPULAR GARDEN 
FLOWER! Cordial invitation 
extended to all to visit my gard- 
ens during flowering season. 
Sample box containing 50 blossoms, different kinds, all labeled with names, 
for 5ioo. to cover labeling and packing; express to be paid by purchaser. 

Geo. L. Still man, Dahlia Specialist, Westerly, R.I., Box C-4 



Have You Some Friends? 

to whom this magazine 
would appeal? A very lim- 
ited number of copies have 
been set aside for my use. 
Send me the names and I 
will mail sample copies — a 
prospectus of coming fea- 
tures and our best clubbing 
offers. We are anxious to 
extend the usefulness of the 
magazine — will you help ? 

Address W. H. EATON, 

Circulation Manager 

GARDEN MAGAZINE 

GARDEN CITY NEW YORK 




Man cannot make a waterproofer that equals asphalt made by Nature 

We have tested all waterproofing materials during our thirty-five years' experience in the use of natural 
asphalt, and find that no man-made substitutes are permanent — they dry-out, crack and leak. 

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PEONIES 



Fifteen fine named Peonies for $2-50. or 25 for $5.00 all 
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order of above for S5.00 I will include one plant of 
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many other fine varieties. Send for catalogue. 

W. L. GUMM, Peony Specialist 

Remington, Indiana 




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An unlimited range of designs to suit any purse 
or purpose — to harmonize with any house, garden 
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For information about live stock write to the Readers' Senice 



62 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 191& 



SUCCESTIONS FOR. 




Conducted" c €g/_> 

EFFIE M . ROBINSON 



I OFTEN wonder why housewives will buy ahead 
of the season. Why be so impatient? Why not 
allow nature to perfect her work? Why not 
find out what is really and truly in season in 
your own neighborhood, instead of expecting im- 
possibilities? Do you not expect your gardeners 
to give you their best labor and the best fruit of 
their labor? Then show them that you can 
appreciate quality and refuse to use forced and 
therefore tasteless articles. 

Foods Forced Out of Season 

NOW I say aim for quality in fruits and vege- 
tables before anything else. The right 
season by Nature is the right flavor and the right 
use to which the article is put in your body. But 
instead, just as soon as anything appears, people 
rush' to buy irrespective of season. Strawberries, 
for instance, are displayed in the windows fre- 
quently when the snow is on the ground, but they 
are forced to sell and picked unripe and have no 
flavor or aroma or sweetness. 

These forced fruits and vegetables cost a fancy 
price too, and one is really almost inclined to be- 
lieve that it is greatly a matter of pretension that 
makes people buy poor, flavorless stuff out of 
season. 

Again the High Cost of Living! 

I UNDERSTAND that there is to be a regular 
monthly bulletin issued to help the housewife 
by giving the proper things in season and prices. 
This would supply another "long felt want." It 
would also help the tradesman. Things now are 
demanded out of season greatly through ignorance. 
There is such a continual supply of " newlyweds" 
with mighty little knowledge of housekeeping, and 
its important branch, marketing. The poor trades- 
man is bewildered, but wants to please his cus- 
tomers; he therefore gets things out of season or 
greatly in advance of the season, and has to pay a 
big price for them. The customer, of course, has to 
pay a bigger one and up goes the much talked of 
"high cost of living." Truly there are many 
reasons for that domestic bugbear. 

During the real summer months no one can want 




more variety than can be obtained from one's own 
garden or market. There is so much of everything 
that the peddlers peddle and the people pick and 
every one revels in the wealth of fresh garden stuff. 
A grumbler in summer is surely almost unheard of, 
except maybe the butcher! Meat used in quantity 
in the heat of summer is hardly necessary, as it 
makes a concentrated and highly nitrogenous food, 
and should only be used sparingly in conjunction 
with vegetables which contain the salts and also 
supply necessary bulk which assists digestion. 

Fish as a Substitute for Meat 

FISH, either served plain or as a salad, makes 
a useful change and can be used once or twice 
a week, cutting out meat altogether that day. I 
learned a delicious way to cook halibut the other 
day, and sliced cod could be served the same way. 
Have the halibut cut in slices about three quarters 
of an inch thick, wash the fish, lay the pieces side 
by side in a rather deep pan, and pour on sufficient 
milk to cover them, sprinkle with salt and pepper 
and bits of butter — it will take about two ounces 
of butter — and one gill of milk, then bake till the 
flesh turns white and opaque and separates easily 
from the bone, when gently tried with a skewer. 
Lift the fish out carefully and keep hot on a dish. 
Use the liquid in making melted butter sauce to 
be served with it. The flavor of the fish is 
retained better than if it is boiled. In fact, I 
hardly ever boil fish, instead I steam it. So much 
of the flavor of the fish goes into the water if boiled. 
I do not use a steamer, either; I put the fish on an 
agate plate on top of a saucepan of boiling water, 
sprinkle the fish with salt, cover closely and steam 
till cooked through, as described above. 

An Emergency Dessert 

THE other day company arrived quite unex- 
pectedly for lunch, and almost at lunch time, 
and I gave them, among other things, a dessert 
that they pronounced excellent. I happened to 
have some cold boiled rice left over from the curry 
of the day before. So I looked with quaking heart 
at my stock of cans in my closet, and my relief 
was great to find I still had some canned pineapple. 



For this dessert you must keep a supply of canned 
Hawaiian crushed pineapple — slices or chunks 
will not do. I took my can of pineapple, measured 
out one cupful, then took the same sized cup and 
filled that quite full of boiled rice, mixed them in a 
deep, cut glass or fancy bowl, added half that same 
cup of granulated sugar. I had a half pint bottle 
of cream on the ice — so quickly whipped that to 
a very stiff froth and stirred it in lightly. Then 
I put that on top of my ice in the refrigerator to 
get it as cold as possible while I served the first 
course of the luncheon. If you have a few mara- 
schino or candied cherries or ratifia biscuits they 
look pretty placed on top for decoration. The 
fresh pineapples can also be used but I find the 
already crushed so good that it is not necessary 
to trouble to grate the fresh. 

Cleaning and Keeping of Fruits and Veg- 
etables 

MANY of the fruits that we grow in our gar- 
dens seem to belong together. For instance, 
raspberries and red currants; the sweet of the 
raspberry counteracts the acidity of the cur- 
rants and makes a most refreshing combination. 
All berries should be washed carefully; in fact, all 
vegetables and fruits that are to be eaten raw should 
have particular attention. For instance, the rasp- 
berry is deceiving because it seems about the cleanest 
berry we have. But I have to pick them over 
one by one and look in the heart of each, for there is 
an insect that curls itself up inside the raspberry, 
and just washing will not dislodge it. Even if 
you pick your fruits and vegetables from your own 
garden and know who has touched them you always 
wash them; but you may not have everything you 
want in your garden and then have to buy from 
the men who come around with their carts or at 
the markets and imagination leads me to do strenu- 
ous cleansing processes! I pick over berries and 
small fruits carefully, then have a kettle of boiling 
water ready, put the fruit in a colander, pour boiling 
water over, one dash as it were, and quickly plunge 
them into cold water. If this is done quickly, 
there is absolutely no taste of cooking as some 
people claim. 

(Continued on page 64) 







BAKING POWDER 

ABSOLUTELY PURE 

Insures the most 
delicious and healthful food 

The " Royal Baker and Pastry Cook, 
containing five hundred practical 
receipts for all kinds of baking 
and cookery, free. Address Royal 
Baking Powder Co., New York. 


This May 
Interest You 

Somebody in your town is going to get 
a substantial increase in his income for 
representing this company. Looking 
after our renewals, getting new subscrib- 
ers, etc. We want to extend the useful- 
ness of The Garden Magazine — Will you 
help by sending us the name of someone 
who can do this work? — Thank you. 

Address Circulation Department 

DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY 

Garden City, New York 



All foods advertised in this department have been tested and approved by Effie M. Robinson. They are also sold and recommended by the Doubleday, Page & Co. Cooperative Store 



September, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



63 




The Burlap Covering pro- 
tects from dust, flies and mi- 
crobes from smoke house 
to kitchen. 



Uniform Cure 
Delicious Flavor 



% 



Insist Upon Ferris! 

A LITTLE HIGHER IN PRICE — BUT? 

HHPBTBIM 

m 




TheWestfield Board of Health says: "Absolutely Pure and Wholesome. 




'The Greatest of All Cook Books"— N. Y. Evening Telegram 




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THE INTERNATIONAL 
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3,300 Recipes Net $1.00 Complete Index 



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Garden City 



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It is delicious 

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The New Housekeeping 



Some of the Subjects : 

I A solution of the servant 
problem. 

H Efficiency in the kitchen. 

H Business and the house- 
keeper. 

II Household economies. 

T Men and the household 
efficiency movement. 



By Christine Frederick 

Consulting Household Editor of the Ladies' 

Home Journal, and the National Secretary of 

the Associated Clubs of Domestic Science. 

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It is the most practical book ever written for solv- 
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the reduction of the cost of living — the elimination of 
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Illustrated. Net $1.00 



Garden City 



DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & CO. 



New York 



WHAT THIS DEPARTMENT MEANS TO THE READERS 
OF THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



T "T THEN the idea of this " Suggestions for the Home 
\\ Table" Department was first conceived the inter- 
ests of our readers were naturally uppermost 
in our minds. 

We felt from the first that the idea was closely allied with 
the theme and purpose of this magazine, and after most 
careful thought and investigation we became convinced that 
in the general plan and programme of The Garden Maga- 
zine there was a definite place for a department of this kind 
and that it would be of real value and service to our readers. 
Accordingly we engaged the services of Miss Effie M. 
Robinson, a graduate of the National Training School of 
Cookery in London, and the idea became a reality in the 
June number. 



And as a logical supplement to the editorial matter we 
decided to offer a limited amount of advertising space in 
this section to the manufacturers of food products approved 
by Miss Robinson, a number of whom have already taken 
advantage of this exceptional opportunity. 

It will be well worth your while to read carefully each 
month Miss Robinson's articles and then to digest thor- 
oughly the information contained in the different advertise- 
ments for we believe the institution of this department to 
be one of the most constructive steps The Garden Maga- 
zine has taken in the ten years of its existence and that 
you will find herein many ideas and suggestions that will be 
of the greatest assistance to you in your housekeeping 
activities. 



Miss Robinson will be glad to answer personally any inquiry regarding any subject 
whatsoever in connection with the home table, which our readers may care to send 
her. Address care of The Garden Magazine, Garden City, Long'Isla-nd, New York 



All foods advertised in this department have been tested and approved by Effie M. Robinson. Tliey are also sold and recommended by the Doubleday, Page S? Co. Cooperative Store 



UMi 



64 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 1914 



You Remember "The 
Pit" and "The Octopus" 
written ten years ago by 

FRANK NORRIS 

Their author was hailed 
as the greatest realist 
America had produced 

Vandover 

and the Brute 

was written before the other two 
but has only just been published. 

Richard Burton says: 

"Vandover and the Brute" only serves to 
strengthen my oft-expressed conviction: to wit, 
that when Norris died untimely he was the 
most prominent writer of fiction in this land. 

The San Francisco Bulletin says: 

In conception thestoryisbig — oneof those pow- 
erful themes of human interest which appealed 
so strongly to the author of "The Octopus," 
and which he invariably handled with such 
down-right earnestness and sincerity as to 
stamp him a really great writer. While this 
novel, written in the days of his youth, has 
certain technical blemishes, it contains many 
passages which show a mental grasp, a knowl- 
edge of psychology and a keen insight into hu- 
man nature that would be regarded as extraor- 
dinary even in a writer of mature mind. 

The soul-struggle of Vandover is powerfully 
portrayed, and while, the craftsmanship is by 
no means equal to that of the author's later 
works, the novel shows clearly the marks of 
genius — a remarkable creation considering 
the youth of the novelist, and one which is 
to be commended to all lovers of virile, gripping 
fiction. 

Net $1.35 

Many people cannot set books. If there is no bookstore 
near you we shall be glad to send books on approval. We 
do not wish to interfere with the trade of the bookseller; 
we wish that every locality in the United States had a good 
bookseller and that you would buy the books selected from 
him; our suggestion is addressed to readers who have no 
convenient bookstore to go to. 

DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY 

Garden City New York 



Conrad at his Best. — N. Y. Tribune. 



Third 
Large Printing 

CHANCE 

By JOSEPH CONRAD 

Flora De Barral, bruised and battered by 
"chance" dominates his novel. Hei life 
is one continued recurrence of unforeseen 
events that toss her to and fro. It is a 
great big book. That is Conrad, 
splendid in detail, grouping in his en- 
semble all the mighty things of 
jmen, with an escape to the 
illimitable at hand. 

— Boston Post. 

Net Sr.35. 



Suggestions for the Home Table 

{Continued from page 62) 

Be careful not to crush the fruit; also in preparing 
different vegetables do not let them stand in water 
for long before using as they will absorb the water 
and become tasteless. Radishes, for instance, can 
be kept crisp two days by wrapping the whole 
bunch in waxed paper and laying on top of the ice. 
Then when ready to use wash and trim and serve, 
whereas if prepared and then kept in cold water 
till wanted they will be soft and soggy and watery. 
Also, I would suggest that muskmelons should be 
kept cold in the ice box, but not with chopped ice 
in them. It takes the flavor out entirely. 

A Hint to Picnickers 

PICNICS are primarily and essentially for chil- 
dren, I think, and one must cater to their needs. 
If you have appetizing lunches, you are inde- 
pendent of restaurants or "halfway houses." 
Drinks, however, must be provided, and there 
again, as I mentioned before, the thermos bottle is 
invaluable. If you cannot get a good, cold, thirst- 
quenching drink on your travels, your picnic is 
spoiled. These vacuum bottles are really being 
sold very inexpensively now, and for people with 
automobiles, who make frequent trips, they pay 
for themselves in comfort very soon. 

The Middle South 

SOW perennials in the early part of September, 
if they were not got into the coldframes last 
month. Sow sparsely so there will be no need of 
thinning out later. The plants will get a good 
start before cold weather and be ready to set out 
in the open ground in March and April. Some of 
the most desirable perennials of easy culture are: 

Canterbury bells, delphinium, hollyhocks, sweet 
William, Japanese bellflower, Anchusa Italica, 
aquilegia or columbine, candytuft, dianthus, 
digitalis or foxglove, oriental poppies, Lupinius 
bolyphyllus, physostegia, pentstemon, wall-flower. 

Pansies and English daisies (Bellis) sown in the 
coldframe and wintered over will be in full bloom 
by the middle of February and can be set out in 
the open ground in March. 

To insure a variety of bloom for March and 
April, sow in the open ground where you wish 
them to remain, the following annuals: 

Mignonette, arabis, myosotis or forget-me-nots, 
dwarf phlox, and sweet alyssum. It saves time 
to plant in the fall and avoids the spring rush. 

Wallflower, beauty stock, and snapdragons that 
have wintered over through the protection of a 
light mulch of well rotted manure will bloom in 
February. If one's garden is carefully mapped out, 
a fall sowing of gaillardia, petunia, scabiosa, corn- 
flower and annual larkspur and poppies will bring 
earlier flowers by a month or six weeks. 

At the end of the month prepare your bulbs for 
winter blooming for the house and conservatory. 
Paper White narcissus, Roman hyacinths and 
Dutch hyacinths, early tulips, freesias, and 
cyclamen should be planted in good soil in shallow 
pots, leaving enough room for the bulbs to swell. 
A 6-inch pot would accommodate six bulbs. Cover 
with half an inch of soil. Bury the pots in the 
open ground one foot below the surface and on the 
north side of the garden if possible, and bring them 
into the house in relays every two weeks through- 
out the winter so as to have a succession of bloom. 
This method gives an opportunity for root growth. 
Keep in the cellar for a week or two and then bring 
into the warmth of a sunny window. 

Transplant into pots for house plants a few an- 
nuals that have sprung up in the garden, such as 
petunias, verbenas and larkspur. 

If the violet plants were separated in April and 
set out in the open ground for the summer, they 
should be taken up and transplanted to the cold- 
frames. Make the soil rich with well rotted manure 
and have it well worked and light. Then plant 
the violets six in a row in rows eight inches apart. 
Water carefully every day and shade from sun. 
The flowers that bloom this month are zinnias, 
chrysanthemums, dahlias, petunias, verbenas, 
asters, snapdragons, stock, etc. 

The Cochet roses should certainly be planted in 



Two Fine Garden Tools 

This fine trowel is almost everlasting. It is 
1/16 of an inch thick — made from crucible steel 
of highest grade. Steel rivet holds maple 
handle so it can't work loose. Blade, 
neck and socket all one piece. 
9 Will last a lifetime. 

mtt 
Kumn 

Garden Tools 

are all first quality. This Keen Kutter 
nursery spade has double straps full 
length of handle. No better 
at any price. Fine for trans- 
planting shrubs, bushes, small 
trees. Ask your dealer to show 
you. Send for our Garden Tool 
Booklet No. 1646. 
If not at your dealer's, write us. 



Garden Trowels 

K05 with 

Straight Neck 

Price $0.75 

E04 with 

Bent Neck 

Price $0.76 



SIMMONS HARDWARE CO. 
St. Louis, U. S. A. 




A VERITABLE mine of in- 
■^*- formation on bulb planting 
and bulb care will be found in 
the 1914 issue of Thorburn's 
Bulb Catalog. 

Write for your copy 

J. M. THORBURN & CO. 

53B Barclay St. New York 




IRISES 

EXCLUSIVELY 

tns p,ant them n ° w 



id In my catalog you 
•1ST w j|| nn{ j wonder- 
Ohio ful offerings in col- 
lections. The Plants 
are large. 
ERITH N. SHOUP 
THE GARDENS Dayton, Ohio 



CORN 



HARVESTER with binder attach- 
ment, cuts and throws in piles on har- 
vester or winrows. Man and horse 
cut and shock equal to a corn binder. 
Sold in every state. Price only $20.00 
with fodder binder. J. D. Borne, Haswell, Colo., writes: 
''Your corn harvester Is all you claim for it: cut, tied and 
shocked 65 acres mllo, cane and corn last year." 
Testimonials and catalog free, showing pictures of harvester. Address 
PROCESS MFG. CO., Sallna. Kansas 



FERNALD'S HARDY PLANTS 

Grown in the Cold State of Maine 

Are strong field grown in superb varieties that will 
make a gorgeous display in your Hardy Flower 
Garden. Send for catalogue of Herbaceous 
Perennials, Shrubs and Iron Clad Roses. 
W. LINWOOD FERNALD Eliot, Maine 



DWARF APPLE TREES 

DWARF PEAR TREES 

DWARF PLUM TREES 

DWARF CHERRY TREES 

DWARF PEACH TREES 

Also a Full Line of Standard Fruit Trees 

Fall Planting Bulletin Free 

THE VAN DUSEN NURSERIES 

W. L. McKAY, Prop., Box G, Geneva, N. Y. 



The Readers' Service will give information about the latest automobile accessories 



September, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



65 



Books by 

Stewart 
Edward White 

A Forty-niner writes: 



a 



GOLD 



Is a true delineation of the situ- 
ation in California at the time." 

The Bookman Adds: 

" It is not merely a story of the rough 
life of the gold fields that Mr. White 
has written; it is the depicting of the 
birth of an empire. It is this which 
gives his book the epic quality. 

Illustrated by Thomas Fogarty. Net $1.35 



The Adventures of Bobby 

Orde. Illustrated ----- 

African Camp Fires. Illustrated 
Arizona Nights. Illustrated - - 
The Blazed Trail. Illustrated 
Blazed Trail Stories. Illustrated 
The Cabin. Illustrated - - - - 

Camp and Trail. Illustrated - - 
The Claim Jumpers ----- 

Conjuror's House. Illustrated - 
The Forest. Illustrated - - - 
The Land of Footprints. Illustrated 
The Mountains. Illustrated - - 
The Mystery (with Sam'l Hopkins 
Adams) -------- 

The Pass. Illustrated - - - - 

The Riverman. Illustrated - - 
The Rules of the Game. Illustrated 
The Silent Places. Illustrated - 
The Westerners ----- - 



Net $1.20 


cc 


1.50 


M 


1.35 


« 


1.35 


U 


1.35 


U 


1.50 


(( 


1.25 


(( 


1.35 


(( 


1.20 


(t 


1.50 


(C 


1.50 


(« 


1.50 


« 


1.35 


u 


1.25 


(( 


1.35 


u 


1.40 


(( 


1.35 


M 


1.35 



Many people cannot gel books. If there is no bookstore near you, 
vie shall be glad to send books on approval. We do not wish to 
interfere with the trade of the bookseller; we wish that every locality 
in the United Stales had a good bookseller and that you would buy 
these books selected from him; our suggestion is addressed to readers 
who have no convenient bookstore to go to. 

Doubleday, Page & Company 

Garden City New York 



BULBS— READY NOW 

PRICE PER 100. POSTAGE PAID 



Tulips, Mixed Late . 
" Pico tee . . 
" Bouton d'Or . 
" Mixed Darwin 



$1.00 Narcissi, Mixed .... J1.00 

1-20 *' Mrs. Langtry . . 1.00 

i-2o " Poeticus Ornatus 1.00 

1-5° " Barrii Conspicuus 1.20 



ORONOGO FLOWER GARDENS, CARTHAGE, MO. 




LOOK OUT 
FOR SPARKS 

No more danger or damage from Hying 
sparks. No more poorly fitted, flimsy fire- 
place screens. Send for free booklet 
"Sparks from the Fire-side." It tells about 
the best kind of a spark guard for your in- 
dividual fireplace. Write to-day foi free 
booklet and make your plans early. 

The Syracuse Wire Works 
107 I ni»erwit j Arenue, • Syracuse, N. T. 



Tie 



Before buying dinner- 
ware insist on your dealer showing 
you some of the almost endless variety of attractive 
patterns of HOMER LAUGHLIN China. You will be 
wonderfully surprised, and pleased too, that such beauti- 
ful dinner-ware can be obtained for so little money. Its 
exquisite colors and charming designs last as long as 
the ware itself — made to stand the severe test of years 
of every day use. 

Even tho' you pay higher prices you cannot obtain 
more real service, satisfaction and beauty than is afforded 



by the famous 



><•••■<- 



>* 



jfoM ERlAUGHUN 

CHINA 



—d^&h^s^ 



made in America — in the largest pottery inn 
the world — where 42 years experience has. 
given us the skill to make dinner-ware as good 
as it looks. Any home-maker may well be proud. 
to adorn her table with its artistic decorations and. 
graceful shapes. 
All of the many HOMER LAUGHLIN patterns are 
open stock — you can begin with a few pieces and build up. 
The name HOMER LAUGHLIN on the under side 
of each dish is our guarantee to you. Insist on 
seeing it before you buy 

The China Book, richly illus- 
trated in colors, explains 
how china is made in the 
world's greatest pottery. 
Send for it. It is free. 



L The Homer Laughlin 

China Company 

Newell, W. Virginia 



SI! 






&r^v-Hl#J 



\ 



<i? 



" We grow our own trees* * 

Evergreen Seedlings and 
Transplants 

For Fall Planting 

Order now before our lines are broken. 
It Will pay you to get our Fall pricelist. 

The North Eastern Forestry Co. 
Cheshire, Conn. 



"tzr.4r.tr.4r.4r.tr' 



■©««'§:«« 



YOUR LAWN NEEDS 
FEEDING NOW 

It is time to do it NOW and WELL ROTTED 
HORSE MANURE, Dried, Ground, Odorless— 
Largely HUMUS — No weed seeds — No refuse, 
contains the necessary plant foods for maintain- 
ing your LAWN in the best condition. 

Put up in bags 100 pounds each 

Write for circular "C" and prices. 

NEW YORK STABLE MANURE COMPANY 

273 Washington Street Jersey City, N. J. 



\i; 



&* 



ffi 



The Readers' Service will give information about latest automobile accessories 



66 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 19 14 



Poultry, Kennel and Live Stock Directory Info ™ ati ° n «*out the 

** ' ~ selection or care or 

dogs, poultry and live stock will be gladly given. Address INFORMATION DEPARTMENT, 
The Garden Magazine, 11-13 West 32d Street, New York. 



Hodgson Portable Poultry Houses 

Five-Section Poultry House — No. Colony Laying House— 



10x50 ft. 



Sanitary, durable, up-to-date — made of red cedar, clap- 
boarded outside, interior sheathed. Made in 10-ft sections, 
each fitted with roosts, nests and fountain. Open fronts, 
with canvas-covered frames. You can add sections at any 
time. Easily erected. 




tf.y 10 lipfic Fitted complete with nests, fountain 
lOi 1£ llclla anr j f eec i trough. Sanitary — easily clean- 
ed. One man can easily care for several hundred birds. 
Nicely painted — set up in fifteen minutes. A comfortable 
year-round house. In stormy weath- 
er the run may be covered, giving a 
protected scratching room. Size, lOx 
4ft., 5ft. high. 



$20^ 



E. F. HODGSON CO., 



Send for catalogue. 



Visit our $ KOOM 311, 110 WASHINGTON ST., BOSTON, MASS. i 

showrooms i CRAFTSMAN BLDG., 6 EAST 89TII ST., NEW YORK \ 




Address all 

correspondence 

to Boston 




Bob White Quail 
Partridges and Pheasants 

Capercailzies, Black Game, Wild Turkeys, Quails, 
Rabbits, Deer, etc., for stocking purposes. Fancy 
Pheasants, Peafowl. Swans, Cranes, Storks, 
Ornamental Geese and Ducks, Foxes, Squirrels, 
Ferrets, etc., and all kinds of birds and animals. 

WILLIAM J. MACKENSEN, Naturalist 



Dept. 55, Pheasantry and Game Park 



YARDLEY, PA. 




A Child's Delight 



A SHETLAND PONY 

is an unceasing source of 
pleasure. A safe and ideal 
playmate. Makes the child 
strong and of robust health. 
Highest type — complete out- 
fits — here. Inexpensive. 
Satisfaction guaranteed. Write 
for illustrated catalog. 

BELLE MEADE FARM 

Box. 15, Markham, Va. 





Reduces Strained, Puffy Ankles, Lym- 
phangitis, Poll Evil, Fistula, Boils, Swell- 
ings; Stops Lameness and allays pain. 

Heals Sores, Cuts, Bruises, Boot Chafes. 

It is an 

ANTISEPTIC AND GERMICIDE 

[NON-POISONOUS] 

Does not blister or remove the hair and horse can be 
worked. Pleasant to use. $2.00 a bottle, delivered. 
Describe your case for special instructions and 

BOOK 5 K FREE 
W. F.YOUNG, P. D. F., 152 Temple Street, Springfield, Mass. 



Hatch Winter Layers Now 

Young's strain S. C. White Leghorns, over 200 eggs yearly 
each, go% fertility guaranteed; eggs $1 peris postpaid. $4 
per 100, special feeding formula with each order, also Barred 
Rocks, White Wyandottes and R. I. Reds, 6 week chicks $3 a 
dozen, 10 week chicks $5 per dozen. 

CEDAR CREST POULTRY YARDS, Masonville, N. J. 



1 here's Money in Poultry 

Our Home Study Course in Practical Poultry 
Culture under Prof, Chas. K. Graham, late of the 
Connecticut Agricultural College, teaches how to 
muke poultry pay. 

Personal instruction. Expert advice. 
250 Page Catalogue free. Write to-day 

THE HOME CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOL 
Dept. 10, Springfield, Mass, 




Are You Searching for a Country Estate, Model 
Farm, Suburban Residence or Bungalow? 

There are complete descriptions of very desirable properties that are not publicly known 
to be on the market in our Real Estate Directory File. If you wish to know their 
location, acreage, price, terms, etc., kindly communicate at once with 

Mgr. Real Estate Department 

COUNTRY LIFE IN AMERICA 



Garden City, Long Island 



The National Real Estate Medium 



11 West 32nd Street, New York 




Sold by Seedsmen and Merchants 

Hammond's Cattle Comfort" 



Trade Mark 



Keeps Cows, Horses or Mules free from Flies, Gnats 
and other pests. It is cheap and effective. For pam- 
phlet on " Bugs and Blights" write to 



"Cattle Comfort" HAMMOND'S SLUG SHOT WORKS, City of Beacon, N. Y. 



Southern gardens in quantities. They bloom with 
profusion in spring and fall and some little through- 
out the summer and often up to November. 

FRUIT AND VEGETABLE GARDEN 

Set out strawberry plants during the first part of 
September. A good soil for such is one that has 
previously been in crimson clover and plowed under. 
Put on plenty of well rotted manure and set the 
plants one foot apart, the rows being two feet apart. 

Raspberry and blackberry canes should be 
planted in a cool, half shady place and the old canes 
trimmed back one half. 

For the onion patch make the soil very rich with 
barnyard manure mixed with kainit. 

Plant potato, queen and pearl onions six inches 
apart, in rows two feet apart. Where the garden 
soil needs building up and more humus, sow crimson 
clover to be turned under in the spring. 

Sow in open ground winter kale and spinach. 
Do not have the soil too rich, but rather encourage 
a sticky growth to withstand the cold of winter. 

Also set out fall cabbage and broccoli plants. 
Celery plants which should have been set out in 
July must be kept well watered throughout the 
summer. Every two weeks sprinkle between the 
rows a small quantity of nitrate of soda. 

White potatoes should be dug after the vines die. 
Let them lie on the ground in the shade until dry 
and afterward spread on the barn floor for several 
weeks. They could be kept in a cool dry cellar 
or else put in kilns outdoors for winter keeping. 

Brussell sprouts and cauliflower and white 
potato vines should be occasionally treated with 
bordeaux mixture, and tobacco dust for insects. 

Sow in coldframes for winter use early Jersey 
Wakefield cabbage and also onion seed, to be 
transplanted in the spring. 

Sow the Big Boston and Boston Market lettuce 
seed in coldframes not later than first part of 
month so as to have little plants to set out the first 
of October. Transplant to coldframes in which 
the soil has been made very rich with well rotted 
manure, and pulverized. Plant six in row about 
eight inches apart. Occasionally sprinkle a little 
nitrate of soda between the rows and force the 
lettuce to head by December. Make several 
plantings two weeks apart to middle of December. 

The small late canteloupes that do not ripen can 
be put in strong brine as well as the cucumbers and 
string beans and later on pickled for winter use. 

The first of September is the time to sow lawn 
grass seed. Get the ground in good condition, 
well pulverized and level; sow bone meal and then 
grass seed and roll with a heavy roller. Get a 
good mixture of lawn grass from a reliable seedsman. 

Virginia. J. M. Patterson. 

Duties for the Lower South 

DO NOT permit seed to form on the cannas. 
The best flowers are produced during the fall 
when the nights are cool. Along the edges of lakes 
and other moist places they make as beautiful a 
display as Japanese iris. 

During the month plant some Madonna lily bulbs. 
Select the largest sized bulbs. 

Plant out the perennial phlox now. Divide the 
old plants if too thick. Have the soil rich. 

Remember not to neglect chrysanthemums. 
This is the time of year when they should be given 
liquid manure and disbudded for show blooms. 
The same may be said of asters sown in summer. 

Early cucumber and bush squash may be planted 
in Florida during the month. 

Pick the field peas after a rain when the pods are 
still damp which prevents the pods from bursting 
and scattering the seed. 

Cotton picking is now the order of the day in the 
South. Keep it picked as fast as it opens. 

Sow turnips for table use; and for the cattle, 
plant Seven Top turnips and Essex rape. Rye 
mixed with oats makes a splendid pasture for 
cattle. Sow now for early pasture. Remember 
that crops grown for pasture require more fertilizer 
than do regular crops. 

Salsify, or vegetable oyster, requires a long 
growing season. Parsnip, carrot, radish and beet 
may also be sown now. 

Don't forget to order your fruit trees. 

Georgia. Thomas J. Steed. 



The Readers' Service will gladly furnish information about Retail Shops 



September, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



or 



Western 
Guide 

BY 

Chester A. Reed, B. S. 

A complete descriptive guide of conven- 
ient size with color illustrations to the 
appearance, the habits, the nests, the cries, 
the range of distribution of every bird west 
of the Rockies. 

230 Illustrations 

Cloth, Net, $1. 00 Leather, Net, $1.25 

Birds of Eastern 
North America 

BY 

Chester A. Reed, B. S. 
40S Illustrations in Color. 

Cloth, Net. $3. 00 

Other Books by Charles K. and 
Chester A. Reed 

Guide to Taxidermy, Illustrated net SI. 50 

Nature Studies; Birds. Illustrated. 

net 60 cents 

Nature Studies. — In Field and Wood. 

Illustrated net 60 cents 

Camera Studies of Wild Birds in their 

Homes. Illustrated . . . . net $2.00 

North American Birds, Eggs. Illus- 
trated. Size 6}4 x 9 net $2.50 

Goldfish — Aquaria — Ferneries. I llus- 

trated. Size 3^x5^. . . .net 50 cents 

Bird Guide. In two parts. Pocket size — 
Illustrated. Size, 3M x sM- 

Part I. Water and Game Birds: Birds 

of Prey. Flexible sock cloth. net $1.00 

Flexible Leather net $1.25 

Part II. Land Birds East of the 
Rockies: From Parrots to Blue 
Birds. Flexible sock cloth. net 75 cents 

Flexible leather net $1.00 

Parts I and II. Bound in a Single Volume. 
Size, 3^x5%. Illustrated. Flexible 
leather net $2.25 

Wild Flowers East of the Rockies. 

Size, 4^ x 6}4- Illustrated. . . net $2.50 

Flower Guide: Wild Flowers East of 
the Rockies. Size, 5^ x 3^. Il- 
lustrated. Cloth . . . . net 75 cents 
Leather net $1.00 

Many people cannot get books. If there is no bookstore near 
you we shall be glad to send books on approval. We do not 
wish to interfere with the trade of the bookseller; we wish that 
every locality in the United States had a good bookseller and 
that you would buy the books selected from him; our suggest- 
ion is addressed to readers who have no convenient bookstore 
to go to. 

DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & CO. Garden City, New York 

PFONIFS plant peonies now. Look! One dozen 
. *-'>-'* ~A*-"J choicest varieties delivered free anywhere 
in United States only S5-oo. Catalogue of 60 finest kinds. 
Also potted strawberry plants. 
M. S. PERKINS CO., 6 Winthrop St., Danvers, Mass. 



Do You Use Photographs 

To illustrate articles and advertising 
matter? Our file of 75,000 
various subjects, is at your disposal. 

Illustration Department 

DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY 
1 1 West 32 nd Street, New York City 



Dreer's Dependable Bulbs 

For Autumn Planting 

MAKE your selection of Spring-flowering 
bulbs now. Planting our high-grade 
stock will insure a bountiful harvest 
of blossoms next Spring. 

Dreer's Autumn Catalogue 

offers the best selection of Hyacinths, 
Tulips, Narcissus, Crocus, Iris, Snow- . 
drops, Scillas, etc., and in addition a 
very select list of Old-fashioned Hardy 
Plants; plants for the house and con- 
servatory; Hardy Shrubs; Hardy Climbers; Flower, 
Vegetable and Grass Seeds — and everything 
seasonable for the Garden, Greenhouse and Farm. 

Sent free — if you mention this magazine 
O^-v—m,, A ri^~~~. 714-716 Chestnut St. 

Henry A. Ureer Philadelphia, pa. 




HOLLAND BULBS 

Beautiful and desirable varieties 
in Darwin, and other fine 
Tulips, Hyacinths, Narcissi, Etc. 

PEONIES AND IRIS 

In Fine Clumps 

PLANT THESE NOW 

Prices not Inflated Quality the Best 
Prompt Service 

Let Us Send Our Catalogue 

FRANKEN BROTHERS, Deerfield, 111. 



r 



THREAD 

AND 

THRUM 
RUGS 



Made to order — to exactly match 
the color scheme of any room 

HAVE your fine rugs made to order, not 
cheap stereotyped fabrics, made in unlimited 
quantities; but rugs that are different and sold 
only through exclusive shops. We are only too 
glad to submit sketch in color to harmonize with 
surroundings of the room. Woven in selected 
camel's hair in undyed effects or pure wool in 
any color tone. Any length, any width — seam- 
less up to 1 6 ft. Order through your furnisher. 
Write us for color card — today. 
Thread & Thrum Workshop 
Auburn, New York 



Peonies 

From the Cottage Gardens 
Famous Collection 



\Y/E OFFER a selection of over 
three hundred and fifty of the 
choicest varieties in one, two and 
three year old roots. 

Do not fail to send for our FREE 
CATALOGUE which gives authentic 
descriptions. It also tells you how to 
plant and grow this beautiful flower 
successfully. 



Shipping season commences September 
I st and continues during the Fall months. 



COTTAGE GARDENS CO., Inc. 

NURSERIES 

QUEENS, LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK 



May we send you this booklet ? 

It contains a lot of information about high grade shingle stains which S 
you should have before building. s 




n extern* 

IS 3/LOTJ/ms KJii 



ENGLISH SHINGLE 

ains 



3/LOTJ/m-S 

are cheaper than paint, more durable, easier to ap- 
ply. Unlike paint, they bring out all the natural 
beauty of the grain and texture of the wood, and 
the special Dexter preservative oils add years 
to its life. The soft, rich, fadeless colors har- 
monize perfectly with natural surroundings. 

Write today for " Symphonies " and 22 stained tninia- - ^ — 

lure shingles. ' Ask for name of nearest agent /S»8E^ 

Dexter Brothers Co., no Broad St., lJoitonKS^Wlk^ 

BRANCH OFFICE, 1133 Broadway, New York ISHfe'-' 
AGENTS AT ALL CENTRAL POINTS \ C ™ 

Also makers 0/ DEXTROL1TE. the WHITE ENAM- 
EL -which does NOT TURN YELLOW 



68 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September. 1914 



J-M 

Asbestos 

Shingles 

The Shingles 
of Service 

J-M Transite Asbestos Shingles [ 
are as enduring as the building 
itself. Being made of Portland 
Cement and Asbestos fibres, [they 
grow stronger and more durable 
with age. 

Artistically beautiful when laid \" 
thick with rough, ragged edges, or ! 
\" thick, American or Hexagonal | 
\ style. Equally attractive by using 
I contrasts in color schemes for the I 
buildings that contemplate roofs of 
Indian Red, Mottled Brown or Grey. | 

The cost of J-M Transite Asbestos Shingles 
I is ultimately less than any other roof cover- f; 
ing, as it is the first-cost-last -cost material, j 
J-M Service signifies not only materials of 
exceptional quality, but satisfied, well- ! 
pleased clients always. 

Write our nearest Branch for Booklet 

H. W. JOHNS-MANVILLE 

Albany Cleveland Louisville 

Baltimore Dallas Milwaukee 

Boston Detroit Minneapolis 

Buffalo Indianapolis New Orleans 

Chicago Kansas City New York 
Cincinnati Los Angeles Omaha 
Philadelphia San Francisco 

Pittsburgh Seattle 

THE CANADIAN H. W. JOHNS-MANVILLE CO. 
LIMITED 
| Toronto Montreal Winnipeg Vancouver 

Residence of F. jf. Baas t Yonkers, N. Y 
Roofed with J-M Fran- 
tc Asbestos Shingles I 
Edwin A. Quick 
& Son, Archi- L^ 
tects. 






V- 



The Stephenson System of 

Underground Refuse Disposal 

keeps your garbage out of sight 
in the ground, away from the cats, 
dogs and typhoid fly. 

Opens with tile Foot Hands never touch 

/_ ^r_r. . . ..." ... '■-__ Underground Garbage 
"*■?. ^\, ^ and RefuSe Receivers 
A Fireproof, sanitary disposal for oily waste and^^ 
sweepings in your garage. 
Our Underground Earth Closet 
means freedom from polluted water. 

Sold Direct, Send for Catalogue. 

Beware of Imitations. 

In use lOyrs. It pays to look us up. 
Thousands of Users. 

C. H. STEPHENSON. Mfr. 

40 Farrar St., Lynn, Mass. 




MB 



era IK 

Emw 



Scli,!!.!,.! 



"51 



SSSHI 

8 FSHh 



al3llffllllilllK%WjiiI^ 



Meetings and Exhibitions in September 



4. 
5. 

S, 6. 

7. 
9. 

9, 10. 

10. 

11. 

12. 



12, 13 
1G. 



Garden Club of Lawrence, L. I.: exhibition of stocks 

and dahlias. 
Worcester County Horticultural Society, Worcester, 

Mass.: exhibition of cut flowers. 
Pasadena Horticultural Society, Pasadena, Calif.: 

meeting. 
New York Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, N. Y.: 

lecture "The Life History of a Tree," by Dr. C. S. 

Gager. 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society, Horticultural 

Hall, Boston, Mass.: exhibition of products of 

children's gardens. 
Staten Island Garden Club, New Dorp, S. I.: meeting. 
Nassau County Horticultural Society, Glen Cove, 

N. Y.: meeting. 
Hartsdale Literary and Improvement Society, Harts- 
dale, N. Y.; fourth annual flower show. 
Worcester County Horticultural Society, Worcester, 

Mass.: cut flower exhibition. 
Connecticut Horticultural Society, Hartford, Conn. - . 

meeting. 
Dobbs Ferry Horticultural Society, Dobbs Ferry, 

N. Y. : meeting. 
New York Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, N. Y.: 

lecture "Diseases of Cultivated Plants," by Dr. G. 

P. Clinton. 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society, Horticultural 

Hall, Boston, Mass.: dahlia and fruit exhibition. 
Tarry town Horticultural Society, Tarrytown, N. Y. : 

meeting. 



16. 17. New Haven Horticultural Society, Harmonie Hall, 

New Haven, Conn.: annual flower show. 

17. Worcester County Horticultural Society, Worcester, 

Mass.: cut flower exhibition. 

18. Pasadena Horticultural Society, Pasadena, Calif.: 

meeting. 

19. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, N. Y.: 

lecture "Interrelations between Botany and 

Geology," by D. Arthur Hollick. 
21. Staten Island Garden Club, New Dorp, S. I.: harvest 

show. 
22-24. American Institute Fair, Engineering Building, New 

York: dahlia show. 

23. 24. Connecticut Horticultural Society, Unity Hall, Pratt 

St., Hartford, Conn.: annual dahlia show. 

24. Worcester County Horticultural Society, Worcester, 

Mass.: cut flower exhibition. 

25. Connecticut Horticultural Society, Hartford, Conn.: 

meeting. 

26. Dobbs Ferry Horticultural Society, Dobbs Ferry, 

N. Y. : meeting. 
New York Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, N. Y. : 
lecture, "Wild Flowers of Autumn," by Dr. N. L. 
Britton. 

27. Short Hills Garden Club, Short Hills, N. J.: annual 

dahlia show. 
30, Oct.l Oyster Bay, L. I., Horticultural Society: dahlia 
show. 



Foreign Fixtures 

Berne, Switzerland: Exhibition May is to October is. 

London, England: Anglo-American Exhibition at Shepherds Bush, May to October; Royal Horticultural Society's Hall, 

Vincent Square, Dahlias, September 8; Vegetables, September 22; Roses, September 24; British-grown fruit, September 2g, 30. 

Lyons, France: International Urban Exhibition, May 1 to November 1, 1015. 

Moscow, Russia: Universal Exhibition of Trade and Commerce, spring 1915. 

Dusseldorf, Germany: exhibition, May to November. 

Note: — The Editors will be grateful for information about the doings of gardening societies, 
clubs, etc., and especially as regards coming events. In order to ensure timely publication, the 
information must reach the Editors by the twelfth day of the month preceding the date of issue in 
which the notice should appear. 



The Garden Club of Michigan 

At the July nth meeting of the Garden Club of 
Michigan, the President, Mrs. Francis King, read 
the article in the July Garden Magazine on 
"Philosophizing with Anchusas." Sprays of the 
Dropmore and Opal anchusas were passed 
around during the reading, and a spirited discussion 
of Mr. Duffy's article followed. Mrs. William 
Anderson, honorary president of the Club and dean 
of the gardening fraternity in that region (whose 
flowers are a wonder throughout the season), de- 
clared the article to be one of the best bits of gar- 
dening advice she had ever heard. The August meet- 
ing took the form of a gladiolus show. This Club's 
dues are only twenty-five cents and the sole require- 
ment for membership is an interest in gardening. 

A New Sweet Pea 

The Society of American Florists and Ornamental 
Horticulturists gives notice of the following regis- 
tration of a new plant : 

By Vaughan's Seed Store, 31 West Randolph 
St., Chicago, 111., a new sweet pea for greenhouse 
forcing, by name Selma Swenson. This variety 
was originated by Mr. G. Swenson, Elmhurst, 111. 
The color is a light, soft, clear pink. 

How to Stage Garden Produce 
Have you a garden club in your small city or 
village, and are you a good working member, as all 
members should be in a well-organized, earnest, 
limited membership garden club? Are you willing 
to give anywhere from a half to a whole day in 
selecting and preparing exhibits of whatever your 
garden may possess, for the show or exhibit? If 
so, you will make a good member. 

Of course, every club has very much the same 
schedule for its members to work from. There 
must be three exhibits to award a blue ribbon, four 
exhibits to award a red ribbon, and five for a white 
one. Therefore, it is most important that many 
members exhibit everything good they can to fill 
the classes and make a worthy show. 

A red, white, and blue ribbon is given for 
the best flowers exhibited in the show, in whatever 
class it may be, also one for the vegetables, fruits, 
preserves, jellies, or wines. Also prizes are awarded 
in various classes and one for the greatest number 
of points won by a member in the club year. 



When selecting flowers for exhibition, always 
take the most perfect specimen, though not nec- 
essarily the largest as an abnormal blossom is not 
desirable; look carefully at stem and foliage as 
well as bloom. They, too, must be well grown, 
free from disease and pests. Stage just the number 
of blossoms called for in the schedule. If a certain 
number of blooms be stipulated, it means on 
separate stems. "I hope they notice my three 
roses on one stem," said a new exhibitor. They 
(the judges) did, and promptly debarred them, as 
the class called for "three best roses, one color, one 
variety, in one vase," meaning three distinct 
blooms. This is a common error. 

When arranging baskets of flowers for a show, 
do not adorn with ribbons. It is considered in- 
artistic by most judges and may disbar an otherwise 
good exhibit. Place glass receptacles and wet 
sphagnum moss in them to hold the water, and 
metal or glass Japanese flower holders aid in holding 
the blooms apart. Baskets colored or tinted with 
stain, or painted white, are desirable. 

In exhibiting chrysanthemums follow your 
schedule very carefully. Keep strictly to the classes 
of pompons or singles, disbudded to one bloom or 
not disbudded. 

Never cut your flowers, especially roses, during 
the heat of the day as they are likely to wilt and 
never recover. Flowers cut toward evening are 
not so lasting as when cut in the morning after a 
night's recuperation from the heat; the cool, moist 
night air seems to make the stems firm. 

When preparing vegetables for a show, see that 
they are uniform in size and quality, well washed 
and clean. If arranging string beans, see that not 
an end is broken off, that they are all of the same 
size, unspotted and straight. 

Lettuce must be firm and well headed. As it 
wilts quickly, it is well to place it in a receptacle 
filled with water. Onions, especially, should 
be thoroughly washed and the outside skin, if 
too [young to come clean, either scrubbed or taken 
off. 

Beets as well as all vegetables prepared to be 
displayed at their very best, must have been quickly 
grown, without rootlets, and well washed. 
Tomatoes should be all of one size, perfect in every 
way and number exact. 

New York. A. Van Gelder. 



The Readers' Service will give .suggestions for Ike care of live-stock 



September, 19 14 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



(i!) 



THE WAR MANUAL 



OF 



TmWorldsWork 

September Issue, 1914 



The Armies Involved 

By American Military Authorities 

Full information regarding the strength and character of the 
armies of the following countries: England, Germany, France, 
Russia, Belgium, Italy, Holland, Austria-Hungary, Servia, the 
Balkan States. With full illustrations. 

The Navies Involved 

A full and accurate account of the ships, the men, and the 
navies of the following countries: England, Germany, France, 
Russia, Austria. With full illustrations and maps. 

The Aims and Policies of the European Powers 

By Albert Bushnell Hart, Professor of History, Harvard University 

A clear and compact statement of the conditions which 
existed in the different countries at the beginning of the present 
war. Their political ambitions and racial antagonisms. 

Personalities 

Character sketches of the chief people concerned in this 
war, including, among others, the following: General Toff re, 
Count Berchtold, M. Sazonoff, Sir Edward Grey, M. Viviani, 
M. Pashitch, Sir John Jellicoe, and the many others you ought 
to know. 

How the Nations Got Into War 

A resume of the facts, beginning with the demands on Servia 
by Austria-Hungary on July 25th. A sketch of the terrific 
rapidity with which the present war has developed. 

The Rules of Warfare 

This gives a rapid account of the rules which have been 
agreed upon between the nations and which will govern in a 
conflict like the present: what constitutes contraband, etc. 

Effect on the United States 

Will the war limit our trade? Our crop market? Its effects 
on business. 

The Shipping Involved 

The facts about the shipping interests of England, Germany, 
Russia, France, and the United States; the conditions faced 
by this great industry, with special information showing the 
probable effect upon the upbuilding of an American Merchant 
Marine. 

Europe's Food Supply 

Where Europe gets her food, where she must get it in war 
times, and the probable plans through which the armies and 
the inhabitants of these countries are to be fed. 



The Red Cross 

A description of this organization and its activities: what 
it is, what it has accomplished, and what it expects to accom- 
plish in the present war. 

New Things in War 

Describes the various new war materials, like explosives, 
guns, aeroplanes, dirigibles, wireless, submarines, practically 
having their first true test in the present war. 

War Sanitation 

The story of the advances made in this department — surgi- 
cal, prophylactic, and medical — drawn largely from experiences 
in recent wars. 

The Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente 

What these terms mean, and, so far as is known, the treaties 
which exist between the different countries, which affect the 
Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente, including a short 
history of their origin. 

The Kaiser and the Mailed Fist 

How he isolated Germany. 

Asia and Africa, Where England and Germany Meet 

Hong-Kong, Kiau-Chau, Tanganyika, Samoa, New Guinea, 
Caroline Islands, Gulf of Guinea. 

"Made in Germany" 

Rivalry between Germany and England. 

Austria's Civilizing Mission 

Financial Aspects of the War 

The Balkan States : How They Are Affected 

Their status since the Balkan War. The persistence of the 
old dream of a Servian Empire. 

The Index 

The whole WAR MANUAL will be completely covered by 
a full reference index. 

Illustrations and Original Maps 

The entire WAR MANUAL will be fully and completely 
illustrated from photographs, and new maps prepared for this 
book, supplementing the official maps which are at the 
moment out of date. 



This manual may be had in cloth binding for 50 cents net, or in full flexible leather for $1.00 net 

For sale by all bookshops or by the publishers. Send $1.00 for six months' trial subscription to The World's Work 

DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY, Garden City, New York 



What is a fair rental for a given property? Ask the Readers' Service 



70 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 1 !) 1 4 




MOONS' EVERGREENS WILL HIDE DRYING CLOTHES 
AND OTHER OBJECTIONABLE VIEWS 

The stock we have contains a large assortment of varieties in varied sizes. Many of these 
trees are large enough for immediate results — as were those used in this planting — which in 
eighteen months produced the results here shown. 

Evergreens can be planted now, and Moons' have them for every place and purpose. Catalogue, 
profusely illustrating Evergreens and other Hardy Trees and Plants, gladly mailed upon request. 

THE WILLIAM H. MOON COMPANY 

Makefield Terrace, MORRIS VILLE, PA. 



PHILADELPHIA OFFICE: 
Room B, 21 S. 12th Street 





It's a pleasure to grow 
Beautiful Roses 

Do you know the pleas- 
ure of growing selected 
varieties, the result of 
many years' intensive 
culture? It is fascinat- 
ing. Plant C. and J. 
Roses this fall — grow 

'THE BEST 
ROSES FOR AMERICA" 

Our splendid hardy varieties for fall planting- 
•will make sturdy growth before spring 
Send today for our free Tall Catalog de- 
scribing our 360 varieties. Also gel 
our book "How To Grow Hoses." 
Costs only 10c. Get the results i 
of our 50 years* rose culture [ 
The Conard *fc Jones Co. \ 
Box 24, 
West Grove, l*a. 



y 




Peony and Iris Clumps 
For September Planting 

All the choice varieties including 
Festiva Maxima, and Queen Victoria. 

Send for free list and colored 

plates. 

HEADS BERGENFIELD NURSERIES 
Bergenfield, N.J. 



Pocket 



KIPLING 

BOUND IN FULL FLEXIBLE RED LEATHER 

Light and convenient to carry, easy to read. Each, net, $1.50 



Edition 



Puck of Pook's Hill. 

Traffics and Discoveries. 

The Five Nations. 

Just So Stories. 

Kim. 

The Day's Work. 

Stalky & Co. 

Plain Tales from the Hills. 

Life's Handicap ; Being Stories of Mine 

Own People. 
The Kipling Birthday Book. 
Under the Deodars. The Phantom 

'Rickshaw and Wee Willie Winkle. 



The Light that Failed. 

Soldier Stories. 

The Naulahka (With Wolcott Balestier). 

Departmental Ditties and Ballads 

and Barrack-room Ballads. 
Soldiers Three, The Story of the 

Gadsbys and In Black and White. 
Many Inventions. 
From Sea to Sea. 
The Seven Seas. 
Actions and Reactions. 
Rewards and Fairies. 



Recently Issued: "SONGS FROM BOOKS'* 

An interesting collection of scattered poems made by the author himself. 



Net, $1.40 



Many people cannot get books. If there is no bookstore near you we shall be glad to send books on approval. We do not 
wish to interfere with the trade of the bookseller: we wish that every locality in the United States had a good bookseller 
and that you would buy the books selected from him: our suggestion is addressed to readers who have no convenient book- 
store to go to. 

A " Kipling Index " will be sent free to any one on request 
Garden City DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY New York 




Plant Roses 
And Hardy Plants 
This Fall 

A Special Offer 

PLANT your hardy flowers; your 
roses, evergreens, and shrubs this 
Fall. Get that work done — have 
it off your mind. Next Spring you 
will have far earlier and decidedly 
better results. 

Our special Fall Planting list is 
now ready for you. 

Tuck a one dollar bill and this Ad. 
in an envelope and mail to us and we 
will send you prepaid, a 2 year old 
plant of the much talked about new 
climbing rose> Dr. Van Fleet. 

Or mail us $5 and this Ad. and we 
will send you prepaid one dozen of our 
finest Hybrid Tea or Hybrid Perpet- 
ual Roses. 

A postal will bring our catalog 
with its special Hardy Garden flower 
offer. 

AN.PlEI\50N inc. 

QpMMLL GAKPEN5 

Crpmwell Conn 



iuBSB 



WJUJUlJ i 9. 



Hm£M 






LEST YOU FORGET MY 

PEONIES, IRIS and COLUMBINE 

Things that Thrive. Now is the time to plant them 
FRED W. CARD, Sylvania, Pa. 




KREL AGE'S DUTCH BULBS 

including the world-renowned novelties of 
their own raising (Darwin and Rembrandt 
tulips, etc.), are offered in their new catalog, sent 
free on request to their sole agent for U. S. 

J. A. deVEER, 100 William St., New York 

Fall orders solicited not later than October 1st. 



The Readers' Service will give inlcrmalion about the latest automobile accessories 



Sunlight Double Glass Sash, the standard 
sash among successful growers 




or Hot-beds 
and Cold-frames 



The Sash that Doubles the 
Efficiency of Your Gardening 
and Cuts the Cost One-Half 

The sash that has become the standard among successful growers — all within six years 



A small inexpensive greenhouse made 
of Sunlight Double Qlass Sash 



Extra thick, of cypress, strong and long- 
lived, it is far better, and ..more economical 
single-glazed than the ordinary sash. But 
glazed on both sides; it is the only sash for 
winter use that any one — professional or 
amateur — should ever use. 

The two layers of glass enclose an air space 
through which the sun's ray's pass freely to 
the bed, but through which the cold from 
without or the warmth from within cannot 
penetrate. This transparent blanket — this 
"Thermos" sash — has redeemed gardening 
from its drudgery. It does, away absolutely 
with the need to use mats and shutters. No 
more lifting of heavy shutters and soggy mats, 
morning and night! No more buying and 
re-buying of these costly covers that must be 
used on single glass sash! No more shutting 
off the light from the plants at the very times 
— early morning and late afternoon — when 
they need it most! 

Thousands in use 

There is not a state in the Union but what 
has hundreds of Sunlight Double Glass Sash 
in use and knows them by their work. Most of 
the States have them by thousands. And they 
will be in use from this time forward, for- 
ever! The old single layer putty sash is 
better than none and it always pays because 
any glass pays, but to the up-to-date grower 
of vegetables and flowers the old style sash 
with its costly mats and shutters is obsolete. 
So say all who have used Sunlights diligently. 



Still Wondering 

Mr. H. B. Fullerton, who, as Director of 
Development of the L. I. R. R. Co., has 
worked wonders for Rural Long Island, says: 
" I am still wondering why people use single- 
glazed sash under any circumstances. I feel 
that the only thing on earth to use is the 
double-glass sash." The only testimonials 
that the Sunlight Double Glass Sash Co. 
ever use are extracts from letters ordering 
more sash. It could fill a book with these 
gilt-edged endorsements because it is filling 
hot-bed yards with Sunlight Sash. Many 
large growers have ordered three years in 
succession. 

And mechanically better 

Not only in efficiency but mechanically the 
Sunlight Sash is superior to any other. It is 
glazed or repaired in one-third the time that 
the old style single layer putty sash requires. 

Get our catalogue 

The Catalogue, which is free, explains every- 
thing in detail. Get it. You cannot do without it if 
you are to know how to garden tothebest advantage. 

Our inexpensive greenhouse 

Besides their use on cold-frames and hot-beds, 
the same double glass sash may be used during all 
or a large part of the greenhouse months on the 
ready-made sash greenhouses made especially for 
them. These houses, made entirely of cypress and 
glass, are inexpensive and excellent. They are 
made to rest on the ground with a sunken path to 



give access to the beds; or they can be placed on 
side walls of frame, concrete or brick construction 
so as to use benches, for the plants. These side 
walls may be as much as 2^ feet high. The door 
is made to fit either a path 2^2 feet deep or walls 
2^2 feet high, but may becut off" at the bottom to 
fit any lesser height or depth. Any one can set up 
the house without a vahd';chance to make a mistake. 
The framework is assembled as far as is practicable 
for shipment. Read all about this most attractive 
little house in our Catalogue. 

Write for these two books today : 

1. The catalogue, with net prices, free. 

2. Prof. Massey's excellent booklet on The Use 
of Hot-beds; Cold-frames and Small Greenhouses, 
4c. in stamps. 



SUNLIGHT DOUBLE GLASS SASH CO., 927 E. Broadway, Louisville, Ky 




Double Glass 
Sash Co. 

927 E. Broadway, 
Louisville, Ky. 

Gentlemen: 
Please send me your free 
catalogue. Enclosed find 4c. 
in stamps for Prof. Massey's 
book. 




Dancing to the music 
of the Victrola is delightful 

Every one enjoys dancing to music of such splendid volume, such clearness and per- 
fect rhythm — and the Victrola plays as long as any one wants to dance. 

The Victrola brings to you all kinds of music and entertainment, superbly 
rendered by the world's greatest artists who make records exclusively for the Victor. 

Any Victor dealer will gladly play the latest dance music or any other music you wish to hear. 
There are Victors and Victrolas in great variety of styles from $10 to $500. 

Victor Talking Machine Co., Camden, N. J., U. S. A. 







Ber 


liner 


Gra 


..ophor 


e Co.* Montreal 


Canadian 


Distr 


butors 




Always 
the comb 


use Victor 
nation. Th 


Machines 
ere is no 


with Victor 
other way to 


Records 
get the 


and 
unec 


V 

ua 


ctor Needles — 
led Victor tone. 




New Victor Records demonstrated at all dealers on the 28th of each month 



THE COUNTRY LIFE PRESS, GARDEN CITY, NEW YORK 



,, m mtr< i* n <i*mmmmmmi 



Vol. XX, No. 3 



OCTOBER, 1914 



' ■—■■:■.:.';?■■■../■■"( . <-.-. . ■ •, 



15 Cents a Co 



jgj,W l iWWWW 



■IIPHiUjiiii mill iim i ilH 




COUNTRY LIFE 
IN AMERICA 



DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & CO. 

Chicago GAR'DEN'CITY. N. Y. New York 



THE WORLD'S 
WORK 




Moon's Shrubbery Will Hide Objectionable Views 



<JThe service parts of one's house, stables, outbuildings or adjoining residences can be screened from view and a natural beautiful landscape 
obtained with Moon's Hardy Trees and Plants for Every Place and Purpose. <J There is a vigor of growth and shapeliness of form to Moon's 
Trees and Shrubs that not only look well, but help them to transplant well. •! Moon's catalog that describes and lists hundreds of plants for 
lawn decoration will be gladly mailed upon request. As planting time is here better send for it now. 

THE WILLIAM H. MOON COMPANY 



PHILADELPHIA OFFICE: 
Room D, 21 S. 12th Street 



Makefield Place, MORRISVILLE, PA. 




Special 
Frame Complete 
* I f\ 50 Delivered 




Continue Your Gardening All Winter 

THE end of the outdoor growing seascn is here. Vegetable plants 
that have yielded their summer bounty will, as the nights grow cold, 
be nipped by the frost. Flowers that have budded and bloomed 
will soon wither and die. 

Why be satisfied with only the few months of summer harvest from your 
garden when you can enjoy "seeing things grow" throughout the cold and 
dreary winter months ? Lutton's Miniature Glass Gardens provide the 
means. You'll find a great deal of pleasure and a full measure of profit in 
gardening under glass. 

To meet the popular demand, we manufacture a special sash and frame 8 ft. 4 in. long 
and just wide enough to put in a 3 ft. space on the south side of the house. A child can 
ventilate the frame with ease. Sash has six large lights of extra heavy glass allowing the 
maximum of sunlight to reach the plants. 



$10.50 



Price complete, ready to put together. Freight pre- 
paid anywhere in U. S. (Double glazed $1.00 extra) 

Prompt shipment guaranteed. Planting instructions sent with each frame. We man- 
ufacture regular 2, 3 and 4 sash frames, single and double glazed. Our catalog also illus- 
trates our new portable greenhouse. Write for it today. 

WILLIAM H. LUTTON COMPANY 

226-8 Kearney Avenue Jersey City, New Jersey 



Andrew Carnegie says: "I have read "WAR 
AND WASTE" by Dr. Jordan with interest and 
satisfaction. Viewed from his standpoint it is an 
unanswerable argument against War." 

A Practical Book on Peace 

David Starr Jordan is one of the most eloquent advocates 
of universal peace, his eloquence being particularly effective 
because his arguments are so largely economic and practical. 

— New York Tribune. 



War and Waste 

By 
DAVID STARR JORDAN 

One of the New York Times "One Hundred Best Books" 

A very full and able presentation of the case 
against war. The facts are marshaled in an admir- 
able and convincing manner, to which the author's 
personal views concerning 
problems lend added interest.- 

Second Large Printing 



current international 
New York Times. 



Net $1.25 



Many people cannot get books. If there is no bookstore near you we shall be glad to send books on 
approval. We do not wish to interfere with the trade of the bookseller; we wish that every locality 
in the United States had a good bookseller and that you would buy the books selected from him; our 
suggestion is addressed to readers who have no convenient bookstore to go to. 

Doubleday, Page & Company, Garden City, New York 



October, 10 14 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



71 



Hardy Plants 

A well planted herbaceous border is a delight 
from early Spring until late in the Fall, as each 
week produces new attractions. 

We devote many acres to the cultivation of 
this charming class of plants, our collection being 
one of the most complete in America. 

Some of our specialties: — 

IRISES 

PAEONIES 

PHLOXES 

LARKSPURS 
Also Conifers and other Hardy Shrubs 

A complimentary copy of our Autumn Cata- 
logue will be mailed on request. 

R. & J. FARQUHAR & CO. 

BOSTON, MASS. 




^mm^mmm^m^mmm^w:;,; ^^^^sss^^S^^^^^S^^^^^^ S^^^^^^S^^g 



FOTTLER, FISKE, RAWSON CO. 

The Faneuil Hall Square Seed Store 

BOSTON, MASS. 

Have their usual as- 
sortment of 

Holland Bulbs 

including many new va- 
rieties, fully described 
in our new 1914 Autumn 
Catalogue, with beauti- 
ful embossed Covers, 
and fully illustrated. 

The 

Giant DarwinTulip 

The Finest Tulip Grown 

Narcissus in large vari- 
ety. Perennial Plants, 
also Shrubs. Catalogue 
mailed free. Write now. 

FOTTLER, FISKE, RAWSON CO. 

The Faneuil Hall Square Seed Store 

BOSTON, MASS. 




ikmrnmrn^^^mimirnkm^^ 





Hardy Phloxes 

Come in a Multitude of Colors 

THE colors of [he Phloxes grown at 
Wyomissing Nurseries range from 
the purest white to rich maroon and 
purple, from delicate pink to deep blood- 
red, with shades of salmon, scarlet, lav- 
ender, violet and blue. Here is Widar 
with purewhite center banded with violet- 
purple; there is the metallic blue of Le Mahdi, changing in the sun to darke 
purple; the whole field is a mass of glowing color. 

FARR'S SUPERB HARDY PHLOXES 

include the best varieties and many novelties from European growers. For many 
years] have made the Phloxes a specialty, placing them in my affection with the 
Peonies and Irises, for I believe the Phloxes are the most useful plants for late 
summer and early fall blooming. They increase rapidly and a small clump 
soon becomes a great bed of splendid flowers. I grow thousands of Phloxes 
at Wyomissing and can fill orders for almost any variety and in any quantity. 
My plants are extra strong and will bloom true to name; I do not substitute 
without your permission — you get what you order. 

FARR'S "HARDY PLANT SPECIALTIES" 
I have an abridged edition for immediate 

use and will gladly send a copy at once. 

Later on 1 will send my new book which 

isnow in the printer's hands; write metoday 

so that a copy may be reserved for you. 

BERTRAND H. FARR 

Wyomissing Nurseries 

104 Garfield Ave., Wyomissing, Pa. 

My collection of Peonies contains over 

500 varieties from France, England and 

Japan. Autumn is the time to plant. 






What is a jair rental jor a given properly? Ask the Readers' Service 



72 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1914 




"To business that we love we rise betime 
And go to 't with delight." — Antony and Cleopatra. 



DON T MISS BAMBI 

That is what we are saying to everybody 
these days and if we don't happen to have said 
it to you before, please realize that the news 
comes to you very late, and that you must 
hurry up if you would have a copy of the first 
edition. 

Yes, "Bambi" is a book, but that dwindles 
into insignificance beside the much more im- 
portant fact that "Bambi" is a Person! And 
what a capable, whimsical, scintillating per- 
son she is you won't believe until you've met 
her. "Bambi" began by taking two publish- 
ing houses by storm — and we were one of them. 
It isn't easy for a book to captivate everybody 
who reads it any more than it is easy for you 
or me to charm each person we meet. That is 
why we don't want you to miss "Bambi." 
She has a train of delighted captives as long as 
Broadway. 

We are not going to tell you what the story 
is — merely that "Bambi" is a national heroine, 
the blithest, most winsome girl in fiction in 
many months. The author is Marjorie Benton 
Cooke, and Mary Greene Blumenschein has 
done delightful drawings in color and black- 
and-white for the story. Two editions were 
exhausted before publication, and the sales are 
now more than 20,000 copies. A very attractive 
"Bambi" booklet bound in colors and fully 
illustrated will be sent free to any one who 
requests it. It contains a great many interesting 
things about the story and the experiences of 
those who have read it. "Bambi" is now on 
sale at all book shops ($1.25 net). 

NEW FRIENDS OE THE WORLD'S WORK 

The Country Life Press has never met with 
such hectic experiences as the great war has 
brought about; six times the edition of the 
September number, which is the War Manual, 
has been increased or put back to the press. 
News stands that have previously sold 100 
copies have sold 2,000 and 3,000 and at this 
summer time of year when 100 subscriptions 
is a good record for the morning mail, it has 
run from 500 to 1 ,500. Of course, the gratifying 
feature of the whole business is that we have 
made thousands of new friends and we have, 
we hope, done our old friends a service by 



giving them a magazine which presented 
valuable information when it was most 
needed. 

The October number is no less indispensable. 
Emperor William has, in the course of his later 




From the October cover of the World's Work, which is in full 
color and gold 

mature years, written down the most im- 
portant facts with regard to his actions, his 
feelings, and his general plan of life. The 
World's Work has gathered these writings to- 
gether, sifted them with great care in the effort 
to give a true picture of the man, and put 
it into print as a most impressive human 
document. 

We have the first story of the burning of 
Louvain, written by a staff correspondent 
of the World's Work who was one of the two 
trained American observers on the spot. Hero 
are some of the other features : "How to Rer.d 
the War News," by Frederic L. Huidekoper, the 



man who wrote the illuminating article on 
"The Armies of Europe" in the War Manual; 
the "Naval A B C," an explanation of the in- 
tricacies of naval strategy ; the "Royal Relatives 
of Europe," by George H. Merritt; and Pres- 
ident Wilson on his foreign policy. 

The plan which we had for the November 
number of World's Work "United States, The 
Rebuilders " we have postponed until December 
for several reasons which we think are good and 
sufficient. In the first place, trade and com- 
merce, exchange and ethics have all been thrown 
into such a condition of confusion that it is dif- 
ficult to get information that is trustworthy 
until things are a little quieted down. What ap- 
pears as a fact to-day, is apt to prove not to be 
the fact to-morrow, and we want this number 
to be of real service and to contain material 
that can be relied upon and its usefulness 
lasting. 

In November will be published the Second 
War Manual. It will not be doing the same thing 
over again, for since the First War Manual 
was issued on September 1st, war experiences 
in every branch of military science have made 
an advance unequaled in fifty years of minor 
struggles with armies and navies, with war- 
fare under the sea and in the air. We shall 
gather together the dramatic and interesting 
facts which these great experiences have made 
available. The illustrations will be as full as 
before and we hope of increased interest. These 
numbers will be saved in tens-of-thousands of 
homes and will be referred to years hence 
as contemporary history. 

NOVEMBER COUNTRY LIFE IN AMERICA 

The November Country Life in America 
will cheer the hearts of all those who love 
animals. Here is just the briefest mention 
of some articles of which it is hard to resist 
the temptation to tell a lot more: "On the 
Trail of Justin Morgan f "Fox Terrier or 
Something," Booth Tarkington's confession 
of his experience with a gift dog; "The Fun 
of Fax: cy Pigeons, ' ' by Henry Wysham Lanier ; 
"The Dairy Breeds in America" — a sym- 
posium; "Modern Tendencies in Farm Build- 
ings," by Alfred Hopkins; "Raising Beef in 
the East," by Edward Vining. 



October, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



73 



Information about the selection or care of dogs, 
poultry and live stock will be gladly given. 
Address INFORMATION DEPARTMENT, The Garden Magazine, 11-13 W. 32d Street, New York. 



Poultry, Kennel and Live Stock Directory 



You Remember "The 
Pit" and "The Octopus" 
written ten years ago by 

FRANK NORRIS 

Their author was hailed 
as the greatest realist 
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Vandover 

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'74 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1914 




Keeping Geraniums Over Winter 

Is there any way, other than as house plants, that 
geraniums can be carried over the winter? — W. J., 
Maine. 

— In order to keep the geranium plants through the 
winter, it will be necessary to lift the old plants, shake 
the soil from them and hang them upside down in paper 
bags in a frost proof cellar, which is not too dry and not 
so wet as to allow them to rot. In other words, keep 
the plants in any well ventilated frost-proof cellar. 

The Gathering of Herbs 

In my garden I have nearly all kinds of herbs. How 
is tarragon used to flavor vinegar, when and how is sage 
gathered, etc.? — W. G. S., Neb. 

— Different kinds of herbs require different treatment, 
as with some it is the leaves, with others the flowers, 
and still others the entire plant, that is utilized. There- 
fore, we think it would pay you to purchase a copy of 
Kains' " Culinary Herbs," of which the price, postpaid, 
is 75 cents. To make tarragon vinegar, simply steep 
fresh shoots of the plant in ordinary vinegar until a 
product of the desired strength is obtained. Sage is 
gathered before freezing weather, dried and kept in 
any convenient manner to be used ground in dressings, 
etc., or in the herb bags containing a mixture of such 
plants with which many cooks flavor their soups, 
sauces, etc. 

Transplanting Small Fruits 

Would there be any risk in transplanting raspberry, 
currant and gooseberry plants this fall? — J. J. K., 
Wis. 

— You can certainly transplant raspberries, currants 
and gooseberries this fall. In fact, we would prefer 
to do it at that time, since the spring is liable to bring 
many other important duties. Any hardy shrubs can 
be safely handled in the same way. The best planting 
season is after the season's growth has stopped but be- 
fore the ground has begun to freeze. 

Inducing Rhododendrons to Bloom 

Several years ago I purchased two rhododendrons 
which were then in full bloom. They have not bloomed 
since, although there has been a steady increase in 
wood and leaves. Is there any way by which I can 
induce the setting of buds for next year's bloom? — 
R. H. M., Pa. 

: — The steady growth of wood and foliage on the rho- 
dodendrons is an indication that the soil in which they 
were put was richer than the one from which they had 
been transplanted. It naturally follows that wood 
growth and foliage will be developed rather than flower 
growth until such time arrives that they have become 
thoroughly established in their new quarters. When the 
bed is full of roots so that there is no inducement to 
make rapid root growth the flower growth will be all 
the more glorious for having made a large root develop- 
ment first. Flowering may possibly be induced by 
withholding water, but you cannot very well at this 
time alter the soil. Sometimes, too, it is possible to 
throw the plants into flower by disturbing the soil 
about the roots. 

Growing Cactus from Seed 

In the book " House Plants and How to Grow Them," 
by Parker T. Barnes, there is a recommendation to raise 
cactus from seed. Where is it possible for me to get 
these seeds? — A. E. K., Ala. 

— Dr. Charles P. Steinmetz, an enthusiastic collector of 
cactus, states that: " It is very difficult to raise cactus 
from seeds, and, because of their slow growth, very 
unsatisfactory; and therefore, as far as I know, never 
done, especially as cactus are so very easily propagated 
by slips. Practically any piece of cactus (including 
cereus, opuntia, etc.), even a piece of the unripe fruit, 



when stuck in dry sand, makes roots and grows. Most 
cactus when flowering are fertilized by insects, and as 
the insects which do this are more or less unknown, and 
probably cross fertilization is necessary, in domestic 
cultivation it seems almost hopeless to produce seeds 

— at least, I have never succeeded in doing so with 
most of them." The only other person that we know of 
who is raising cactus from seed is Mr. Robert Cameron, 
Curator of the Harvard Botanic Garden, Cambridge, 
Mass. 

Garden Planning 

I am sending a diagram of my grouuds; will you 
please mark on it what perennials and shrubs I should 
plant, and where? — J. L., New York. 

— There are some things that the Readers' Service 
cannot do. We cannot supply individual plans for 
garden making, nor can we make planting lists for 
individual purposes. In order to do this work it would 
be necessary for us to employ an expert garden designer. 
We are, however, very glad to make suggestions re- 
garding garden designs or planting plans that are sub- 
mitted to us. 

Books on Apple Culture 

What books on the cultivation of apples would you 
recommend for a beginner? — O. A. G., New York. 

— Any of the following would be useful: "American 
Apple Orchard," by F. A. Waugh, price Si.oo; "Field 
Notes on Apple Culture," by L. H. Bailey, 75 cents; 
"How to Make a Fruit Garden," by S. W. Fletcher, 
$2.20; "Principles of Fruit Growing," by L. H. Bailey, 
$1.65; "How to Make Old Orchards Profitable," by 
F. A. Bates, 75 cents; "Apple Growing," by M. C. 
Burritt, 70 cents. The prices quoted include postage, 
and we can supply any books desired. 

Begonia Digitata 

Some time ago, in The Garden Magazine, mention 
was made of Begonia digitata. Where may I purchase 
it? — M.H., Calif. 

— Unusual plants, like Begonia digitata, are not usually 
listed in catalogues, but we think you may be able to 
obtain the plant through some one of the following 
dealers: Henry A. Dreer, Inc., Philadelphia, Pa.; or 
Arthur T. Boddington, Peter Henderson & Co., 
J. M. Thorburn & Co., New York City. 

Farm Magazines and Books 

Please give me the names' of a few good farm maga- 
zines and books containing general rudimentary infor- 
mation about farming and stock raising. — P. E. B., Colo. 

— We name the following general farming books with 
the suggestion, of course, that they be followed up by 
more technical volumes, a list of which can easily be 
obtained as you become familiar with any special phase 
of farming: "Farm Management," by Warren, price 
$2.00; "American Irrigation Farming," by Olin Price, 
$1.50; "Principles of Agriculture," by L. H. Bailey, 
price $1.37; "How to Choose a Farm" (with a discussio*n 
of American land), by Thomas F. Hunt, price $1.90. 
The various publications of the Department of Agri- 
culture, Washington, D. C, lists of which can be ob- 
tained from the Secretary of State and Superintendent 
of Documents, Washington, D. C, will also prove of 
great assistance. As to magazines, we suggest The 
Breeder's Gazette, Chicago, III.; The Ohio Farmer, Cleve- 
land, Ohio; The Dakota Fanner, Aberdeen, S. D.; 
and The Irrigation Age, Chicago, 111. 

Books on Asparagus Culture 

What is the best book on asparagus culture for the 
home garden? — H. A. B., Maine. 

— "Asparagus," by F. M. Hexamer, is the only book 
published in America which is exclusively devoted to 
the raising of asparagus for home use as well as for 



market. It is a practical and reliable treatise. Price, 
50 cents. "Asparagus Culture," by James Barnes and 
William Robinson (price 50 cents), and "The Book of 
Asparagus," by Charles Ilott (price $1.10), while of 
interest, are both imported and would not meet your 
requirements as well as the Hexamer volume. 

Dahlia Culture 

Do dahlias revert to some original color at times? 
Is there a reliable book on their culture? — C. L. B., 
Conn. 

— Dahlias that are grown from seed will produce all 
kinds of results. One can never be sure of the colors 
in this method of propagation. Certain varieties have 
the peculiarity of developing different colored blooms 
on the same plant. We can hardly say that there is a 
reversion to an original type, as all dahlias are variations 
of one original species and are not hybrids. The best 
American book on the subject is "The Dahlia," by 
Lawrence K. Peacock. 

The Hardy Garden Chrysanthemum 

Where may I obtain the hardy garden chrysanthe- 
mum mentioned by Mr. Kerr in his article in The 
Garden Magazine about a year 'ago? — H. E. D., 
So. Car. 

— Seeds of the hardy Japanese chrysanthemum may be 
obtained from A. T. Boddington, New York; W. Atlee 
Burpee, and Henry A. Dreer, Inc., of Philadelphia, Pa.; 
and R. & J. Farquhar & Co., Boston, Mass. Plants 
may be purchased from Charles H. Totty, of Madison, 
N. J., and Scott Bros., Elmsford, N. Y. and Head's 
Bergenfield Nurseries, Bergenfield, N. J. 

White Scale on Red Cedar 

How should the white scale on red cedars be cured-? — 
W. J. McM., New Jersey. 

— The general feeling is that the white scale on red 
cedars is not a particularly serious pest. Spray with 
whale oil soap or some similar preparation several times 
during the spring and early summer. Ready prepared 
lime-sulphur washes may be used and are quite effective. 

Books on Native Trees and Shrubs 

What books on native shrubs and trees do you re- 
commend ? — M. W. J., New Jersey. 
■ — "The Tree Book," by Julia E. Rogers, price $4.44, 
postpaid; "Evergreens, How to Grow Them," C. S. 
Harrison, 50 cents; " Familiar Trees and Their Leaves," 
F. S. Mathews, $1.92; "Guide to the Trees," Alice 
Lounsberry, $1.92; "North American Trees," Nathan- 
iel L. Britton, $7.70; "Our Native Trees and How to 
Identify Them," Harriet L. Keeler, $2.20; "Shrubs of 
Northeastern America," and "Trees of Northeastern 
America," two volumes in one, by Charles S. Newell, 
$2.20. Any of these books may be obtained through 
us by mail at the prices quoted. 

Cannas or Phlox? 

In a circular flower bed 10 feet in diameter, in a 
prominent place on my lawn, would hardy phlox or 
cannas make the greatest display? — O. H. B., 111. 

— We do not know whether you want flowers early in 
the season or late, nor do we know the height you 
wish to have the plants. Our own preference would be 
for the phlox rather than for cannas, in which case we 
would use chrysanthemums for late bloom. Phlox 
makes almost a solid sheet of color and it will last 
through the early part of the summer, also giving 
blooms later in the season. Cannas will give fine 
foliage effects while growing and they flower quite late 
in the summer and early autumn. Cannas will also 
give greater height but are somewhat limited in 
color; reds and yellows predominate, with some pecu- 
liar pinkish tints in the newer types. Cannas must 
be lifted in the fall and stored in a frost-proof place 
during the winter whereas the phlox is quite hardy. 



Cover Design — Dogwood (Cornus Horida) ----------- Arthur G. Eldredge 



Readers' Service ------------- 

The Month's Reminder ---------- 

Photographs by W. C. McCollom and others 

The War on the Bugs - - - - - W. C. O'Kane 

Photographs by the author 

What the War Means to the American Gardener 
Starting Right with Fall Set Trees and Shrubs 

F. F. Rockwell 

Photographs by A. G. Eldredge, J. H. McFarland, and others 

Preventing White Grub Attacks ------- 

The Easy Road to Success with Bulbs C. J. Hunt 

Photographs by A. G. Eldredge and others 

Ever Plant Vegetables in the Fall? - A. Kruhm 

Photographs by the author 

Spiking vs. Tying Tomato Vines - - - - C. M. G. 
Growing Bulbs in the House - - - Nina R. Allen 

Photographs by the author and N. R. Graves 

American Rose Society ---------- 

Some Novel Ways of Growing Bulbs S. Leonard Bastin 

Photographs by the author 

Saving the Summer's Flowers - - Luke J. Doogue 

Photographs by the author 

Flowers for the North Side of the House - G. Allen 



74 
77 

79 
So 

8i 
83 



87 
88 

90 
9i 
92 

93 



My Experience with Fall Planting Walter E. Campbell 
Clean up Your Garden ------ E. Wilson 

Fall Care of the Strawberry Bed A. E. Wilkinson 
Alstromerias Grown Outdoors - - - - G. E. Behr 

Fall Planted Sweet Peas - - Ethel A. S. Peckham 

Photograph by Nathan R. Graves 

The Seventeen- year Locust for Next Year 

Harold Clarke 
Roses from Slips -------- H. B. Harts 

Bulbs for School and Home - - Ellen Eddy Shaw 

Photograph by William S. Kimball 

For the Southern Gardener - - - J. M. Patterson 
Bulbs and the Dibble - - - - - E. S. Johnson 

Canning Vegetables by the Cold Pack Method 

Grace M. Smith 
Amateur Bulb Notes ------ Fred Haxton 

Bulbs for Indoor Use - - - - - - - E. M. F. 



94 
94 
94 
94 
94 

95 
95 
96 



104 
106 



An Excellent Double Tulip 

Photograph by Nathan R. Graves 

Club and Society News - - 



- H. M. Goodkop 106 



108 



SUBSCRIPTION: 

S1.50 a year 
Single copies, 15 cts. 



F. N. DOUBLEDAY, President 
HERBERT S. HOUSTON, 
Vice-President 



LEONARD BARRON, Editor 

COPYRIGHT, I9I4, BY 

DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY 

Entered as second-class matter at Garden City, New York, under the Act of Congress, March 3 



S. A. EVERITT, Treasurer 
RUSSELL DOUBLEDAY, 
Secretary 

1879 



For Foreign Postage 

add 65c. 
For Canada add 35c. 



OCTOBER and NOVEMBER 

Is the best time to plant 

Dutch Bulbs, Peonies, Phlox 

And most DECIDUOUS 
TREES and SHRUBS 



jSlerpg JHolloin Canrifrn 



aJuk. turn. dsJjL<LJjL HmJL qj-fa-. 







We offer an unusually 
fine stock of these and 
other things. 

Mail us your list of 
wants and we will hold 
over such as are more 
safely planted in spring. 

Our Autumn Bulb and 
Peony Catalogue and our 
large Illustrated General 
Descriptive Catalogue, re- 
plete with valuable infor- 
mation mailed on request. 

Our client for whom we 
planted $792 worth of 
Shrubs and Trees last sea- 
son reports a loss of less 
than $2 worth. 



Landscape Department, 63 Hamilton Place 

Rosedale Nurseries, S. G. Harris 
Box A Tarrytown, New York 



BOBBINK & ATKINS 

World's Choicest Nursery and Greenhouse Products 

Autumn Planting 

The Months of Sept. and October are the Best Time to Plant Evergreens 

EVERGREENS, CONIFERS AND PINES. We have more than 75 acres 
planted with attractive EVERGREENS. Our collection is conceded to be 
the most complete and magnificent ever assembled in America. The varie- 
ties comprising same have been thoroughly tested and proved hardy. Our 
plants are dug with a ball of earth and burlapped previous to shipping. 
Before purchasing elsewhere intending purchasers should not fail to inspect 
our collection. 

The Following Plants for Outdoor Planting, Interior and Exterior 
Decorations are Among Our Specialties 



HARDY OLD-FASHIONED PLANTS. 

Several acres of our Nursery are exclusively 
devoted to their culture. 

STRAWBERRIES. Potted and fieldgrown 
in all the leading varieties. We have many 
thousands of Strawberries and are in a posi- 
tion to fill orders of any size. 

AUTUMN BULBS AND ROOTS. We 

grow and import quantities of Bulbs and 
Roots from all parts of the world. 

TRAINED, DWARF and ORDINARY 
FRUIT TREES AND SMALL FRUITS. 

and grow these fqr all kinds of Fruit Gardens 
We Orchards. 



PEONIES AND IRIS. We have a com- 
plete collection of them ready for immediate 
delivery. 

HARDY TRAILING ajid CLIMBING 
VINES. We have them for every place and 
purpose. 

HEDGE PLANTS. We grow a quantity 
of California Privet, Berberis and other 
Hedge plants. 

PLANT TUBS. WINDOW BOXES, AND 
ENGLISH GARDEN FURNITURE. We 

manufacture all shapes and sizes. 



OUR NEW HYBRID GIANT FLOWERING MARSHMALLOW. Every- 
body should be interested in this hardy new old-fashioned flower. 

OUR ILLUSTRATED GENERAL CATALOG NO. 25 and AUTUMN 
BULB CATALOGS, describe our Products; mailed upon request. 

" We Plan and Plant Grounds and Gardens Everywhere " 

Nurserymen, Florists and Planters Rutherford, New Jersey 



75 



76 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1914 



Earliest Spring Flowers 




are obtained from bulbs planted in the Fall — 

Vaughan's Rainbow Collection 

FOR OUT DOOR PLANTING 

lOO Bulbs for $1.22 



1 Single Early Tulips 
1 Double Early Tulips 
1 Parrot Tulips 
1 Single Narcissus 
1 Double Narcissus 



1 Mixed Crocus 

1 Snowdrops 

1 Jonquils 

10 Anemones 

1 Grape Hyacinths 



Pride of Haarlem 



OUR catalog is a work of art containing a most extensive list of all 
Winter and Spring flowering bulbs with descriptions — FREE for asking 



VAUGHAN'S SEED STORE 

31 West Randolph Street, Chicago 43 Barclay Street, New York 



m 



\\W\\\\\\\U 




Beautify the Small Places 

NATURALLY, we like to sell to the large estates, but that is no reason why 
we should neglect the 50 foot lot owner, and we don't. 
We have hundreds of customers who buy just what they want each year 
— not a large quantity — and we take infinite pains to help them select what seems 
best suited to their particular needs — and keep them from buying what they do 
not need. 
Now is the time for planting Trees and Shrubs of all kinds. 
We have a large variety of them all, and only the hardiest spec.mens will we sell. 
Plant now and they will get a good start for next Spring. 
Send for our catalog. Let us make suggestions for your planting. 



\irsenes 




North Abington » 
Mass. 



1 



Fifty Daffodils 

FOR A 

Dollar Bill 




In spite of the war condi- 
tions our Bulbs reached us 
safely. We bought them at 
"before the war" prices, and 
will give you the benefit, if 
you will send your orders early 

A Collection of Fifty Daffodils Sent Anywhere Postpaid for $1 

These are extra good bulbs which will give many beautiful 
golden yellow flowers next spring if planted in the garden 
within the next week or two. Daffodils will bloom for 
several seasons, which makes them specially good for garden 
culture. We have a fairly good supply, but advise ordering 
early if you want to secure bulbs at this special price 

Our catalogue is ready. Send for a copy and see our list 
of Hyacinths, Tulips, Crocus and other Bulbs for fall plant- 
ing and spring blooming. 






WEEBER & DON 

Seed Merchants and Growers 

1 14 B Chambers St. New York City 



The Readers' Service is prepared to advise parents in regard to schools 



The Garden Magazine 




COMPILED 
THE TEN 



OCTOBER is a month of 
real opportunities for 
the gardener. As active 
growth ceases, there are 
heaven born chances for planting 
shrubs, trees (both fruit and orna- 
mental), and herbaceous plants gen- 
erally. Most bulbs may be put 
out for next spring's flowers. Added 
to this are the closing activities of 
the year in all departments out- 
doors and the beginnings in real 
earnest of work in the greenhouse, 
on the plants outdoors, now is an excellent time to take up any 
changes that you contemplate in or around the flower garden or 
lawn. The present opportunity to do any transplanting of de- 
ciduous hard wooded trees or shrubs should not be lost. There 
are some trees that should not be moved in fall, such as the birch, 
oak, and beech, but most of the others can be moved even better 
now than later. If spring opens up with a rush, the plants suffer 
a severe shock. Fall planting gets work off our hands that would 
only hamper the rush of things that simply must be done in the 
spring. It surely is wisdom to do now whatever can be done. The 
nurserymen are also well prepared to handle your orders now. You 
don't have to wait until the winter comes. Act now as soon as 
the leaves show signs of being mature. 



THE MONTH'S J 
REMINDER 



WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE HOME GARDEN, FROM 
YEARS' DIARIES OF A PRACTICAL EXPERT CARDENER 



Flower 
Garden 



For reckoning dates, the latitude of New York City is generally taken as a 

standard. In applying the directions to other localities, allow six 

days' difference for every hundred miles of latitude 



Because the growth is still 



Lawns and 
Grounds 



1Z"EEP the lawn cropped close right 

Some folks are very attentive 
to their lawn until this season of 
the year and then neglect it en- 
tirely. There is a 
late fall growth 
which should be 
mowed off, as it leaves a long strag- 
gling growth which is harmful in 
spring and becomes very unsightly 
since it usually dies back during the 
winter. 

Start gathering leaves the latter 
part of the month; resolve not to 
burn them but to cart them to some 
out-of-the-way corner and make a 
pile of leafmold. 

Before hard weather sets in, tie 
up all loose vines to prevent serious 
damage later on. 

Covering for all plants that are 
to be protected over the winter and 
all mulching materials should now 
be got ready to use when needed. 

Remember, too, to shut off water 
from all exposed pipes, draining 
them off before freezing weather 
comes. 



up to 



freezing weather. 




UST as soon as the frost cuts 
the dahlias, cut off the tops, 
dig up the roots and store in a dry, 
cool cellar. Some sand covering 
the roots will keep 
them from shriveling 
up in a very dry cellar, 
and remember that frost must never 
touch them. A good plan, when 
digging the roots, is to lay them on 
their side for several hours in the 
sun. This dries them sufficiently 
before they are ready for storing. 

Carinas are handled in the same manner as dahlias, but they may 
be stored without covering. Under the bench in a cool greenhouse 
is an ideal place but they can also be kept in a house cellar. 

All tender plants of a bulbous nature which cannot endure the 
hardships of winter (i.e., caladiums, tritomas, gladiolus and in 
some cases montbretia) had best be lifted and stored in cellars. In 
some localities montbretia seems perfectly hardy if deeply planted. 
Pansies may be set out and covered with salt hay or like ma- 
terial when severe weather arrives. 

For extra fine sweet peas next summer, sow now; of course, 
they must be properly protected over the winter, but they are 
worth the effort. Protect by boards placed edgewise and covered 
with glass frames, which in turn must be covered with mats or 
salt hay during very severe weather, opening the frame on 
bright days. 

ONIONS and spinach for winter- 
ing over can be sown early this 
month. 
If not 



Crops for 
Winter 

may be 



Everybody's opportunity: Plant all the trees and shrubs possible this fall 

77 



already done dry and 
store the potatoes at 
once. Any that have 
been stored for any time 
looked over as a safe- 
guard against rot. 

If the rhubarb is thin and poor 
it probably needs resetting. Dig up, 
divide in four pieces by cutting 
through with a spade and set again 
in a well enriched bed. 

Don't neglect to brush the peas 
sown earlier in the season. Some 
should be ready for picking this 
month. 

Keep right on hilling late celery, 
it requires a lot of attention now 
as growth is very rapid. Early 
celery should be of capital quality 
now; keep blanching with boards. 
Clean the asparagus bed, removing 
all weed growth preparatory to the 
final clean-up which comes next 
month. 



78 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1914 



Perennial 
Border 



A LL hardy perennials which have be- 
"^ come too crowded should be reset 
this month; this lifting and dividing is re- 
quired every few years. 

Most hardy bulbs 
(with the exception of 
lilies) will be obtain- 
able this month and should be planted 
at once. 

Give the border a good thorough clean- 
ing if you are not going to make any 
changes in it. Cut down all dead stalks 
and clean all spaces between the plants, 
leaving the garden all ready to receive the 
mulch when freezing weather comes. Don't 
forget the mulch! 



B 



Protecting Porch and 
Tub Plants, Etc. 



Flowers 
Under Glass 



AY trees, hydrangeas, oleanders and 
such like plants must now be placed 
where they can be taken inside on frosty 
nights. It is not advisable, however, to 

put them inside 

very early, as they 

then get very soft 
and will not winter well. 

Summer bulbous plants such as achimines, gloxinias, begonias, 
caladiums, etc., should now be fairly well dried off so that the pots 
can be placed on their sides under a bench in a cool greenhouse. 
Tender water lilies must be brought in from the ponds after the 
first killing frosts, and stored under the benches in the greenhouse, 
until started into active growth again next spring. Tender 
aquatics that are not tuberous must be brought indoors before 
freezing weather, otherwise they will be destroyed. 

DLANTS which have been carried over this summer in the 
*■ coldframes had now better be brought inside the greenhouse, 
since a few cool nights will check them. 
Mignonette, antirrhinum, etc., but recently benched should be 

kept growing fast. 

To accomplish this 

keep the soil well 
worked around the plants, keep 
them free from insects of all kinds 
and give them the temperature 
they require. Don't try to grow 
them faster by raising the tempera- 
ture for that spells failure. 



T^OW that ventilation is reduced 

and fire heat again required, a 

sharp lookout must be kept for 

insect pests; green fly will become 

TT .. j a factor that must 

Heating and , ,. , , , 

„ ,., .. be fought, red 

Ventilation . , . , 

spider is also a com- 
mon enemy. Frequent spraying 
and close attention will keep them 
both under control. Preventive 
measures are far preferable, once 
they gain any headway they are 
hard to stamp out. 

/CHRYSANTHEMUMS will be 
^ showing color early this 
month. Fumigate the house thor- 
oughly just before the buds burst 
Ch to insure the flowers 

. not being infested 

by black fly. Stop 
feeding the chrysanthemum when 
the buds show color, except for an 
application or two of soot water 
(to improve the color) using a 7 



WAR ON THE PESTS OF FALL 

[See opposite page for illustrations) 

Fall Plowing. Have the ground turned over as 
late as possible. Insects that go into the soil to 
hibernate may then be brought back to the surface 
and destroyed by their various enemies. 

Cleaning Up Crop W . mnants. Some pests pass 
the winter in or about remnants of the plants that 
they have been feeding on. Trash should be col- 
lected and well composted, or destroyed. 

Shot Hole Borer. Watch the bark of limbs or 
trunk of fruit trees for tiny, round holes. If they 
are found, prune thoroughly and burn the cuttings. 
The pest spreads from dead limbs to weakened trees. 

Peach Tree Borer. It is possible to detect the 
work of this serious pest in the fall, while the grubs 
are still young. Probe the burrow with a soft 
copper wire nicked at the end. 

Bean Weevils. This species may be brought in 
with dried beans. It will go on breeding. Fumigate 
with carbon bisulphide, 1 to 2 pounds to 100 cubic 
feet. Keep all fire away. 

Fall Spraying for Scale. If San Jose has got 
much of a start, spray with lime-sulphur as soon as 
the trees are dormant, and repeat in the spring be- 
fore the buds burst. The two treatments are better 
than one, if infestation is bad. 



or 8-inch potful of soot to a barrel of 
water. A slight shade placed on the house 
when the flowers begin to expand will give 
better quality blooms; it has a tendency 
to give more length to the petal but must 
not be overdone, however, or the flowers 
will be too soft. A slat trellis is best for 
this purpose. 




Plant bulbs as soon as they can be procured. For informal effects, dump 
them on the ground carelessly and plant where they fall 



HpHE first crop of vegetables such as 

cauliflower, lettuce, etc., should now 

be ready for benching. Beans can also be 

sown in the greenhouse. Beets and carrots 

Vegetables for winter use should be 

Under Glass sown at once. Cucumbers 

should be sown now using 

pots for this purpose. Radishes can be 

sown in between the cauliflower in the 

benches. 

The successful grower of vegetables 
under glass must be able to judge his or her 
own needs to have continuous crops at all 
times with the very minimum of waste. 
No rule can be laid down, each person must 
work out his own schedule of quantities. 
The easiest and best insurance is to sow plenty of seed always — 
the cost is small. Sow often and you will always have plenty 
of young plants on hand which is the first and most important 
step toward continuous crops. 

It is well to tap the tomato plants as you walk through the 
house, this is usually sufficient to cause them to "set." In very 
dark dull weather, however, it may be necessary to resort to hand 
fertilizing, taking a spoon or similar receptacle and placing same un- 
der the flowers, then gently tapping the flowers until a considerable 
quantity of pollen is gathered. This is to be done at midday, 
when the air in the house is dry, as otherwise the pollen will not 
fly. The stigma of the flower is afterward dipped in this pollen 
which action "sets" the fruit. 

A KILLING frost this month 
may ruin all the tender vege- 
tables yet this will be followed by 
several weeks of fine mild weather. 

Vegetables JP ^ oid losses ° f this 

and Frost kmdiseasy! Heavy 

paper makes execllent 
material for covering; burlap (which 
is often used in shipping various 
articles by stores), and newspapers 
can be used for smaller plants. Start 
now to gather all such material, and 
have the same at some convenient 
place. 

Stretch strings or wire along the 
rows of string beans or bush limas 
to keep the protective material from 
crushing down the plants. Have 
a few barrels placed near eggplants 
and peppers ready to slip over the 
best plants on frosty nights. Pole 
limas can be protected by pulling 
up the poles (of course first loosen- 
ing the vines) and laying the vines 
on the ground and covering. Cauli- 
flower will stand considerable frost 
but it is well to tie up the leaves of 
those that are heading. This pre- 
vents discoloration. 

Cucumbers are extremely tender 
and can only be protected by placing 
a sash frame over the hill. 

Corn even may be saved by bend- 
ing four hills together and throwing 
a few frost proof blankets over them ! 



n 



K ^iiiiiitiii«iiihHiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiin--»imiiiiis3an^jiiinr 




Plow as late as possible to turn up white grubs to Now is the time when the weevil begins to work in dried 
the weather. This applies especially to sod ground or shell beans 



Late fall plowing helps to destroy wireworms, com- 
mon in ground that has been in sod 



ll!l!IPPl!illiRiH 




LATE FALL IS THE TIME TO HEAD OFF SOME OF THE PESTS OF WINTER AND SPRING. DETAILS OF THE WARFARE ARE GIVEN 

ON THE OPPOSITE PAGE 
79 



80 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1914 



Late 
Vegetables 



Salt hay makes an excellent cover for lettuce or endive; even 
celery not yet got in can be saved thus, if you are caught by a 
severe frost. The hay can be easily taken off during the day. 

WATERMELON or muskmelons (the latter, however, are 
usually over before the frost comes) are too spreading to 
protect, and it is better to pick all the full sized melons, which placed 
indoors will ripen themselves. If dwarf okra has been planted a 
few plants can be kept over by placing a barrel over 
the plant, the branches must be first tied in it 
lightly. 

Pumpkins and squash don't need any protection as they have 
almost completed their growth; all the fruit should be gathered 
and stored in a cool dry place. 

Cover the spinach with hay when heavy freezing starts in, also 
that which is to be carried over through winter can be protected 
in this manner. 

Tomatoes on a trellis can be protected by using mats, burlap 
or heavy paper but the better plan is to pick all the fruit, selecting 
all the small fruit to make your green tomato pickle and placing 
the balance in a light airy room where they will ripen perfectly. 

All the herbs should now be gathered and stored for the winter, 
cut and tied in separate bunches and hung from the ceiling in the 
attic until dry, when they can be powdered and put in boxes ready 
for use. 



Permanent 
Beds 



ANEW bed of asparagus may be set now. A little protection 
will be required for the plants during winter, but asparagus 
starts very early in spring and by planting in fall the plants get 
the advantage of an early start in spring. 

Though yet too early to do any mulching it is 
well to prepare for the work, locating manure and 
carting and storing it near where required. Lime 
is an excellent top dressing for slow sluggish gardens; it is of course, 
an absolute necessity on acid soils. 

Harrow over every particle of vacant space in the garden and 
sow down with rye; it not only makes a pleasant ground cover 
for the winter but is a valuable addition to the soil when turned 
under in spring. 

GATHER and store for winter use, mangels, turnips and car- 
rots. Do not put away any of these root vegetables while 
wet, and do not store in a damp cellar unless a raised platform is 
built on which to put the roots. 

Seed down with rye any fields that are cleaned and ready early 
in the month. This gives the ground at least some return, 
when plowed under in spring. Fields that can not 
be so handled should be plowed and left rough over 
winter. 

Cut and stack field corn during dry weather. Clean the corn 
crib at the first opportunity, not waiting until ready to store. 



Farm 
Crops 



WHAT THE WAR MEANS TO THE 
AMERICAN GARDENER 



IN MANY quarters the fear has been 
•expressed that the usual supplies of 
plants, seeds and bulbs would be com- 
pletely cut off ; but we are able to assure 
our readers that the amateur horticulturist 
will be able to procure practically every- 
thing that he will require. 

Bulbs for fall planting have been received 
in quantity, since traffic with Holland con- 
tinues undisturbed. Many dealers have 
ample supplies already, and others advise 
us that shipments are moving satisfactorily. 
There may be some delays in delivery, 
however, as compared with other years, and 
some early orders may be only partly 
filled. But the bulb buyer may rest 
assured that his needs will be met in ample 
time for planting. Also, because the home 
markets are to a large degree closed, the 
quality of bulbs shipped to America bids 
fair to be the very highest. 

It is not probable that we shall receive 
any stock from Belgium in the way of 
azaleas and other flowering shrubs. It is 
also problematical whether we shall re- 
ceive any lily-of-the-valley from Germany. 

As to the seed question: we do not antici- 
pate any disturbance in the matter of 
vegetable seeds. Many are raised here as 
it is, and as to those from abroad, there are 
practically sufficient stocks in this country 
to carry over another season, even if none 
were shipped from Germany or France. 
Most seedsmen carry over stocks of those 
seeds which hold their germination to cover 
themselves from just such conditions as are 
prevailing at the present time, and also 
from possible crop shortages. Then again, 
the Southern and California trade requires 



delivery of seeds from two to three months 
earlier than in the Middle West and 
East. 

As far as flower seeds are concerned, the 
average amateur will not be inconven- 
ienced to any great extent, if at all, by the 
present European war. 

A great many of the leading flower seeds 
are now grown in this country, including 
asters, alyssum, balsam, calendula, candy- 
tuft, carnation, centaurea, cosmos, dian- 
thus, hollyhock, larkspur, marigold, mignon- 
ette, nasturtium, petunia, phlox, poppy, 
salpiglossis, salvia, scabiosa, schizanthus, 
sweet pea, sweet William, thunbergia, 
verbena, zinnia, as well as many others of 
less consequence. 

It must be kept in mind that many of 
the seeds that come from Erfurt, and other 
so-called seed centres in Germany, are not 
necessarily grown there, but are produced 
some in Holland, some in Southern Europe, 
which sections are still open. The greatest 
difficulties are in help to gather, clean and 
ship the crops (many of the able bodied 
male help having been mobilized by the 
neutral countries to protect their borders) 
and the delays in getting goods to the sea- 
board. 

With regard to roses, it is probable that 
those usually shipped from Germany and 
Luxembourg will not be forthcoming, but 
that shipments will come through from 
France since the rose nurseries are below 
the war zone. Holland stock should come 
through in time. And from England we 
are advised that the growers there are 
exceedingly anxious to sell to America stock 
that evidently will not be in demand for 



the Continent, and perhaps less in demand 
among their own growers. 

It is an encouraging fact that well 
established nurseries have on hand good 
stocks of the several lines of ornamentals 
and flowering shrubs generally, as the im- 
ported material is largely grown on for at 
least a season before it is offered to the 
discriminating buyer. 

Moreover, the nursery and seed trade 
have, during the past few years, been 
devoting considerable attention to domestic 
production so that, as a whole, the trade 
in all branches is in a better position to 
sustain itself than ever before. 

As a mere matter of self protection and 
in order to reduce trouble to a minimum, 
it is likely that most catalogue houses will 
omit from their lists any articles about 
which there is any doubt of getting a supply. 

There is every reason to believe that, if 
the war zone is confined to its present 
location, everything usually offered will be 
procurable from some source, but arrival 
may be delayed which will, undoubtedly, 
entail an immense amount of extra labor 
on the seedsman and will call for patience 
on the part of the customers, who very 
frequently blame the seedsman for lack of 
immediate attention, without knowing the 
strenuous efforts that are made to get 
stocks in hand on time. As the whole 
situation is very complex, it is impossible 
to explain delays, and we advise our readers 
to order their usual requirements as early 
as possible, and to be prepared for a delay 
in the delivery of some/ew items, which are 
almost sure to be sent them in ample time 
for planting. 



Starting Right with Fall Set Trees and Shrubs 

By F. F. Rockwell, £5,., 




PLAIN DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING 
FALL-PLANTED NURSERY STOCK LIVE 
—GOOD REASONS FOR SETTING 
OUT ORNAMENTALS AT THIS TIME 








Evergreen shrubs, like 'rhododendron, should be planted 
very early in fall, otherwise defer till spring 

THE following directions are for 
the gardener who has had little 
or no experience. Long lists and 
descriptions are purposely avoid- 
ed. The subjects is reduced to its simplest 
terms, to enable the beginner to succeed 
from the start with what he attempts along 
this line. 

First of all the prospective planter should 
make up his mind to begin work at once. 
Now is the best time of the whole year for 
planting trees and shrubs of practically all 
kinds. It is the best time of year for the 
gardener, and the best for the shrubs. The 
ideal time for planting is as soon 
as possible after the first hard 
frosts. That means that you 
must get busy at once, because 
your shrubs should be ordered 
and the ground prepared for 
planting in the meantime. So 
the first thing to do is to write 
to three or four reliable nurser- 
ies for their catalogues, if 
you haven't some already on 
hand. While you are waiting 
for these to arrive, make your- 
self familiar with the general 
principles included in the follow- 
ing paragraphs. 

The first thing to fix in mind 
is that, during the first year more 
shrubs are killed by care than by 
abuse. After that it is the other 
way around. The average gar- 
dener begins with shrubs with 
the idea that they should be 
kept wrapped in cotton batting 
and handled with kid gloves. 
Consequently they are covered 
in so tenderly and gently when 
being planted that they are loosened up by 
the fall and winter winds, and the freezing 
and thawing of the ground, and as a con- 
sequence die before the year is out. The 
first lesson to learn is to get them into the 
ground solidly. Jump on them with both 



Early flowering shrubs like spirea and forsythia planted now 
and not pruned will give a good show of flowers next year 

feet! If you do that in the proper way you 
can do it literally, and they will be all the 
better for it whereas if you simply cover the 
earth in and press it down with your fingers, 
as you would when setting out a pansy or a 
verbena in the spring, the shrubs will pretty 
certainly be lost. 

The second most important lesson to 
learn is about the winter mulch for the first 
year. Shrubs set out in the fall should be 
mulched generously the first winter. After 
that most of them can take care of them- 
selves. But — this generous mulch is not to 
keep them frotn freezing: it is to keep them 




Plant trees and shrubs now to relieve the winter appearance of the lawn 



frozen! If you study Nature (as all good 
gardeners should), you will see that there is 
method even in Jack Frost's madness. With 
a silent hand, he strips the forests, and the 
shrubs in hedgerow and garden, of their 
leaves, dropping them down through 

81 



Now is the ideal time to move large specimen flowering 
shrubs and get the full benefit next spring 

the golden afternoons. He is getting his 
mulch ready: and when the ground freezes 
and the winter winds come, the leaves are 
whirled about in banks and drifts and form 
an effective covering for Nature's seedlings 
and bulbs and hardy borders. 

To take up in detail the work of planting, 
let us begin with the arrival of the stock 
from the nursery. It has been grown all 
summer, possibly two or three summers, 
carefully cultivated in "blocks" in the 
nursery. Such shrubs as require trans- 
planting and pruning have been given the 
necessary care, so that they are, or should 
be, of even, shapely growth, 
with a mass of fibrous roots, 
instead of the long tap and 
branch roots which they would 
form if left to grow undisturbed. 
They are usually packed care- 
fully enough so that the roots, 
even where most of the soil has 
had to be taken off, are still in 
good moist growing condition 
when received. If through de- 
lay, or for any other reason, the 
packing and roots are dry when 
you get them, place the roots, 
packing and all in shallow water 
in a pan or tub, and let them 
absorb moisture gradually, giv- 
ing more if needed until they 
have soaked up all they will. 
Do not get the whole mass wet. 
From the time the plants are 
received until they go into the 
ground, keep them under a shed 
or elsewhere, protected from 
both wind and sun. If by any 
chance they have to be kept a 
week or so, dig a shallow trench 
in moist soil in a sheltered position and 
"heel" them in, first cutting the bundles 
and loosening the individual plants so that 
air can circulate among them. Plants that 
are left packed too tightly, especially if they 
can get wet, very quickly lose some of their 



82 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



OCTOBEE, 1914- 



leaves through crushing and decay, if they 
do not receive more serious injury. 

At the very first opportunity after the 
stock arrives, but preferably on a quiet 
cloudy day, it should be planted. The 
"border" for the shrubs, or the holes where 
individual specimens are to be set, should 
have been prepared beforehand, because 
it is important that the operation of plant- 
ing should be concluded in as short a time 
as possible. Make a hole in the prepared 
soil large enough to accommodate the roots 
of the shrubs to be set in a natural position 
and without crowding. Any long straggling 
roots, or any which through accident have 
become injured, should be pruned back to 
convenient length or to firm wood. Set 
the plant in so that it will be slightly deeper 
than it grew before, and while holding it in 
an upright position with the left hand, 
work in fine rich soil about the roots with 
the right. Use the fingers, or a small 
blunt stick, to press the earth down firmly, 
being sure to fill up all crevices or air spaces. 
After the fine roots are covered up, so that 
there is no danger of bruising or breaking 
them, use the ball of the foot to pack the 
earth still more firmly. As the job nears 
completion, both feet and one's full weight 
may be used. The surface of the soil how- 
ever should be covered with fine loose earth. 
This is to create a mulch to prevent the too 
rapid evaporation of moisture which, even 
at this time of year, in case of continued 
bright windy days, will all be needed for the 
plants. If the soil is so dry that water is 
needed, the best way to use it is to pour 




Weigela is a reliable shrub for difficult situations, flower- 
ing well even in dense shade. The whita form makes a 
fine specimen 

some into the hole and let it soak away be- 
fore setting the plant, and repeat the opera- 
tion after the hole has been half filled. Where 
water is not available for use in this way 
the roots may be dipped in water or very 
thin mud before planting to insure intimate 
contact between the soil particles and the 
roots. 

I have said that the soil should be got 
ready before the plants are set out. The 
matter of fertilization for trees or shrubs is 
very important — much more so than with 
annuals. Especially should there be plenty 
of available plant-food in the soil for the first 



two or three seasons. After that they will 
be able to forage over a considerable extent 
for themselves. Well rotted manure, and 
bone — coarse and fine mixed in equal parts 
— should be added liberally to the border 
or to each hole. Two or three forkfuls 
of manure, and a handful or two of bone, 
will be enough for each shrub. Both 
should be mixed thoroughly with the soil, 
and kept well below the surface. Where 
a border is being prepared it should be 
plowed or spaded as deep as possible. If 
single holes are dug out they should be 
made two or three times as great in diame- 
ter as the ball of roots of the plant would 
necessitate. If there is a hard clay sub- 
soil it should be broken up with a pick, 
or still better with a few charges of dyna- 
mite before planting. 

In the nursery catalogues shrubs are list- 
ed alphabeticaUy. In articles on landscape 
gardening they are usually presented in 
tables giving comparative data as to 
height, colors, time of bloom, etc. A classi- 
fication much easier for the beginner to 
make himself familiar with is the following : 

i. Shrubs suitable for low groups or 
foregrounds. Lily-of-the-valley shrub (An- 
dromeda); Clethera; Heather (Calluna) 
and Heath (Erica), both requiring rather 
moist soil; Daphne; Deutzia; Spirea 
Thunbergii; Azaleas, especially in flowering 
beds. 

2. Shrubs suitable for tall groups or 
backgrounds. Dogwood (Cornus florida); 
Red-bud (Cercis); Deutzia; Forsythia; 
Laurel (Kalmia); Lilac (Syringa); Honey- 




Does not this convince you that a moderate investment in trees ; nd shrubs helps to turn a house into a home? Compare this picture with the average house anywhere 



October, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



83 



suckle, (Lonicera) ; Stag-horn Sumac (Rhus) ; 
Rhododendron; Golde # n, Elder (Sambucus 
nigra aurea); Spir.ea; Snow-ball (Vibur- 
num); Weigela. 

3. Shrubs suitable for single specimens 
both decorative and flowering. Rose of 
Sharon (Althea); Butterfly Shrub (Bud- 
dleia); White Fringe (Chionanthus Vir- 
ginica); Hawthorn (Crataegus); Straw- 
berry Shrub (Calycanthus floridus); 
Euonymus, especially E. Japonica. 
Angelica Tree (Aralia spinosa) ; 
Hydrangea; Japanese Maples; ■&$ 
Mock Orange; Smoke Tree (Rhus). 

4. Shrubs suitable for hedges 
and borders. Bar- 
berry (Berberis) ; 
Boxwood, 
especially for ..^ 
formal, trim- 
med hedges; 



inately about, even in the belief that you can 
make a few go a long way by such a method. 
With the exception of the few single speci- 
mens which may be desirable, keep them in 
groups, or "borders," along the boundary 
lines, along paths or walks, or against bound- 
ary or building walls. If you have had no 
experience yourself, study the grouping of 
some planting that strikes you as particular- 
ly pleasing. There is no necessity to 
imitate. But you will 
find that the pleasing 



ing the larger 
shrubs, first, start- 
ing at the back of 
the grouping to be 
planned; or at the 
middle if the group is 
to have two " faces " 
or in other words, 
be seen from both 
sides, as would be the 
case with a shrub- 
bery border planted 



vu 



t 




A 



SIDE STREET 



Japan Quince (Pyrus); Privet; Rosa rugo- 
sa, especially for banks, and rough, hard to 
cultivate places. 

The above list, while not long, offers 
abundant variety in the possible combina- 
tions which may be secured. With one or 
two exceptions, varieties have not been men- 
tioned, as their selection, with the corre- 
sponding variations in season of bloom, color, 
height, etc., will depend upon the plant- 
ing scheme into which they are to be fitted. 
The classification is of course by no means 
hard and fast. For instance, most of those 
mentioned in the first group may be used 
in the second, and 
to a large extent, 
vice-versa. But 
such a classifica- 
tion enables the 
prospective planter 
quickly to get an 
idea of the different 
shrubs available 
for any particular 
purpose he may 
have in view. The 
niceties of color 
schemes, success- 
ion flowerings, win- 
ter effects, he can 
study out as he 
progresses in the 
art. 

There are a few 
simple basic prin- 
ciples which the be- 
ginner with shrubs 
should always keep 
in mind. The 
first is; keep an 
open centre. Never 
sprinkle your 

shrubs indiscrim- 



effect has been secured by so planting 
that the shurbs grow or blend into each 
other in natural curves and flowing lines, 
both as to height and position — "ele- 
vation" and "plan" as they are termed. 
A plan often recommended for securing 
this effect is to take stones or marbles of 
various sizes, and throw them, planting a 



out the grounds 



along the front border of 
the place with no hedge 
or fence outside of it. 
Having set these, work 
forward to an artistic 
waving line, curved 
gracefully in and out at 
the front, or foreground. 
The simple suggestive 
plan herewith illustrates 
the use of all four of the 
various types of shrubs 
have discussed, in 
positions similar to those 
which are likely to be 
encountered in laying 
of the average place. 



shrub where each falls. 




Idealized scheme for disposition of shrubberyandtrees. Refer- 
ences: 1. Low groups in backgrounds; 2. Tall shrubs on fore- 
ground; 3. Individual specimens; 4 Borders and hedges 



The same device 
is recommend for 
naturalizing bulbs. 
This method may 
give better results 
than planting in 
straight lines, but 
I have always con- 
sidered it a poor 
makeshift. Neith- 
er bulbs or shrubs 
are located by Na- 
ture in that way. 
A much better way 
is to make a suffi- 
cient number of 
stakes, of shingles 
or lath, or small 
branches, and by 
their proportionate 
length, represent 
the height of the 
shrubstobe set out. 
These may be read- 
ily shifted about 
until the basis for 
an attractive 
grouping is attain- 
ed. Use the taller 
stakes, represent- 



Preventing White Grub Attacks 

WHERE the destructive May beetles, 
or so called June bugs, were abun- 
dant last spring -white grubs may be looked 
for in 191 5. Beetles appearing in the 
spring of 19 15 deposit eggs which hatch 
about a month after being laid. The 
young grubs feed on roots and decaying 
matter, but seldom do damage during their 
first year. However, the following year 
(191 5 in the present case) they are larger, 
and feed almost entirely on living roots 
preferably corn, timothy, potatoes, straw- 
berries, etc., causing great loss. The fol- 
lowing spring (191 6) they feed more or 
less but by June 1st or shortly thereafter 
they make earthen cells, become semi-dor- 
mant and in a fortnight or longer change to 
brown pupae, and a month later to adult 
beetles, remaining there until 1917. 

Grounds likely to be infested with grubs 
should be thoroughly plowed before Octo- 
ber 10. The date of plowing will depend 
on latitude and the weather conditions, for 
the grubs go down as cold weather ap- 
proaches and it is desirable to plow, when 
possible, just before they go down. Hogs, 
chickens and turkeys should be allowed 
to run in the field wherever this can be 
done. 



The Easy Road to Success with Bulbs — By c. J. Hunt, 

A MANUAL OF PRACTICAL CULTURAL DIRECTIONS FOR FALL PLANTED 
DUTCH BULBS-SIMPLE PRECAUTIONS TO BE OBSERVED BY THE GARDENER 



New 
Jersey 



IF IT is always borne in mind that 
bulbous plants possess at once features 
of advantage and of disadvantage to 
the gardener, contributing at the same 
time an ease of culture and a positive need 
of simple precautions, then the production 
of perfect flowers becomes a question of 
knowing just what to do and just what not 
to do. Fortunately, the "don'ts" are 
fewer, so far as bulbs are concerned, than 
is the case with most other kinds of plants. 
The formation of a fleshy bulb under- 
ground is Nature's sign of a store of food 
for the plant in such time of stress as may 
be occasioned by the bulb being too long 
out of the soil. While the new ' bulb is 
being formed each season, a new flower bud 
is also developed, and to this circumstance 
the simplicity of bulb-growing is due, for 
if the bulb has been properly grown to begin 
with, all that remains for the gardener is 
to choose the particular place in the garden 
where that flower is wanted. An unkindly 
soil or too vicious weather may prevent 
the bulb from doing its duty, and the 
"don'ts" of bulb culture apply chiefly to 
giving the bulb a fair chance against un- 
favorable situations or conditions. 

THE RIGHT SOIL 

The best soil we can give bulbs is, in most 
gardens, the soil that has never yet grown 
bulbs; but even this can be brought into 
better shape by adding sand, if it is a very 
heavy soil, or by enriching it, if it is too 
impoverished. A light loam is the ideal, 
and if rotted sod can be a large ingredient 
in the bulb beds, so much the better. 

Spade the earth over deeply, at least 
fifteen inches, and at the time digging is 
done fork in a fertilizer composed of three 
parts of bone-meal, one part of Scotch soot, 
and one part of wood ashes. Stable 
manure must be avoided unless it 
is very old, well-rotted stuff and is 
placed deep enough so that it 
cannot come in contact with the 
bulbs. The soil should be dug 
some time in advance of planting, 
in order that it may be allowed 
to settle for two or three weeks if 
possible. 

PLANTING THE BULBS 



Where it is feasible, the earth 
should be removed at planting to 
the depth at which the bulbs are 
to be set, as thus all the bulbs lie 
at a uniform depth and will all 
flower at the same time. Spread 
a half-inch layer of builder's sand 
over the surface, place the bulbs 
upon this and then carefully re- 
place the soil so that the bulbs 
are not knocked about as it is 
thrown on them. If this method 
of planting entails too much labor, 
the bulbs may be set in with a 
trowel or dibble, always taking 
pains that the bottom of the bulb 



rests evenly upon the soil. It is well to 
provide good drainage by dropping a little 
sand in the hole as it is made. 

After planting, many kinds of bulbs are 
benefited by a light cover of leaves, salt 
hay, or other litter, which should not be 
put on the beds until the ground is frozen 
two or three inches below the surface. If 
done earlier, the protection may become 
the delight of field mice which find 
in the bulbs a palatable food during the 
winter. 

Where mice or moles abound, it is well 
to plant moth-balls with the bulbs, for I 
know of no better deterrent to the ravages 
of these pests than roughly broken moth- 
balls scattered in the soil where they bur- 
row. The litter should be removed early 
in the spring before growth penetrates the 
cover, as it is then more easily taken off 
and there is no chance of the growth be- 
coming affected by fungus troubles, a risk 
that is quite possible where tulips remain 
too long covered. The surface of the soil 
should then be broken up lightly, taking 
care to avoid damage to the brittle young 
growth. 

The culture outlined thus far applies 
generally to all classes of bulbs. Details 
of culture differ somewhat for the various 
kinds, however, and if the few rules noted 
below are observed, success is more likely 
to be attained. 

HYACINTHS 

Hyacinths are grown in Holland in soil 
that is almost a pure sand and in heavier 
loam they soon become diseased and dis- 
appear. New bulbs will bloom in any soil, 
but to build up a strong bulb for the en- 
suing year, sandy soil free from any manure 
is necessary. Annual lifting when the 
foliage has quite ripened must be practised, 




Be sure that the bulb rests on the ground and is not "hung". 
in the bottom of the hole helps drainage too 

84 



and the bulbs should be stored over summer 
in a cool, dry place. 

Planting should be done before frost 
begins to bring down the foliage of such 
deciduous trees as the maples. The bulbs 
should be set not less than six inches apart 
and six inches deep measuring to the bottom 
of the bulb, where the largest sized bulbs 
are used; for second size bulbs an inch less 
depth will do. For bedding it is well to 
choose kinds that have a stem stiff enough 
to hold up the trusses without staking. 
The winter cover for hyacinths should be 
slightly heavier than for other bulbs. 

TULIPS 

Tulips may be grown in any soil provided 
perfect drainage is afforded. In a heavy 
soil the outer skin does not mature as well 
as in a sandier one, and when the bulbs are 
stored during the summer the protection 
of a firm skin is an aid in keeping the bulbs 
in the best condition until they are re- 
planted. Plant so far as possible in virgin 
soil. Tulips become subject to disease if 
planted too often in the same soil; this is 
particularly true of the early kinds and 
the majority of failures is due to this cause. 
Planting should begin and be finished 
within two and three weeks after the maple 
leaves begin to drop from the first hard 
frost, and should always be done in soil 
that is not sticky from recent rains. The 
early kinds need not less than five inches 
each way between the bulbs, and should 
be set five inches deep; late tulips require 
more room and should be set not less than 
six inches apart and as many inches deep. 
A sand base is always advisable, and 
no water should stand on the beds during 
winter. Keep any animal manures six 
inches below the base of the bulb. 

The covering should be very fight and 
must be removed as soon as an 
inch or two of growth has appeared. 
In case of severe frost, following 
light snow or rain, some protection 
must be at hand after uncover- 
ing, as water often collects in the 
folds of the opening leaves, and 
freezing may destroy the flower 
bud just as it comes through the 
surface of the soil. 

" Fire," as it is called in Holland, 
is a disastrous fungus disease which 
attacks the foliage as the bud is 
about to unfold. At the first sign 
of any brown spots upon the 
leaves, cut away and destroy the 
affected parts. As preventives for 
an attack of "fire," planting in 
new soil and being careful not to 
let the flower petals lie on the 
foliage or on the soil, to decay 
there after the blossoms fall, will 
J generally hold the disease in check. 
Early tulips succeed best if lifted 
each season after flowering. The 
late tulips may remain where 
planted with greater chances of 



A little sand 



October, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



85 




successful bloom the second or third year, 
but this is dependent wholly upon their 
having found a spot to their liking. If 
the blooms decrease in size and fewer 
bulbs flower the second year, it can be 
taken for granted that the bulbs are pro- 
testing against their situation and it is 
wiser to lift them and replant in the autumn. 
This should be done when the foliage begins 
to assume a limp and withered appearance. 
A test of the fitness for lifting may be found 
in trying to wind the flower stalk about the 
finger; if this can be done roughly without 
breaking the stalk, the bulbs may be taken 
up at once. If summer flowering plants 
are to be used where tulips are grown, the 
bulbs may be carefully taken up as soon as 
they are through flowering, leaving as 
much earth as will adhere to the roots and 
covering them again with soil in some out 
of the way place to complete ripening. 

DAFFODILS 

.--Some of the daffodils, or narcissus, may 
be grown in any soil or situation. The 
white trumpet kinds prefer a little gritty 
character in the earth they grow in, and 
the blooms of all kinds last longer if a 
position in partial shade may be given 
them. In fact, many of the red-cupped 



kinds lose all their color in the full sun and 
need such a situation to maintain their 
striking beauty. Use no stable manure; 
keep to the general fertilizer as suggested, 
and if the red-cupped varieties do not seem 
to show all the color they ought to have, 
fork in lightly just after uncovering a 
dressing of sulphate of potash — say, an 
ounce to the square yard. 

Planting should be done as soon as the 
bulbs can be obtained for the daffodil 
particularly dislikes being out of the ground 
very long. The closer one gets to the 
poeticus sorts the more imperative is the 
need for early planting, as these often make 
new root growth before the old roots have 
quite ceased to feed the bulb. 

Because of the varying sizes in the bulbs 
no fixed rule can be given for the depth at 
which the bulbs should be planted. Set 
the largest ones six to eight inches apart, 
the smaller four to five inches apart, and 
cover the bulbs one and a half times their 
own depth measured from the base to the 
beginning of the "neck" of the bulb. In 
very light soils add an inch more of covering. 

Daffodils should not be left in the ground 
longer than three seasons without lifting 
and dividing the bulb. Much depends 
on the individual variety, and should it be 



Plant plenty of bul bs for spring flowers, the more there 
are massed the better they look. This picture shows a 
collection of Darwin and breeder tulips blooming in May 

noticed that some kinds do not flower well 
the second season, try lifting the second 
year and change the situation and character 
of the soil if possible. In dividing care 
must be taken not to break the base of the 
bulb, and it is wiser to separate only those 
offsets that appear quite loosely attached 
to the mother-bulb. 

OTHER MISCELLANEOUS BULBS 

With the bulbous irises early planting is 
advisable always, and some winter pro- 
tection is necessary. The English irises 
suffer most from wet weather during the 
summer months, and it is safer to take 
them up after ripening. The Spanish 
kinds make leaf growth early in the fall, if 
they have been left in the ground the second 
season, and freezing of this foliage is the 
most frequent cause of failure. 

Crocuses are also better for early plant- 
ing, frequently failing to flower if they are 
not in the ground when the top growth be- 
gins, to show. Plant two inches deep to 
the bottom of the bulb, and give them a 
sunny position. 

Scillas of all kinds succeed best in the 
shade, and need to be planted quite deep 
in comparison with the size of the bulb. 
Five inches is none too much. Give them 
a rich soil, and allow them to go to seed if 
a rapid increase is desired. 

Snowdrops, Chionodoxas, Grape Hya- 
cinths, and the graceful Camassias should 
be planted thickly to produce a good effect 
and be covered three to four times their 
depth. Avoid covering with too heavy a 
material, if winter protection is given 
them; cocoa-fibre is the ideal. 

Ixias, in named varieties, are not grown 
as widely as they should be, partly because 
their beauty is not appreciated and partly 
because they are considered a bit too tender. 
They will go through the severest weather, 
nevertheless, if planted two inches deep and 
covered first with six inches of cocoa-fibre 
and then a cover of leaves. 



Ever Plant Vegetables in the Fall? — By a. Kmhm, 

EASILY GROWN CROPS THAT MAY BE GROWN THIS SEASON — SOME THINGS 
TO PLANT FOR EARLY SPRING — HELPING THE EFFICIENT GARDEN 



Ohio 



THE average backyard gardener 
"goes to sleep on the job" with 
the approach of shorter days and 
cool nights. This apparently, 
is just what nature is doing and we mortals 
are all too willing to accept things as they 
seem, without stopping to investigate them 
as. they really are. 

The regular appearance of "chance seed- 
lings" of radishes, lettuce, spinach, toma- 
toes and even beans started me thinking. 
Year after year, a number of volunteers 
would "pop up" somewhere in the garden. 
These volunteer plants would yield results 
from ten days to three weeks before the 
regular crops. 

Whether the seeds from which these 
plants started, were spilled at the last 
regular sowing, or whether a stalk ran to 
seeds and scattered them broadcast, mat- 
ters little. The fact remains that they 
proved to be sufficiently hardy and well 
enough protected to stay in the ground all 
winter, come up at the correct time in the 
spring, and furnish the earliest vegetables 
obtainable. 

It is this particular fact which I wish to 
bring home to readers of The Garden 
Magazine, together with definite sug- 



gestions how to "cash in" on this lesson. 
Nature does a lot of planting every fall and 
we have been all too slow to learn the 
lessons. Before the leaves fall and the 
remnants of the plants are knocked down 
by storms, seeds fall and are buried in some 
obscure way. The thing for us to find out 
is, which seeds have the biggest chances for 
a survival in the face of trying weather con- 
ditions in different sections of the country. 
I am only prepared to speak authorita- 
tively for Ohio and states offering similar 
climatic problems. But the observations 
made here should prove a stimulus for 
experiments elsewhere. At any rate, every- 
thing is to be gained, very little can be 
lost. 

A START FOR NEXT YEAR 

Start next year's vegetable garden now 
by clearing the ground of all rubbish, dead 
plants, stalks, etc. Rake everything in a 
heap and burn it. Spade deeply, as in the 
spring. This will bring to the surface some 
of the now well-rotted manure dug under 
last spring. Rake it carefully and wait 
until the weather man predicts weather 
that will freeze the ground hard. Just 
before this happens, get busy and sow 



lettuce, mustard, spinach, carrot, smooth- 
seeded peas and radishes. 

These are the particular vegetables that 
have come through the experiment in 
splendid condition in this section. Ignore 
the fact that it is fall. Prepare the garden 
just as you would in the spring, taking care 
that all seeds are well covered. If Indian 
summer should be unusually long and some 
of the thriftier seeds should start growing, 
it will save you the trouble of thinning out 
the rows next spring. 

Of the vegetables mentioned, spinach 
will make a good growth, sometimes, if 
sown early in October. But since it is a 
rather hardy vegetable anyway, this need 
not discourage the gardener. Just scatter 
coarse manure, four inches deep, over the 
spinach rows and the plants will come 
through the winter nicely to furnish the 
first "greens" next spring. A particularly 
frost-resisting sort of spinach is Munster- 
land, with deeply laciniated leaves, not 
unlike those of dandelion. 

In selecting sorts for fall sowing, please 
keep in mind the season during which 
these vegetables are to mature. It would 
be waste of time and money to sow late 
sorts which, in most cases, require a good 




This semi-coldframe in an Ohio garden, last fall was placed against the north fence and yielded crops well into the winter 

f 86 



October, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



87 



deal of warmth to mature. Besides, extra 
early spring sown sorts would beat them 
in time of maturity and the present fall 
activity, would count for nothing. 

Among lettuces, I know no sorts that 
will beat Earliest Wayahead, Naumburger, 
and May King in this connection. All are 
hardy, stand cold wet weather well and 
mature quickly. Of mustard, I prefer 
Elephant Ear to all others. They ought 
to have called it "pot-filler." Besides 
Munsterland spinach mentioned above, 
Triumph or Long Season will come through 
the winter admirably, though it has much 
fleshier leaves and requires 
more protection. 

Of carrots, Chantenay, 
and Danvers, the two most 
reliable stand-bys, answer 
admirably. Be sure to sow 
only smooth seeded peas in 
the fall. Alaska, First, and 
Best, or Pedigree Extra Early 
will do, although I believe 
the last named is of greater 
productiveness and better 
quality than the other two, 
if we can talk of quality in 
an extra early smooth-seeded 
pea. Of radishes, choose 
Rapid Red, Scarlet Button, 
or Vick's Scarlet Globe — 
all extra early spring sorts that mature in 
the order in which they are mentioned here. 

OTHER VEGETABLES FOR FALL PLANTING 

The above do not represent by any 
means the complete list of vegetables that 
may be started in the fall. Rhubarb roots 
and horse radish sets planted in the fall 
will give splendid returns the following 
year. By setting out asparagus roots 
this fall you gain practically a whole year. 
Incidentally, do not plant roots that are 
three years old or older. All experienced 
gardeners will tell you that two year old 
roots are the most satisfactory all around. 
If your seedsman can supply them, set 
out Egyptian Winter, Multiplier and Potato 
Onion Sets. All are perfectly hardy and 
are bound to furnish the very earliest green 
spring onions next season if planted now. 

USING THE BACKYARD GARDEN THIS 
WINTER 

For those who keep chickens, here is 
a scheme to make the backyard garden 
keep down the cost of chicken feed. After 
clearing the garden and either spading or 
plowing it, sow part of it to oats, and part 
to rye or else to Dwarf Essex rape or hairy 
vetch {Vicia villosa). All these forage 
plants make a quick growth during the 
cool fall months and should provide plenty 
of feed throughout the winter, since all 
are quite hardy. 

Even if chicken keeping is not on your 
programme, it will pay you to either dig 
the ground and let it lay in rough chunks 
or to level it and sow it to rye, oats, or 
vetch. If you let the ground lay in a rough 
condition, it will freeze up hard and this 
thorough freezing will not only sweeten 



it, but will put it in fine mellow condition 
for next spring. If you sow it to oats, 
rye, or vetch, you may turn them under as 
green manure next spring and vetch will, 
in addition, add nitrogen to the soil, since 
it absorbs that valuable element from the 
air and stores it in the soil. 

LENGTHENING THE FRESH VEGETABLE 
SEASON 

Part of the bare ground now in the garden 
may readily be converted into fresh vege- 
tables. Fix up a box-like structure of 
1 2-inch boards, making it the same shape as 




Cleared for action in the fall (Nov. 10th). Newly made vegetable bed next the back fence. 
Dry leaves ready in the barrel in the corner 

a hotbed frame. If a solid fence guards 
the north side of your property, you can 
lean this box right against it, thus saving 
lumber for one side. 

Drive short strong posts about six feet 
from the fence, letting the ends of posts 
stand about twelve inches above the soil. 
Nail boards against these posts and fasten 
boards with cleats to the fence and your 
box-like structure is ready. Next, get 
some well-rotted, reasonably fresh manure 
and spread it to a depth of five inches into 
this frame. Tramp it down tightly and 
spread about four inches of good garden 
soil on top of it. You now have a bed 
that is something like a coldframe and yet, 
it does better work, since the manure 
underneath will generate just enough 
warmth to cause a quick germination 
of the seeds for which the bed is now 
ready. 

For immediate use, sow radishes, like 
Rosy Gem, Rapid Red and Crimson Giant. 
Lettuce Early Curled Simpson grows 
quickly to good size. Of beets, sow Eclipse, 
Crosby's Egyptian, and Detroit Dark 
Red. You may even plant some onion 
sets of any sort obtainable into this frame 
and feel sure of good results. Since all of 
the vegetables and varieties suggested are 
of very compact growth, the rows may be 
placed quite close together, thus affording 
maximum returns from minimum space. 
The accompanying picture shows my semi- 
coldframe of last fall against the north 
fence of my backyard garden. 

With the approach of cold nights, this 
frame is covered with either glass sash or 
boards, mats or anything to keep out the 
cold, and uncovered in the morning to let 
the sun do good work all day; covering 



after sun goes down. When very cold 
weather sets in, bank up the sides of frame 
with dirt or coarse manure or leaves. Place 
old boards against the latter two to prevent 
the wind from blowing them away. 

PARSLEY AND RHUBARB ALL WINTER 

Cut back the row of parsley in your 
garden to within two inches of the top and 
cover it with one of your (now empty) 
porch boxes. It will keep right on growing, 
if, during very cold weather, you take care to 
cover the row with additional boards or mats 
or burlap. Should you be reluctant to go to 
all that trouble, dig up half 
a dozen roots and plant 
them either in pots or in a 
deep box. Those may be 
kept in the kitchen window 
or near a light, sunny cellar 
window and they will pro- 
duce parsley all winter if 
the temperature is warm 
enough to induce growth. 

After the first real hard 
frosts freeze the ground solid, 
go into your garden with an 
ax or a strong spade and lift 
one of your largest clumps of 
rhubarb roots. Bring it into 
the cellar and put it in a 
barrel, frozen soil and all. 
Keep about six inches of sawdust or straw 
in the bottom of the barrel. This will ab- 
sorb the moisture, as the lump thaws. 
Place the barrel within ten feet of the 
furnace, not nearer. Gradually, the rhu- 
barb clump will send forth tender, delicate 
sprouts. If the clump is large and of 
strong vitality these sprouts will grow to be 
an inch in diameter and fourteen to sixteen 
inches long. I have known a good sized 
clump to produce three dozen stalks of 
good size, before its strength became ex- 
hausted. Bought in the open market, 
they would have cost at least $2 and freshly 
stewed rhubarb tastes twice as good around 
Christmas time as it does during May. 

Spiking vs. Tying Tomatoes 

PROBABLY everyone knows that the 
earliest and finest tomatoes are secured 
when the vines are trained up poles. But 
instead of tying them up with string or rafia 
time may be saved by simply spiking finish- 
ing the vines to the poles with ordinary wire 
finishing nails. Some injury to the vines 
would naturally be expected, but I can testify 
from long experience that absolutely none 
need occur. A fairly sharp nail, inserted 
in the tough portion of the vine some six or 
eight inches back from the crown bud, 
simply sparates the fibres without intefer- 
ing with their normal functions at all. I 
have nailed hundredsof vines right out in the 
hot sun without having a single leaf wilt. 
Best of all, the vines stay in place with their 
increasing load right through the season, 
and do not thrash even in high wind. Of 
course the vines should be trained to a 
single stalk by pinching out the laterals. 
Maine. C. M. G. 




Growing Bulbs in the House 

By Nina R. Allen, oh io 

THE SURE ROAD TO SUCCESSFUL CULTIVATION OF BULBS IN POTS, OR 
IN GLASSES — THE REASONS WHY MANY FAIL TO GET GOOD FLOWERS 



w 



ITH 

time 



This cone covers a hyacinth 
to help "draw up" the flower 



little 
to 
care for 
house plants, with 
all their varied re- 
quirements; with, 
perhaps, the added 
disadvantages of a 
hot-air furnace, the 
hardy bulbs seem 
to me more desira- 
ble for indoor gardening than any other 
growing things in common use, excepting 
Pandanus and Araucaria, and like these 
foliage plants, they will endure conditions 
that many greenhouse aristocrats find in- 
tolerable, without either sulking or taking 
to red spider or some other inglorious means 
of exit from an unkind world. 

Bulb culture is simple, but there are few 
points that mean success or failure as they 
are heeded or disregarded. 

Always buy good bulbs.- It is possible 
there are bargains in bulbs, but it is better 
to purchase them of a dealer of known 
reliability who has a reputation to keep up 
than to run the risk of failure for the sake 
of saving a few cents. Then, too, you may 
select from the seedsman's stock named 
varieties, and knowing what you have 
bought not only adds to your pleasure when 
the blossoms appear, but it is a great ad- 
vantage when you decide as to next years' 
purchases. 

FOR EASY SUCCESS 

The bulbs most successfully forced by 
beginners are these: hyacinths, the Roman 
and single Dutch; the double narcissus, Van 
Sion, commonly called double 
daffodil, and Orange Phoenix; 
the trumpet narcissus, Giant 
Princeps, Emperor, Golden Spur, 
Glory of Leiden, Victoria, Trum- 
pet Major, and Horsfieldi; the 
chalice cup narcissus, Incom- 
parabilis Cynosure and Stella; 
the poet's narcissus, Ornatus and 
King Edward VII ; the jonquils. 
The polyanthus^narcissus, Paper 
White Grandiflora, Grand Soleil 
d'Or,and Chinese Sacred Lily are 
easily managed either in soil or 
in water with pebbles. The latter 
way is the one generally chosen 
by amateurs, both for speed 
and facility. 

Tulips, as a general thing, are not a wise 
choice for beginners, but the single, early 
flowering red-and-yellow Kaiserskroon is 
not difficult, and as more satisfactory, even 
among florists, has largely superseded the 
double tulip, Tournesol, of the same colors, 
once so popular. The Due Van Thol varie- 
ties are also recommended for forcing, as 
being earlier and more tractable than most 
sorts. These tulips can be had in rich rose- 
pink, scarlet, and white. If one must have 



some double tulips, let him try Murillo, a 
lovely light pink, which is forced with com- 
parative ease even by a tyro. All tulips must 
be potted early— before the first of November 
for best results — and they should be kept in 
the dark for three months if possible, and 
must develop in a cooler atmosphere than 
that required for hyacinths and narcissus 
when brought to the light. 

Lilies-of-the-valley and Easter lilies are 
perhaps best omitted from the amateur's 
list until some skill has been acquired from 
experience, but almost any one can succeed 
with freesias, delightful Cape bulbs, re- 
quiring different treatment from these hardy 
Holland sorts. 

WHY HYACINTHS WIN OUT 

In my opinion, the single varieties of the 
Dutch hyacinths are far more desirable than 
the double kinds, as they have not the 
clumsy, clublike look of the former, due 
to overcrowding on the spike, while the 
bell-shaped flower is more beautiful in form 
than one doubled out of all grace and indi- 
viduality. 

Bulbs of the first size are preferable, but 
those of the second, if obtained of a re- 
liable dealer, will also give good results, and 
a saving of one third is generally made by 
their purchase. When buying of a local 
seedsman, see that the bulbs are firm and 
heavy for their size. 

Among single white varieties, La Gran- 
desse, and L'Innocence are worthy sorts, 
having large trusses of snowy blossoms. 

Cardinal Wiseman is a bright rose-pink 
of a most lovely shade, entirely lacking the 
disagreeable tone of the so-called red hya- 




This plant was covered by a 
pasteboard cone 




The place where the bulbs make their roots: a shaded sheltered spot. The potted bulbs 
are set in a shallow pit with leaves over them and boards over all 

cinths, some of which recall the reddish-pink 
of calico seen now only in the patchwork 
quilts of an elder generation. Gertrude is 
another good pink of a somewhat lighter 
shade, while Gigantea is so pale that it is 
little more than tinted with that delightful 
color. 

Most of the hyacinths called blue by the 
dealer appear to me to be purple or lavender, 
but quibbling as to the color does not seem 
worth while when their beauty is considered. 

88 



The king-of-the- 
blues, described as a 
rich deep blue, is a 
most beautiful dark 
shade, whether 
purple or azure; 
and Grand Maitre, 
set forth in some 
catalogues as deep 
porcelain-blue, is 
fine, though to me 

it looks an exquisite lavender. Both of 
these varieties are strong growers with good 
trusses of blossoms. Czar Peter is also a 
fine light sort. 

The yellow hyacinths, even when de- 
scribed as golden-yellow, as in the case of the 
King of the Yellows, proved in my hands to 
be a pale buff. 

General Pelissier, listed as an intense 
crimson-scarlet, is an example of the red 
that I find unpleasant, though some may 
admire it. 

WHEN TO POT BULBS 

The best time to pot bulbs for winter- 
blooming is in October, preferably as early 
in the month as possible. This is a general 
rule. Some sorts may be potted at intervals 
up to New Year's Day for succession, if they 
can be kept from making top growth. Paper 
White narcissus and the sacred lilies can be 
started in water as late as the middle of 
January, if the bulbs are in good condition. 
Nevertheless, October is the best time for 
potting, just as it is for outdoor planting. 
It seems to be the natural time for bulbs to 
go underground; and potted then, they 
have a sufficiently long period for root 
growth, and will blossom their 
finest when we are most eager 
for flowers. During the months 
following October, if out of the 
soil, the bulbs are constantly 
losing vitality. 

HOW TO POT BULBS 

Earthen pans have a neater ap- 
pearance than pots, but either 
will serve. They should be well 
soaked, if new, and thoroughly 
scrubbed with strong soap-suds, 
if old. Provide for good drainage 
by placing a layer of charcoal 
broken in small pieces over the 
bottom, with sphagnum moss 
above it. The potting soil is 
important. If it is not loose and fine, 
hyacinths will not root well, and the flower 
spikes will then be so short that the 
blossoms will be down among the leaves, 
close to the soil. 

If one lives in the city, I think it is ad- 
visable to buy potting soil of a near-by 
florist, but if one do prepare it use equal 
parts of good garden loam, sand, and well- 
rotted cow-maure. If the latter cannot be 
obtained, use finely ground bone meal as a 



October, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



89 



fertilizer, allowing a teacupful to a half- 
bushel of soil. One part of leafmold or com- 
post from rotted sods to two parts each of 
loam and sand should be used with the bone 
meal, to provide humus. When the pots 
are ready to set away, the soil should be 
within an inch of the rim. 

Bulbs in bloom look much better in 
groups than planted singly. When the 
dimensions of the pot will allow, from four 
to a dozen should be together, according to 
the size of the bulb. It takes from four to 
sLx of the Roman hyacinths to make a satis- 
factory show, and less than six or eight 
crocus are hardly worth while. SLx, eight, or 
a dozen tulips should bloom together. If 
the bulbs touch, no harm is done. When 
potting, scoop out a place for each in the 
soil, adapted to its size, and 
set it in, filling in the soil and 
pressing it firmly against 
the sides of the bulb. In 
the case of hyacinths, the 
top of the bulb should be 
left just above the soil. 
Tulips, narcissus, and crocus 
should be covered an inch. 
Firm the earth around 
above them. 

When bulbs are pressed into 
the soft earth in the pots, as is 
often advised, the soil is left loose 
around them and is made firm be- 
neath, and frequently the roots, on 
forming, push the bulb up instead 
of penetrating the earth, as they 
should do. 

After the bulbs have been potted, 
water them thoroughly. It is well 
to cover the surface of the soil with 
sphagnum moss, as this tends to 
conserve the moisture. 



planted in good soil in the open ground or in 
a coldframe and mulched as when in pans. 
During a January thaw, they may be taken 
up carefully and potted. The better way, 
however, is to place them in pots at once, as 
otherwise the roots run some risk of mutila- 
tion. 

CONCERNING ROOT GROWTH 

Most writers state that eight weeks' time 
will be required for satisfactory root-growth. 
In my opinion, three months is little enough 
for some. A period of four is better if the 
place of storage is cool enough to permit so 
long a stay. The production of long spikes 
and fine flowers largely depends on the 
making of good and plentiful roots, and this 
takes time, and must occur before top- 



and 



WHERE TO STORE THE BULBS 




Place the pots in a cool, dark 
place. A cellar where the mercury 
does not rise above 60 degrees will 
serve. A lower temperature is still better 
for most, and is necessary for tulips and 
crocus. Set them in the darkest corner and 
lay boards or a piece of old linoleum or some- 
thing similar over the tops of the pots to ex- 
clude all light. If mice are given to sur- 
reptitious visits, weight the coverings. 
Once in a while inspect the bulbs, and if 
the soil is dry enough to crumble when 
stirred, water well. If moist, it needs no 
water. Too much moisture at this time 
breeds decay. If the cellar is too warm, a 
cool, dark closet may be utilized. 

The bulbs may be left out-of-doors. A 
shallow pit may be dug in a shady place, 
and they may be set into this, with ashes 
beneath them, the rims of the pots being 
a few inches below the general level. After 
the ground freezes, they must be covered 
with some straw or a mulch of leaves, held 
in place with boards; and as the weather 
becomes colder, the covering must be made 
heavier. Where field-mice are troublesome, 
an upstairs porch is a good place for the 
bulbs. The pots may be set in a box and 
protected as described. The bulbs may be 



Seventy-five per cent of the failures with bulbs are due to forcing 
the top before the roots have made growth. High temperatures are 
fatal. Look for roots protruding through the hole in the bottom of 
the pot. Then it is safe to begin with forcing 



growth begins if the blossoms are to be 
satisfactory. Light and heat cause the 
bulbs to sprout like onions kept in too warm 
a place, wherefore the need of darkness and a 
low temperature. 

THE SECOND STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT 

The bulbs must not be too suddenly 
introduced to a higher temperature and a 
greater amount of light. 

When they have been in the dark three 
months, it is well to bring them forth at 
intervals of two weeks, two or three pots at 
a time. You may begin to do this at the end 
of eight weeks. A great deal depends on the 
temperature of the cellar or closet where 
they are stored. Bulbs differ, too, in the 
rapidity of their root-growth. Roman 
hyacinths are likely to be sufficiently ad- 
vanced at the end of six or seven weeks. 

When the pots are full of roots, sprouts 
will push up from the crown of the bulb. 
When these shoots are about an inch high, 
it is safe to remove the pots to a warmer and 
lighter situation. But they should not be 
placed in direct sunshine at this time. The 



light should be subdued. Some claim that 
when the flower buds begin to develop they 
must have full sunlight for perfection of 
color and bloom, and cite narcissus as a 
special case. But last winter my double 
narcissus, Van Sion, were brought from a cool 
closet to a window having a good light but 
no direct sun ; they were then set on a table 
opposite curtained windows, shaded by a 
porch, with the only strong light coming in 
from small north windows. Yet their color 
could not have been better. Hyacinths, too, 
are never placed by me where the sunshine 
will fall directly upon them. If at a west 
window, it is at once shaded by drapery 
when the sun is shining in from that side. 
A north window, with the curtains pushed 
back, and nothing outside to obstruct 
the fight, is really preferable. 

COMMON CAUSES OF FAIL- 
URE 

If the temperature of the 
room to which the bulbs 
are brought is rather high, 
the development of the 
spikes and the flowers upon 
them will not be as fine as if it 
were lower and their growth con- 
sequently less rapid. A tempera- 
ture of 55 degrees at first, followed 
by one of fifty degrees after the 
flowers have developed in form and 
color is what is best for most bulbs. 
The crocus, like tulips, should never 
have more than 40 to 45 degrees of 
heat at any time. 

The high temperature of our living- 
rooms is the reason for the swift passing 
of these lovely winter-flowering bulbs. 
Apartments where a thermometer 
would not register seventy degrees are, 
I fear, greatly in the minority. 

Too sudden a jump to higher temperature 
and to strong light is another cause of the 
stemlessness of hyacinthsalreadymentioned. 
The flower spike should emerge through the 
neck of the bulb with its buds folded tight 
and flat against it. Brought to a bright 
light at first, the buds swell and open out 
prematurely under the stimulating influence 
of the sun, and get stuck in the narrow gate- 
way. It is always well to place a cone of 
pasteboard or heavy paper, with about an 
inch of the apex cut off, over each pot of 
hyacinths. The flower spikes will "draw 
up" toward the little patch of light above their 
heads, just as seedlings do when grown under 
unfavorable conditions, and the passage 
will be made in safety, with good long stems 
assured. The cone must be removed when 
the stem can be seen below the buds. The 
application of the cone is not necessary with 
other bulbs, though experimenting with 
daffodils and tulips, I found it helpful, 
placed for a few days, in promoting vertical 
growth and long stems. 

In the hot, dry atmosphere ot our homes, 
these bulbs are sometimes afflicted with a 
plague of aphides which appear from nobody 
knows where. Dishes of water evaporating 
on registers or radiators will help to make 
the air moist. Tobacco is both an insecti- 



90 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1914 



cide and fertilizer and has a tendency to keep 
the soil in the pots soft and moist when placed 
on the surface. It should be applied as a 
preventive of "green fly" when the pots are 
brought to the rooms where the bulbs will 
bloom. In the case of tulips, which these 
pests find especially appetizing, it is better 
to use it when potting them. 

I have known folks who thought it neither 
a high crime nor a misdemeanor to take 
surreptitious teaspoonfuls from the tobacco- 
jar of a Certain Person, since it was done for 
the welfare of the flowers. (And besides, it 
is not good for Him to smoke so much). 

After the bulbs leave the cellar or dark 
closet, the soil must be watered thoroughly 
and as often as is necessary to keep it wet to 
the point of saturation. The sphagnum moss 
applied to the surface on potting, if retained, 
helps to promote such a condition. 

Sometimes, the bulbs need staking. This 
is more likely to be necessary when they are 
subjected to the enervating effects of too 
high a temperature, or to a strong light from 
outside. The flower stalks grow tall at the 
expense of strength, and need a prop in the 
one case, and "draw" toward the window 
in the second. 

I have found that a good deal of this 
drawing takes place at night. The bulbs 
will draw toward an electrolier if in the 
same room at a little distance, or if in a dark 
room opening into a lighted one ; or toward 
an arc light outside after the house is dark. 
Sometimes they can be gently pushed back 
to erectness, but it is not easy to coax them 
back to the perpendicular when they have 
departed far from it. A light-proof closet 
at night is a wise preventive measure for 
bulbs likely to be so affected. 

These directions may sound as if forcing 
were a difficult process, but it is as easy as 
two and two are four if one will but re- 
member the essentials: — 

i — To buy good bulbs. 

2 — To procure suitable potting soil. 

3 — To provide perfect drainage. 

4 — To allow plenty of time for root-growth. 

S — Not to water too much during this period. 

6 — To bring them gradually to the light. 

The two bulbs most easily forced in soil 
are in my opinion the white Roman hya- 
cinths and the double narcissus, or daffodil, 
Van Sion. The Roman hyacinths may be 
potted every two weeks up to the middle 
of December for a succession of bloom. On 
account of the ease and rapidity with which 
they are forced, they make most desirable 
Christmas presents. And what more de- 
lightful gift can be prepared for the invalid 
or for the worker in office or store than a 
pan of these lovely things, in themselves a 
message of love and though tfulness? And 
what else so beautiful costs so little in effort 
or money? 

The double daffodils, faintly fragrant, 
make a delightful Easter gift. These, too, 
may be potted for succession. I have 
placed them in soil as late as the eighteenth 
of January. All bulbs reserved should be 
kept in a cool dry place, wrapped in thick, 
dark papers. Sprouted bulbs will not give 
good results. 



BULBS AFTER FORCING 

What to do with the bulbs after they have 
bloomed is a question that vexes the soul 
of the flower-lover, especially if it is an 
economical soul. 

Few of them are worth keeping, for they 
cannot be depended upon to force again. 
Most of them should go to the compost 
heap, but the hyacinths, the Van Sion, and 
trumpet narcissus may be allowed to ripen 
their leaves as they stand in the pots, when 
they should be removed from the soil and 
stored in a cool, dry place until October. 
They can then be planted in some incon- 
spicuous place in the garden, and in the 
course of time, recovering from the strain 
put upon their constitutions by forcing, they 
will brighten some quiet corner with blos- 
soms, not so fine as they once put forth, but 
still worth having. 

FREESIAS, CAPE BULBS 

The freesia has graceful and very fragrant 
blossoms. Every one wants a pot or two, 
holding from six to a dozen, for the sake of 
their delectable perfume. These bulbs, 
also, are adapted to potting for succession. 
Their culture differs in two important partic- 
ulars from that of the Dutch bulbs. Unlike 
them, the freesia when potted should be 
taken directly to the light, and though it 
demands a cool place, it needs plenty of 
sunshine, without which it becomes spind- 
ling. 

BULBS IN WATER 

The Chinese and golden sacred lilies, the 
paper white, and other polyanthus nar- 
cissus are the ones most commonly grown in 
water. The double daffodil, Van Sion, and 
the named varieties of crocus are also amen- 
able to such treatmnt. 

All brown and discolored skin should be 
removed from the bulbs. Gash the Chinese 
and golden sacred lilies half an inch deep, 
making three or four lengthwise scorings. 
A sharp paring knife will serve for the opera- 
tion. One must be careful not to cut deep 
enough to reach the embryo in the 
bulb. 

Place from three to six bulbs in a shallow 
glass bowl — the less pretentious the better — 
and use pebbles enough to keep them steady 
with a few pieces of charcoal, and sufficient 
water nearly to fill the bowl, leaving the 
necks of the bulbs above the surface. The 
process of sprouting seems to cause some 
shift in position ; therefore use plenty of the 
pebbles, which may be bought at the seeds- 
man's. Set the bulbs in a dark closet, and 
add more water as evaporation makes it 
necessary. When the tops are two or three 
inches high, the bulbs are likely to be ready 
for the light. 

It is as needful for these bulbs to make a 
good root-growth, if one is to have fine 
flowers, as for those grown in soil, although 
not so long a time is required for the process. 
Therefore, leave them in the dark from two 
to four weeks, according to the temperature 
of the closet. 

The golden sacred lilies are supposed to be 



the slowest of all in starting roots, but I 
found that the gashing not only greatly 
facilitated this, but that the top growth was. 
much more vigorous for that preliminary, 
each bulb throwing up two or three strong 
shoots; and the flowers were fine. These 
bulbs were kept in the dark for two weeks. 
At the end of another fortnight, they began 
to bloom; the close of a third brought the 
finis of their blossom time. A bowl of six 
mixed polyanthus narcissus, among which 
there proved to be two of the golden sacred 
lilies, subjected to precisely the same con- 
ditions with the exception of gashing, turned 
out to be not nearly so good. Another year, 
I shall administer this treatment to paper 
white narcissus. These bulbs, not gashed, 
but placed in the same dark closet with the 
sacred lilies for two weeks, produced very 
inferior flowers, and investigation later 
showed poor root growth. 

American Rose Society 

TEST GARDENS — THE HUBBARD MEDAL 

ONE VERY gratifying part of the pro- 
ceedings at the meeting at Boston on 
August, 20th was the presentation to 
M. H. Walsh of the Gertrude Hubbard 
Memorial Medal in gold. This is to be 
awarded every five years to the raiser of 
the best American rose within that period. 
Mr. Walsh received the first award of this 
medal on account of Excelsa, the crimson 
red Wichuraiana hybrid climber which, 
for the world at large, is everything that 
Crimson Rambler is and a good deal more. 
Excelsa has persistent glossy foliage; the 
color does not fade to a bluish cast, and it 
is a rampant grower of the general vigor 
of the group to which it belongs. 

A silver medal of the society was 
awarded to John Cook for Radiance (H. 
T.), which was characterized by President 
Pierson as the finest Hybrid Tea rose in 
our gardens to-day. 

A report was made on the organization 
of Test Gardens in cooperation with the 
society, and it was decided to appoint a 
local committee of three members for each 
garden established or to be established. 
These local committees to be under the direc- 
tion of a general Test Garden Committee of 
three to be composed thus : One member of 
the Society's Executive Committee; one 
amateur rose grower; one to be appointed 
by the President. The object of these test 
gardens, located in various parts of the 
country, is to derive accurate information 
on the behavior of the same variety under 
different conditions with a view of ultimately 
being able to present to the rose growing 
public accurate reports for each locality. 
The movement started two years ago, and 
at the present time there are four trial gar- 
dens established as follows: Elizabeth Park, 
Hartford, Conn.; Minneapolis, Minn.; Cor- 
nell University, Ithaca, N. Y.; Arlington 
Farms, Dept. Agriculture, Washington, 
D. C. The American Rose Society does not 
assume any responsibility for these gardens, 
but cooperates in gathering together any 
codifying result of the individual gardens. 



October, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



91 




Hyacinth bulbs in a moss-covered sponge 



A pot of bulbs within a pot. 
The space between to be filled by a 
hanging plant which hides the pot 



Bulbs growing in an old basket. Hang in a light position 










H ■ 






JIM f \>fc 

afore 






$?&.■**> 





Bulbs growing in a large shell filled with fibre. 
Cover the surface of the material with moss 



Bulbs grow well in fancy bowls without drainage, if 
planted in fibre 




A pretty effect is obtained by growing bulbs on corks, which are 
floated in a bowl of water 



SOME 

NOVEL WAYS 

OF 

GROWING 

BULBS 



Photographed by 
S. LEONARD BASTIN 



HUH 



Cover the cork on which bulbs are placed with moss, or seed- 
lings may be induced to grow 





Crocus bulbs in a sponge. Thase will grow freely if the sponge 
is kept moist 



Saving the Summer's Outdoor Plants for Winter Bloom Inside 



By Luke J. Doogue, "„' 



assa- 
setts 



SOME THINGS THAT MAY BE LIFTED FROM OUTDOORS AND WHICH WILL CONTINUE TO 
FURNISH THE WINDOW GARDEN DURING WINTER — STORING THE TENDER ROOTS AND BULBS 




P 



How the nasturtium behaves 
in the winter window garden 



,RACTI- 
cally every- 
thing now 
growing in 
the garden may be 
saved for another 
year, excepting, of 
course, the true 
annuals that die 
after they have per- 
fected their seed. 
Many plants, such 
as salvia, though 
handled as annu- 
als , are really per en- 
nials. Save your 
plants, either for 
fall and winter flow- 
ers in the houseor to 
provide "stock" from which to start the next 
year's supply. Everything told about here I 
have done myself, and there is so little that is 
technical that the veriest tyro must succeed. 
Just about the time that frost comes in 
the fall, the average window garden is a 
sickly affair, with few respectable plants 
and worse flowers; and the worst of it 
is that this lack of flowers continues well 
toward spring. This condition is caused 
by a want of planning and a consequent 
scramble to get things under cover 
when the first freeze comes. At such 
a time the garden is torn apart with- 
out much consideration; some things 
are saved, but the best part is left 
out to freeze. 

Do a little planning before cold 
weather arrives. Decide what 
will be the disposition of each 
— this one to use in the house 
(particularly those in flower), 
that to go into immediate 
storage, and others must be 
thrown away. There is no 
economy in saving plants that 
can be easily raised from seed 
in spring. The average garden will have, 
say, asters, marigolds, nasturtiums, bal- 
sams, zinnias, tobacco, cosmos, vina, salvia, 
ageratum, cannas, dahlias, fuchsias, etc. 
Some of each of these can be taken right 
into the house where they will continue 
flowering for weeks without a check. It 
is like shifting your show from the outside 
to the inside. 

Handle the low growing things first. 
Do you remember what a blaze of color 
the French marigolds showed last year 
just before the frost, and with what great 
regret you saw them cut down in their 
prime? This year put them in the window 
box. Prepare the box w?.th drainage, etc., 
and then drive a spade deep under the 
plants to be lifted, taking as much loam as 
possible with them. Carefully put the clump 
into the box and firmly p' iss down the 
earth. Then water thorougl iy. If the work 
is carefully done, the mangolds will not 



experience the slightest check. Practically 
all the other small flowering plants will 
respond to this treatment. 

SALVIA FOR WINDOW DECORATION 

A plant of salvia with a spread of five 
feet can be lifted and taken into the house 
without any trouble. The plant in the 
picture on page 93 was as large as this, 
and it bloomed through the entire winter. 
The only care necessary in lifting lies in the 
manner of putting the spade under the 
plant. Go down deeply and pack the 
earth firmly about the roots in the pot be- 
fore watering. A light watering will not 
do. Water until the water runs through 
the bottom of the pot. This experiment 
will more than please you for the plant 
will throw flowers just as freely as it did 
out-of-doors. 

FLOWERING TOBACCO 

Another tall grower that is decorative 
and can be handled this way 
is the tobacco plant, both 

4 » ■ • 





The geranium is kindly disposed. You may keep it 
growing in the window or dried off in the cellar 

alata and Sanderae. Here again it is only 
necessary to remember the firming of the 
earth and the watering. If these are 
watched there will be no trouble. The 
picture shown was taken in the late spring 
after the plant had been a whole winter in a 
sunny window. 

LIFTING NASTURTIUMS 

Though the nasturtiums will not do as 
well lifted as they did out-of-doors, yet they 
will live and send out leaves and a few 

92 



flowers. The sun- 
nier the window 
where they are kept 
the greater the 
success. Select a 
plant not too large. 
Pick out a medium 
sized one and dig 
under it like the 
other plants; soak 
and soak again 
with water. 

BEGONIAS 

Begonias of the 
Vernon type will 
flower all winter in 

1 , A few cheery flowers in win- 

a good sunny loca- ter may be easily prov.ded now 

tion, and a few 

plants will furnish sufficient cuttings for 
next season's supply of plants. This plant 
will stand very rough handling. If you don't 
want it for flower in the house it can be 
packed away in the cellar in a box, where it 
will winter well. 

STORING IN A CELLAR 

A cellar that is cool (about 40 to 45 

degrees) is excellent for storing 

plants through the winter. With 

winter storage the idea is to keep the 

plants just alive. Pack the 

plants in boxes and cover the 

roots with loam. Keep the 

earth from getting bone dry by 

occasional light waterings. An 

over supply of water will quickly 

rot the plants but judiciously 

applied ensures success. 

Dahlias, cannas, fuchsias and stock 
that you cannot use in the 
house should be put in storage 
in the cellar. 

Do not be in too much of a 
hurry to get the dahlias under 
The first frost is generally so 
light that it will do them but little 
harm and after this freeze we are apt 
to have some of the most delightful 
weather of the whole year. Let your 
dahlias stay out and you may be sur- 
prised at the number of flowers; this 
light freezing seems to stimulate the plants 
into their best efforts. When the black 
frost really cuts them down clean off the 
stems to within six inches of the roots, and 
pack them away in sand in the cellar. There 
is nothing better than sand for storage. 
Some people use sawdust for this purpose 
but these same people usually complain of 
the poor condition of their dahlias. Coal 
ashes will also serve. 

Put away your cannas in practically the 
same way. 

Fuchsias will stand rougher treatment. 
After taking up the large plants from the 
garden pot them and dry them off until the 
leaves fall. Then put the plants in storage 



cover. 



October, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



93 



in the cellar. You can put them in boxes 
instead of potting but in this case remember 
to pack the loam well about the roots. A 
little water once and a while must be given 
to prevent them from getting too dry. 
Remember however, to keep the plants 
away from the furnace. 

I have known people carry over old salvia 
plants from year to year in their cellar. 
Some of these plants are very large and 
make a glorious show during the summer in 
the garden. The plants are packed in boxes 
with loam, and in the spring the branches 
are cut back. Well rotted cow manure and 
bone meal are used freely when planting out 
in spring. These plants make a wonderful 
show and seem almost too large to be salvias. 

GERANIUMS IN THE CELLAR 

Keep the best of your geraniums. What 
you cannot use in your windows store in the 
ceUar. There is positively no difficulty in 
the matter of storage, in fact it is almost an 
impossibility to kill old geranium plants if 
given half a chance. Frost will spoil them to 
be sure, but in the ordinary cellar the plants 
can be successfully carried through the 
winter. When taken from the ground pot 
them or pack the roots in boxes. Cut down 
the branches until the plant is reduced to a 
stump. A little water during the winter 
will insure success. Geraniums like the cold 
and the rest in the cellar will make fine 
plants of them the next season. 

In March take out the geraniums and pot 
them and start into growth in a sunny win- 
dow. They will quickly make new wood 
and this new growth can be taken off with a 
sharp knife as cuttings. These cuttings 
put in sand in a sunny window will quickly 
root. They are then to be potted in small 
pots. The young plants will make first 
size and first class plants by June. This is 
much better than putting out the old plants 
that you have saved over during the winter. 
Of course it will be necessary to shift them 
into larger pots twice or three times as they 
grow. Along in April if you can do so, put 



them in a hotbed. This will give them a 
start that they really need and it will save 
a lot of time. If the old plants are put into 
the hotbed you will have something really 
worth looking at by planting time. Under 
no condition plant out the old stumps with- 
out cutting them back. 

A CAUTION 

Plants taken from a position where they 
have been growing all summer and suddenly 
transplanted into stuffy rooms, are sub- 
jected to a severe shock, which can be 
modified if you will keep in mind the follow- 
ing: Plants like air (particularly those 
that we are dealing with). When you dig 
them up keep them out of doors as long as 
the weather allows. When obliged to house 
them, keep the windows open night and day 
when there is no danger of frost. Give them 
all the air you can before shutting up for the 
winter. This treatment will aid the plants 
to gradually accustom themselves to altered 
conditions and so harden them that they will 
start in to grow and prosper from the first. 





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Digging up the plants early will enable you 
to give a week or ten days out of doors dur- 
ing which time the plants can be thoroughly 
watered and cared for. 

After the plants are taken in for the win- 
ter they should be fed occasionally. For 
this purpose use bone meal and nitrate of 
soda. Work a little of the bone meal into 
the soil. Nitrate of soda used in the pro- 
portion of about an ounce to three gallons 
of water occasionally will be sufficiently 
strong to get good results. Don't think 
that because a little is good a lot will be 
proportionately better. 

Flowers For the North Side of 
the House 

By G. Allen, Mass. 

FLOWERS which need and cry out for 
the sun's warmest shining are still often 
planted where they can get only his earliest 
or his latest rays, or even none of his rays 
at all. 

To be sure it is a temptation, especially 
if your house faces the north, to plant on 
its north side bright, sun-loving flowers, 
because that side of the house being some- 
what gloomy by reason of its continual shade 
needs all the more brightness of bloom. And 
of course, many of our brightest bloomers are 
the sun's own flowers. But Nature can not 
be forced to fit the facing of your house, and 
unless on the north side of the house you 
plant flowers that will thrive without direct 
sunlight, straggly and half-hearted growth, 
and few and stunted blossoms must result. 

Some plants that will thrive on the north 
side of the house because they require par- 
tial shade, are: Anemone japonica, ferns, for- 
get-me-not, godetia, Lilium speciosum, lily- 
of-the-valley, myrtle, monkshood, pansies, 
tuberous begonias, and violets. The plants 
that will do well there, though they will not 
thrive as heartily as the others, are: coreop- 
sis, cardinal flower, columbine, foxglove, lup- 
ine, nicotiana, Pyrethrum uliginosum, phlox, 
salvia, and veronica. 




___ L_ ^s^amattL _*_A^si 

Any one of these plants, ageratum, tobacco, salvia lifted from the garden now, will furnish flowers indoors all winter 




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ODDS AND ENDS 

FROM EVERYWHERE 



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My Experience with Fall Planting 

WHILE the idea seems to prevail generally 
throughout New England that fall planting 
is not nearly so satisfactory as spring planting, 
careful personal experiments have demonstrated 
that, with a very few exceptions, trees planted in the 
early autumn survive the following summer much 
more satisfactorily than those planted in the spring. 

For the benefit of the novice it might be well to 
name the leading exceptions to this rule. Oaks and 
all nut-bearing trees, birches, catalpas, sassafras, 
poplars, cherries, peaches, altheas, and a few others, 
are better planted in the spring. Magnolias, tulip 
trees and dogwoods have long been considered as 
belonging to the above class, but a few years ago 
I discovered a hidden principle which has proven 
early fall planting for these species most advantage- 
ous. 

Owing to the need of the land for building pur- 
poses, it was found necessary to move two rather 
large magnolias. The owner, rather than sacrifice 
the trees, was willing to take a chance. On the 
tenth of September, while in full leaf, the trees were 
dug with a ball of earth, entirely defoliated, and 
removed to a new position. Every precaution was 
exercised in planting. Extra large holes were dug, 
and a large quantity of broken turf, finely chopped, 
used in planting. They were then covered with a 
very heavy mulch of fresh horse manure. To the 
surprise of all, the following spring, both trees 
leaved out beautifully, and continued to grow as 
though they had not been disturbed. 

Believing a new principle had been discovered, the 
following summer, a large number of dogwoods, 
magnolias, and tulip trees were transplanted in the 
same manner. Not a tree failed to do nicely, which 
confirmed the discovery, and continuous fall plant- 
ing of these species, for the past several years, has 
entirely demonstrated the practicability. This 
same principle may extend to larches, birches, and a 
number of other trees, but this remains yet to be 
proven. 

Early fall planting of evergreens gives most 
satisfactory results, and has its particular advantage 
in parks, cemeteries, and large estates, where there is 
a great amount of work to be accomplished in a 
given season. Labor is always more accessible at 
this season of the year, the nurseries are not so con- 
gested with orders, and shipments are much more 
prompt. The season is a much longer one, giving 
a chance for more thorough preparation and better 
planting. In fact, early fall planting of evergreens 
has a very desirable effect in checking the growth, 
and causing a thorough ripening of the wood. 

Many plants are apt to make a late and unnatural 
growth, if watered too freely throughout the growing 
season. It has long been the custom among 
amateurs and gardeners to apply the water, as a 
panacea of all ills in plant life. Some plants may 
receive too much water with just as serious results 
as too little. 

It is especially noticeable, in the case of conifers 
and rhododendrons, that continued watering 
throughout the season promotes a late and unripened 
growth which, being suddenly frozen in this un- 
natural condition by the early frosts, is a serious 
setback and often a fatal injury to the plant. 

A striking example of this principle is readily 
seen in the Juniperus communis or common field 
juniper. When transplanted from its native, well- 
drained soil, and placed under cultivation where it re- 
ceives a liberal amount c f water,it burns badly during 
the winter and is of practically no ornamental value. 
This same principle holds good in California privet 
hedges, and much of the winter killing of these is due 
to late watering, coupled with too close a shearing 
during the latter part of the season. 

Practical experiments have confirmed two facts: 
First, that all growth must be allowed to ripen 
naturally; and second, that all evergreen plants 
must go into winter quarters with the ground thor- 



oughly moist. To accomplish these results, all 
regular watering of evergreens and hedges should be 
discontinued about August 15th. In case of drought 
some judgment should be exercised. Varying with 
the season, but about the latter part of October 
the soil of all beds should be loosened and given a 
thorough watering, which should be followed by a 
mulch of leaves, hay, or fitter. 

The application of these principles will, no doubt, 
lessen to a great extent, the winter killing of so many 
of our fine specimen plants and beautiful hedges. 

Connecticut Walter E. Campbell. 

Clean up Your Garden 

MANY people, from the appearance of their 
gardens, do not deem it essential to clean up 
the garden after the growing season but, aside from 
the appearances, cleaning up the garden will also de- 
stroy a place where insects would naturally harbor 
during the winter and thus reduce the possibility of 
the spread of these insects the following year. 

If the soil can be plowed or spaded, this is one of the 
best methods for ridding the garden of obnoxious 
weeds. In this way, all material is placed under the 
soil, where it rightly belongs. The soil is left in such 
a state that many insects which inhabit the soil, 
such as white grubs and wire worms, are destroyed. 
In plowing, or spading, the soil should be left 
rather rough. Seemingly no care is necessary to fine 
or compact the soil. 

The frost also works on the soil during the winter 
and renders it much finer, thus benefiting the crop 
the following year. If the land is not to be plowed 
or spaded, all the weeds should be removed and 
burned. Remove the weeds from the corners as 
well as from the middle of the garden. When re- 
moving the weeds do not to shake them too violently 
because many of them scatter their seeds during the 
fall. Be sure to pull up the weeds before the seeds 
ripen and scatter. 

Where some vegetables are to remain in the garden 
over winter, remove all growth which is found 
above the ground. That is, in the case of asparagus, 
it is quite essential that the tops of asparagus be 
removed when they have turned yellow, being care- 
ful not to shake the fruits from the plant. Place 
the asparagus tops in a pile and burn, thus destroy- 
ing any chance of spreading the disease known as 
asparagus rust. Rhubarb tops may be gathered and 
treated in the same manner. After they have been 
destroyed, cover the soil over the plants with a 
coating of manure, thus protecting the roots some- 
what during the winter. If parsnip or salsify is to 
remain in the ground even part of the winter, a 
covering with manure may help when it comes time 
to dig out these crops as they are needed. In placing 
the manure over the plants, do not spread it pro- 
miscuously. Have some system about your work. 

New York. E. Wilson. 

Fall Care of the Strawberry Bed 

OFTENTIMES a strawberry bed is sadly neg- 
lected after the fruit has been harvested in the 
summer time. Through the long period following 
fruiting, weeds have been allowed to grow; it is 
highly important that now, in the fall, all of these 
weeds should be cleaned out, in order to stop the 
self sowing of the seeds and to lessen the labor during 
the following year. Oftentimes if these weeds are 
allowed to remain during the winter, they will serve 
as a harbor for insects which will help to destroy the 
fruit or plants during the following year. After the 
weeds have been properly cleaned out, it may be 
necessary to look over the strawberry plants quite 
carefully and determine if they have grown correctly 
during the season. If the plants are found to be too 
close together in places it might be an advantage to 
remove some of the weaker plants. 

As soon as the ground has frozen slightly, it would 
be a decided protection to cover the bed lightly with 
straw. A bedding about an inch thick would be 

94 



excellent for this work. There is a difference in the 
sort of straw used. Oat straw is probably the poorest 
straw to use on a strawberry patch, because it con- 
tains so many weed seeds, increasing the amount of 
labor the following year. Wheat straw is fairly 
good, but also has somewhat the disadvantage of 
oat straw. Rye straw seems to be the best, because 
it contains but very little weed seed and also because 
it does not pack down in the way wheat and oat 
straw will. It remains loose and serves as an ample 
protection for the plant. This straw should be spread 
broadcast over the rows and between the rows. By 
so doing, it will stop the formation of honeycombing 
of the soil, thereby reducing the loss of plants by 
heaving. It is essential that the layer of straw should 
'not be too heavy, because this is not the winter 
covering, but merely the fall covering which has for 
its object the checking of heaving of the plants and 
also serves as a slight covering for the plants during 
the one or two cold snaps which come before the real 
winter sets in. A little attention given to the bed 
at this time of year will amply repay for all labor 
and material used. 
New York. A. E. Wilkinson. 

Alstromerias Grown Outdoors 

YEARS ago in the nursery grounds of Woolson 
& Co., of Passaic, N. J. I saw an alstromeria in 
full bloom, on Decoration Day, May 30th, where 
it had been growing outdoors for years. Having 
been unsuccessful with them right along, I thought 
it might be interesting to raise the question of their 
culture in your magazine, and perhaps some of your 
readers might be able to give the needed information. 
The man who attended to me gave me some of the 
flowers, said the plant had been standing there for 
years about three feet from the east side of the 
house. He said once they dug down to find the roots 
or tubers, but they could not find anything. Plant 
there all the same next year- — inference tubers very 
deep down. The statement was made in the old 
Garden and Forest that alstromerias were grown out- 
of-doors in Newport, R. I. 

I have tried in vain to achieve the same success. 
Will some one help and direct me? 

New Jersey. G. E. Behk. 

Fall Planted Sweet Peas 

IN late October we dug deeply (subsoiled to a 
depth of two and a half feet) the ground where 
our sweet peas were to grow, mixing with the soil 
a barrel of wood ashes. This was for a distance of 
fifty feet where we intended to plant a double row 
with an eighteen inch space between the rows. The 
ground was then covered with leaves, with salt 
hay over them and a piece of sacking on top of that 
firmly held in place by stones, the idea being to pre- 
vent the ground from freezing hard so that the soil 
could be worked very early in the spring. 

The first part of February we planted the seeds 
in pots of good soil taken from a coldframe, two or 
three seeds in each pot, these latter being of five inch 
size to obviate repotting later on. They were placed 
in our enclosed porch with slight heat, mostly during 
the day, and about three quarters of the seeds 
germinated. They were afterward thinned to one 
plant in each pot, choosing the sturdiest. Of course 
there was only one variety in a pot and every pot 
had its label. 

Directly the weather was at all balmy they were 
hardened off and put out-of-doors, sunk in the 
vegetable-garden in a shallow pit dug especially 
for them so that the tops of the pots were just below 
the ground-level. Here they were sheltered by 
slat screens placed to keep off the cold winds. 

They grew well until the middle of April when 
we transferred them to the rows, planting them 
eighteen inches apart. The holes were made very 
big and deep, the earth being shaken off each plant 
so that little adhered to the rootlets and all the 
roots were spread out carefully, the hole being then 



OC IOBER, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



95 



■filled with soil but not to the top. Thus each plant 
"was in a large round depression which would catch 
rain. 

Twigs were put to the plants to hold them up 
that they should not be attacked by slugs. Tall 
brush had already been put between the rows and 
cheesecloth was stretched along the side from 
which the prevailing winds blew. This was firmly 
fastened to stakes and brought right down to the 
ground. If the plants showed no sign of branching, 
the top was nipped off. However, most of them 
branched of their own accord. As they grew larger, 
more and bigger twigs were added to help them 
toward the brush and a trench was made on one side, 
the upper one, where the moisture would do the most 
.good. This was covered with boards supported by 
sticks put across the top of the trench. 

When it had not rained during the night or the day 
before, water, conveyed by the hose, was allowed 
to run into the upper end of this trench for several 
hours. Just before the flower buds came on, a 
watering of cow manure water was given and soot 
was sprinkled freely on the ground about two weeks 
.after the transplanting and again after the flower 
buds were showing. 

The flowers were large, the stems long, and the 
number of flowers in each spray good. We had 
flowers until the middle of August and the plants 
reached the height of six and a half feet. We also 
planted seeds in the ground early in March and had 
good flowers from them but the results were not so 
good as those we obtained from the pot plants and 
we will never try anything but planting in pots 
again. We bought good seed, all of the Spencer type, 
the varieties that did best being King Edward 
Spencer, King White, Helen Lewis and Wedgewood. 
Ethel Anson S. Peckham. 

New Rochelle, N. Y. 

The Seventeen-year Locust for Next Year 

THE periodical or seventeen-year locust is a 
serious pest. Over a great portion of the 
eastern United States this coming year, 1915, it is 
due to again appear. As during the past season lo- 
custs have been bad in southwestern Pennsylvania, 
eastern Ohio, and over a considerable portion of 
West Virginia, where I had a chance to'observe them, 




I want to make some suggestions to the prospective 
planters of fruit trees and to those who have young 
trees. 

The seventeen-year locust is not particular as to 
the plants upon which it rests. All kinds of trees 
and shrubs are used. While the damage is alike to 
all it is only a case of twig pruning, but when 
shrubbery or young fruit trees are the hosts the 
damage becomes serious. 

The injury done by the seventeen-year locust 
consists of pushing an awl-like ovipositor into the 
small wood in w r hich to deposit the egg. The end of 
this ovipositor is divided, each half working inde- 
pendently with a saw-like motion. An individual in- 
cision would do but little harm, but they are so 
close together that the continued effect is to weaken 
the twig to such an extent that any weight at all is 
almost sure to break it. This past summer I saw 
many young apple trees just coming into bearing, 
the twigs of which had an apple or two upon them. 
In almost every instance where the locust had 
visited the twig and inserted eggs, the twig broke 
under its load of little apples. 

The locust uses a tree simply for a place to lay the 
eggs and for the eggs to hatch. Just as soon .as 
hatched the little ant-like larva crawls out, drops to 
the ground, and burrows down into the ground to 
find a root from which to take its food. Here a little 
cell is formed and the larva leads an isolated exis- 
tence until it is time to emerge years hence. It 
seldom or ever moves except when dislodged by 
some outside disturbance, or if it finds it necessary 
to find a new feeding place. 

Where locusts are expected this coming summer, 
it will be better to defer planting fruit trees until 
the following fall or spring. I know of one young 
orchard in central Pennsylvania planted just before 
the brood of 191 1 put in an appearance that was 
so injured that it has not yet entirely recovered, 
although it is outgrowing the damage. 

Where there are young trees they should not be 
pruned until after the locusts are gone. Then should 
there be any necessity of thinning the wood, try to 
confine the cutting out to injured twigs. In this 
way the tree can probably be properly trained and 
only sound wood left. 

To overcome the injury done by the seventeen- 
year locust, damaged trees should be given a liberal 
supply of nitrogenous manure in order to stimulate 
a rapid growth to cover over the injury with new 
wood. 

Preventives can also be employed. Hogs pas- 
tured in areas known to have been infested with the 
last appearance of the locust in a given locality will 
root it out and devour it as it gets near the surface. 
Land pastured by cattle rarely is infested by locusts 
because the larvae are tender and as they approach 
the surface the tramping of the cattle crushes them. 

Spraying the freshly emerged insects with kero- 
sene emulsion, diluting the stock solution with five 
to eight parts of water, will stop all transforming to 
the adult stage. Where the transformation has taken 
place, dusting with pyrethrum powder or spraying 
with water in which has been stirred all the pyre- 
thrum powder that it will carry, will kill the adults. 
Sometimes the death is slow, but it is sure, neverthe- 
less. 

Much has been done to learn whether the de- 
positing of eggs can be prevented, but though many 
evil-smelling substances have been used, none seems 
to be a sure preventive. Whitewash has been used 
and it is reported that the female will not deposit 
eggs in whitewashed wood when other wood is 
available, but nothing definite in the matter can be 
advised. One observer, whose trees had been spray- 
ed with bordeaux mixture, said that the locust did 
not stay in that orchard, but moved to a neigh- 
boring unsprayed orchard. 

The following are the states and counties in which 
locusts may be expected to appear in 1915, as re- 
corded by Prof. C. L. Marlatt in Bulletin 71 of the 
Bureau of Entomology: 




STATE 



COUNTIES 



The sure way to have exhibition quailty sweet peas is to 
I sow the seed in the fall 



Delaware — Newcastle. 

District of Columbia — Several localities. 

Georgia — Dade, Elbert, Floyd, Habersham, Hall, Paulding, 

Rabun, Spalding, White 
Illinois — Dewitt, Douglas, Knox, McLean, Montgomery, Scott, 

Shelby, Vermilion ; : 
Indiana — Boone. Brown, Carroll, Grant, Johnson, Laporte, 

Wells. 
Kentucky — Letcher. 



The 17-year cicada (locust) is due in many places in 1915 
Be prepared! 

Maryland — Carroll, Cecil, Montgomery, Prince George, Wash- 
ington. 
Michigan — Barry, Cass (?) Chippewa, Genesee, Houghton, 
Kent (?), Macomb (?), Newaygo (?), Ogemaw (?), 
Otsego, Shiawassee, Washtenaw. 
New Jersey — Bergen. Cumberland, Essex, Hudson, Hunterdon, 
Mercer, Middlesex, Morris, Passaic, Somerset, 
Union. 
New York — Greene, New York, Richmond, Schenectady, 

Westchester. 
North Carolina — Alexander, Bladen, Buncombe, Burke, Cabar- 
rus, Caldwell, Catawba, Henderson, Iredell, 
Lincoln, McDowell, Macon, Montgomery, 
Moore, Pender, Polk, Randolph (?), Ruther- 
ford, Swain, Transylvania, Union, Wash- 
ington (?), Wilkes. 
Ohio — Ashtabula, Carroll, Champaign, Columbiana, Delaware, 
Madison, Mahoning, Montgomery, Morrow, Pickaway, 
Shelby, Summit (?), Union, Vinton (?). 
Pennsylvania — Bucks, Dauphin, Lancaster, Montgomery, 
Northampton and adjoining counties, Phila- 
delphia, Westmoreland. 
South Carolina — Oconee. 
Tennessee — Bradley, Greene, Hamilton, Jefferson, Knox, Miegs, 

Polk, Sullivan. 
Virginia — Charlotte, Chesterfield, Fairfax, Powhatan, Prince 

Edward, Smyth. 
West Virginia — Berkeley, Brooke, Clay, Fayette, Grant, Hamp- 
shire, Hancock, Hardy, Jefferson, Marshall, 
Mineral, Monongalia, Monroe, Morgan, Ohio, 
Pendleton, Pocahontas, Preston, Raleigh, 
Tucker, Tyler, Webster. 
Wisconsin — Burnett, Columbia, Crawford, Dane, Fond du Lac, 
Green Lake, La Crosse, Marquette, Sauk, Sawyer, 
Washburn, Waushara. 

Pennsylvania. Harold Clarke. 

Roses From Slips 

THERE is a system of raising roses from slips 
here in Oklahoma that is very successful and 
quite widely used by the amateurs. Late in the 
fall, either before or after hard frosts, slipsabout six 
inches long are cut. Care must be taken that the 
cut ends are smooth, the top square across and the 
bottom one a long slanting cut and as smooth as 
possible. The leaves must be cut carefully so as 
not to injure the buds, leaving enough leaf stem to 
afford them some protection. These slips are 
planted at once in good soil (in which a quantity 
of sand has been worked) to about half their length 
and covered with a Mason jar or a quart bottle with 
the bottom broken out. In severe weather earth 
is heaped up around the glass, nearly to the top. 
In the spring these slips bud out about the time the 
outdoor roses do and then care must be used or 
the slips will be killed by too much air, as the leaf 
starts before the roots are very big, sometimes with 
only a callus. 

I have had great success with this method with 
the ramblers, teas and hybrid teas. A cutting of 
Lady Gay Rambler, planted less than a year ago, 
grew more than ten feet this year and I have a num- 
ber of Mad. Caroline Testout, Antoine Rivoire, Me- 
teor and the Cochets that are now large bushes. 

Oklahoma. H. B. Harts. 




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f GARDENING 
YOUNC^FOLKS 

CONDUCTED BY ELLEN EDDY SHAW 




Bulbs For School and Home 

SOME bulbs give better results than others, so 
in choosing bulbs for work with children, be 
sure to select those which give the best results. 
Most of the potting must be done in early October; 
the outdoor beds may be left until late in the month. 
Keep records of time and length of bloom. 

For best results choose Roman and Dutch hya- 
cinths, tulips, members of the narcissus family, 
crocus and freesias. Plant bulbs in flats (low boxes) 
or pans. Pans lend themselves better to this plant- 
ing than high pots. Place the bulbs in pots and pans 
as closely together as possible. Be sure that no bulb 
touches another one or the pot itself. Leave about 
one inch or less for spaces between bulbs. The soil 
for potting may be just ordinary good garden soil. 
If it is a heavy, clayey soil add sand to lighten it. 

Method of potting: First place a curved bit of 
crock over the hole in the bottom of the pot, which 
has been thoroughly soaked in water. Put in the 
bottom of the pot about one inch of drainage material 
— old broken crock. Fill in the soil to just the right 
level for the bulbs to rest on. Over the soil sprinkle 
about one half inch sand, to act as a drainage section 
through which water passes rather than remaining 
about the bulb to rot it. Set the bulb on this sandy 
bottom. Fill in soil up to one half inch of the top 
of the receptacle. Now the potting is finished. Next 
comes the period of rest for bulbs, usually in the cold 
and dark. 

DUTCH AND CAPE BULBS 

We usually deal with two groups of bulbs, the 
Dutch and the Cape bulbs. In the first group are 
the hyacinths, tulips, crocus, etc., the second is 
made up of freesia, oxalis, ixia, and sparaxis. The 
first group needs a long resting period in the dark and 
cold; the second cannot be stored in the cold since 
their roots and leaves develop at the same time. 
They require a light cool room and need no resting 
period. Their great requirement is plenty of water. 
Leave the Dutch bulbs in the cold and the dark 
from six to twelve weeks. They may be stored in- 
doors if one has a cold, dark spot; and if you do this 
water them at least twice a week. The bulbs may 
be stored outdoors in a pit or put outdoors in a large 
packing box, having four inches of sand in the bottom. 
Upon this layer the potted bulbs are placed; cover 
over with from one foot to two feet of ashes. Nature 
supplies sufficient moisture for bulbs stored out- 
doors. 

Bulbs, like hyacinths and Chinese sacred lilies, 
started in water, should be placed in a dark closet 
until abundant root growth has formed. 

Hyacinth, Dutch. Buy named varieties, such as 
Charles Dickens, rose color; L' Innocence, white; 
Sarah Bernhardt, salmon pink. Buy large firm bulbs 
in any case remembering, however, that solidity 
means more than mere size. Plant indoors or out. 

Indoor planting: In pots, pans or flats. Place 
each bulb one half inch below surface of soil; leave 



in dark and cold six to twelve weeks. Bring to the 
light when the growing point is an inch or more above 
the surface of the soil and roots show through the 
hole in the bottom of the pot. Dutch hyacinths are 
very satisfactory for indoor work and may be pur- 
chased in single or double varieties. 

Outdoor planting: Plant just before frost in late 
October. Make soil loose and rich. Place bulbs 
five inches below the surface of the soil and five 
inches apart. Cover with soil. When frost comes 
cover the bed with manure two inches thick. 

Hyacinth, Roman. These varieties bloom earlier 
than the Dutch ones. They are the easiest of all 
bulbs to raise; in fact, no bulb could be more satis- 
factory in the schoolroom. Bloom may be ob- 
tained for Christmas. Plant indoors as directed for 
Dutch hyacinths. They may be planted in sand, or 
in fibre and water. 



Buy bedding tulips for outdoor work and early 
forcing varieties for indoor planting. Good tulips 
for forcing are Yellow Prince, Isabelle, La Reine, 
Due van Thol, and Cottage Maid. Tulips are less 
satisfactory indoors, under schoolroom conditions, 
than other bulbs. 

Indoor planting: Plant tulips in pans one half 
inch beneath the surface of soil. Six tulips may be 
placed in a 6-inch pan. 

Outdoor planting: Tulips look well planted in for- 
mal beds, in stiff narrow border beds, in great masses 
of one color. Fix the bed the same as was suggested 
for hyacinth planting, and place the bulbs four 
inches below the surface of soil and four inches 



apart. 



THE NARCISSUS FAMILY 



This large family embraces many members. The 
most popular for school work are daffodils, jonquils, 
poet's narcissus, polyanthus narcissus, and the 
Chinese sacred lily. 

Daffodils with the long trumpet-like cups are 
pleasing to most people. The Empress, Emperor, and 
Van Sion are excellent varieties to buy, and always 
give satisfaction. Plant indoors in pebbles and water, 
or outdoors in sand. 

Jonquils: Try the Jonquilla Campernelle. The 
flowers in jonquils are clustered, deep yellow in 
color, sweet scented and slender. They show great 
variations in form. 

Poet's narcissus: In form the poet's narcissus 
differs from the other narcissus members, for there 
is no trumpet but in its place is a fluted cup. The 
flowers are fragrant, the stems long. Ornatus is a 
variety much used for forcing indoors. 

Polyanthus narcissus. This member is beautiful, 
sweet scented and free flowering. The Paper White 
narcissus belongs in this group. The polyanthus 
varieties are not quite so hardy as the other narcissus 
members. Soleil d'Or is another excellent variety 
of polyanthus. 

The Chinese Sacred lily: Plant in stones and 



water. Set away in the dark until the bowl is full 
of roots, then bring to light. These lilies are very 
susceptible to draughts and so the buds become 
blasted. Polyanthus narcissus, jonquils, and poet's 
are far more reliable for water planting. 

Indoor planting: Place the bulbs with their noses 
just sticking out of the soil. The pointed end of the 
bulb is called its nose. 

Outdoor planting: Place bulbs four inches below 
surface of soil and four inches apart. 

CROCUS 

Indoor planting: These bulbs are very pretty 
when planted in window boxes. Choose one color, 
say yellow, so that the effect is of one solid mass 
when in bloom. The little children enjoy crocuses. 
Place them one half inch below the surface of the 
soil and one half inch apart. 

Outdoor planting: Crocuses look their best when 
scattered about the lawn rather than planted in set 
beds. Put the bulbs pointed end up one inch below 
the surface of the soil. 

THE SECRET OF SUCCESS 

After good, large, firm bulbs are chosen, properly 
planted and given time to form roots, the secret of 
success is out. 

The schoolroom is not the best place to raise 
bulbs. But what of that, since it has to be? Bulbs 
stand the schoolroom strain rather better than do 
most plants. When the growing tip of the bulb is 
one to two inches above the soil and when the roots 
appear through the hole in the bottom of the pot, 
then bring the bulb to the light. This does not mean 
bringing it into the full glare of the sunlight. The 
children like to put them on a windowsill so that 
the growing bulb may have the full benefit of the 
sun's light. But this method defeats the object. 
This year try another plan. Place a table in a 
corner of the classroom away from the direct 
light. Place the pots and pans upon this table, 
leaving them to grow more slowly. Leave them 
there until the flower buds begin to open, then bring 
them into the direct sunlight. Remember to place 
the table so that no draught strikes it. For a current 
of air blowing over the forming flower buds blasts 
them. The buds of Chinese lilies often are blasted, 
wither and die. It is wise to set the bowl of Chinese 
lilies in the dark until the roots form and vigorous 
growth starts. Paper white narcissus, daffodils, and 
poeticus do far better in stones and water than do the 
Chinese lilies. A substitute for stones is sand — nice 
brown sand, such as builders use. Fill a dish or glass 
globe full of sand, tuck in the bulbs so their noses just 
protrude out of this sand bed, wet the sand so it is 
saturated with water. Place the receptacle in a 
dark closet, leaving it there until roots form and the 
growing tip starts. Then bring to light. 

While bulbs are in their blossoming stage, they 
require a great deal of water. Supply it fully, but 
do not drown them out. 




A STUDY OF THE TYPES OF BULBS, EASY TO GROW, FOR CHILDREN TO USE. NOTE FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 
Hyacinth, Dutch Roman Tulips: Cottage Daffodil, Narcissus: Narcissus: Narcissus: Narcissus Tazetta; so called Chinese Crocus: Yellow Mam- 

is of similiar shape Maid, early Van Sion Jonquil Poeticus Paper White Sacred Lily moth 

96 



October, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



S7 




Dutch Bulbs 

from our fields in Holland 



Our Dutch Bulbs 
have arrived 

Hundreds of anxious letters ask 
whether we shall be able to fill our 
orders for Dutch Bulbs 

Direct from Holland 
in original packages 

According to advices from our Nurseries in Sassenheim, Holland, 
all orders entered to date will be filled. In addition, we have 
actually on hand in Philadelphia, a large quantity of Holland 
bulbs. The quality is the finest we have seen — the only 
difficulty is the fact that the range of varieties is limited. We 
shall supply from this stock in Philadelphia, all new orders received 
— as long as the stock lasts. Beyond this we can make no promises. 

Shall we send you a list of these varieties now in stock and prices on the 
same ? A postal will bring full information. 

Gt. VAN WAVEREN & KRUIJFF 

American Branch House, 202 Walnut Place, Phila. 

JOHN VAN AALST, Mgr. 
Home Offices and Nurseries: Sassenheim, Holland 



direct to your garden 



The Wakru Girl 

Registered Trade Mark 



Trained Fruit Trees 

T^ACH Fall we import large quantities of Eng- 
lish Trained Fruit Trees which are used 
for ornamental fruit gardens. 

We have them in the following shapes — Espalier, 
Palmette, Fan Shaped, Single and Double Cor- 
don, Pyramidal and Globe Shaped. 

We also import strong fruiting canes of Grape 
Vines and Other Pot-Grown Fruits suitable 
for forcing in greenhouse. 

Write for our Nursery Catalogue describing 
same. 

We only import above to order; therefore orders 
must be placed early. 

Bulbs for Fall Planting. Write for our cata- 
logue of bulbs. We have an exceptionally fine 
lot on hand. 

W. E. Marshall & Co. 

SEEDS, BULBS, PLANTS 

166 West 23rd St. New York 



AG&tden Full 
^Tulips 

75 Tulip Bulbs, all first size, 
taken from 25 named va- 
rieties for $1.00. 

PLANT THIS FALL 

These Tulips have been selected from 25 

of the most beautiful varieties, embracing all- 

the colors that are to be found in this splendid 

class of Spring blooming bulbs. 

Plant near your home — in your garden or back 

yard. The beautiful blossoms in a multitude of 

brilliant colors and shades will make April a Spring 

month worth while. 

75 Tulip Bulbs, Finest Mixed, $1.00 

Write or call at our store, mention "Garden Magazine" and secure thi 
splendid collection of Tulip Bulbs for only $1.00 prepaid to your home, anywhere 
in the United States, with our 1914 Fall Catalogue. 

Our Bulb Catalogue, Free on Request — Contains complete list of choicest 
varieties of Darwin Tulips, Exhibition Hyacinths, New and Rare Narcissus and other 
miscellaneous Bulbs. 




30-32 Barclay Street 



NEW YORK 



He has taught 50,000 people 
how to grow mushrooms 



$10 to $50 a week easy in spare time 



AV. JACKSON has made mushroom-growing easy. 
Mushrooms can be grown in cellars, chicken-houses, 
• sheds, barns, etc. Big incomes can be made. One 
customer with $2.00 worth of spawn raised $56 worth; an- 
other invested $75, raised $680 worth. Hundreds of testi- 
monials can be given if desired. 

Mushrooms sell for 50c to $1.00 a pound. From 50 to 100 
pounds can be grown on a single bed, 5 x 10 ft., which costs 
practically nothing to start. 




V. Jackson 



Many women raise this delicacy for 
their own table, or for an added in- 
come. Often people have started 
mushroom growing as a pastime — then 
have found it so profitable that they 
have given up everything else. 

The instructions are easy to follow. 
Mr. Jackson's book is used by State 
Agricultural Colleges. The biggest 
crops ever grown were raised from his 
spawn, and by his scientific method. 



studying mushrooms for twenty years. 
He built and owned the largest mush- 
room plant in the world. He is now 
at the head of the most modern and 
scientific plant in the world today — the 
Falmouth Mushroom Cellars, built at 
a cost of $150,000.00. 

He tells exactly the methods to use, 
the cost, how to sell them, etc. Write 
for his book, "How to Make Money 
in Mushrooms." Address 



Mr. Jackson has been growing and 

A. V. Jackson, Falmouth Mushroom Cellars, Inc. 
226 Gifford St., Falmouth, Mass. 




rrrm 



A. V. Jackson. Falmouth Mushroom Cellars, Inc., 
220 Gilford Street, Falmouth, Mass. 

Please send your book " How to Make Money in Mushrooms," and other 
information, without obligation to me. 



Name Address . 



For information about live stock write to the Readers' Service 



98 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1914 



HiiTiniiiiiiiitiiiiiiiii'Hiiiii'i 



■■ ■-::■!" r:.'- ■■.:■■ ' ' ■ - ■:■:■■ n'". ; ii I i .■' '-- i . : ■,..:;; ,";-i|j|. ■■, : ' ■,■■■ I : ■ : ,j :. . ' , ■ ■ : 1 1 i r I I. I ((Q)) 



Wagner Plants for Fall Planting 

PLANTED this fall the growing shrubbery, trees, vines and hardy perennials from 
Wagner Park will reward you with prodigal generosity all next year. Flowers from 
March until November and evergreens to keep alive the spirit of the garden through- 
out the long months of cold weather. Our department of landscape planning will help you, 
not only to select wisely, but also to plant intelligently and with assurance of success. 

Write today for Catalog D 

WAGNER PARK 
NURSERIES 




> . . , i i ■ i i i i mi. ■! ■! .■ i i ■! i i ii {;.( )i 




Choicest 
Bulbs that 
Ever Came 
from 
Europe 



All European markets being destroyed, our 
experts in the bulb fields of Holland were 
able to obtain their choice of the finest 
varieties grown. Shipments have now 
reached us and are ready for immediate 
delivery. Write at once for the American 
Edition of our handsome catalog of 

CARTERS TESTED SEEDS. Inc. 

104 Chamber of Commerce Bldg. 
BOSTON, MASS. 



PLANT 



PEONIES 

NOW 

and plant the best 

Peterson Peonies 

are the recognized 
standard of the world 



Beautiful Catalog on Application 



George H. Peterson 



Rose and Peony 
Specialist 



Box 50 
Fair Lawn, N. J. 




Start a Fernery 

Brighten up the deep, shady nooks on your lawn, or that dark 

porch corner- just the places for our hardy wild ferns and wild flower 

collections. We have been growing them for 25 years and know 

what varieties are suited to your conditions. Tell us the kind 

of soil you have— light, sandy, clay— and we will advise you. 

Gillett's Ferns and Flowers 

will give the charm of nature to your yard. These include not only hardy wild 
ferns, but native orchids, and flowers for wet and swampy spots, rocky hillsides 
and dry woods. We also glow such hardy flowers as primroses, campanulas, 
digitalis, violets, hepaticas, trilliums, and wild flowers which require open sunlight 
as well as shade. If you want a bit of an old-time wildwood garden, with flowers 
just as Nature grows them— send for our new catalogue and let us advise you 
what to select and how to succeed with them. 

EDWARD GILLETT, 3 Main St., Southwlck, Mass. 



For the Southern Gardener 

OCTOBER is cleaning up time in the garden. 
After saving the seed of special flowers wanted 
for next year, cut down and burn all dead stems. If 
thrown in the compost heap, they will germinate and 
come up in the most unexpected and undesirable 
places next spring. The dead leaves and rakings 
from the lawn are fine for the compost heap, and all 
should be saved. 

Chrysanthemums, roses, and dahlias are in bloom 
this month, and should be protected on cool nights 
with cheesecloth or old newspapers. With little 
thought and trouble and with the usual weather in 
this climate, one can have roses almost until Christ- 
mas. Then there are the loyal petunias — it has to 
be very bitter weather to keep them from blooming 
— and the verbenas show a bit of color here and there 
nearly all winter unless it is unusual in its severity. 
So, with the bright rose hips of the Rosa rugosa, and 
the various colored berries of the lonicera, barberry, 
sassafras, Virginia creeper and other shrubs and 
vines, the garden still has much color. 

After the rose bushes have ceased blooming, cut 
off the withered roses and dead stems, and put 
around the plants well rotted cow manure, which 
serves as sufficient protection against a severe winter. 
With a spading fork, loosen up the earth in the rose 
beds, taking care not to disturb the roots by spading 
too near the bushes. As a ground cover, sow myoso- 
tis (forget-me-not), mignonette, arabis, Little Gem 
sweet alyssum, or portulaca. These bloom early 
in the spring and all summer, and are excellent for 
shading the roots. Rose bushes planted the first 
part of this month do well in this climate, and need 
no more protection than well rotted manure at the 
base of the plant; and it is a time saver to get 
all that is possible done in the fall. Evergreens can 
be transplanted from the woods now. It is far too 
hot and dry to plant them earlier, and really the 
preferable time is the end of February or the month 
of March. Do not allow the roots to get dry. Wrap 
each one in burlap as soon as dug so as to protect it 
from the sun or wind. The holes where they are to 
be placed should be previously dug. Fill with water, 
put in the evergreen, fill in with earth and press 
down firmly with the foot on all sides of the plant. 
Evergreens must not have any fertilizer about the 
roots, but if the ground is hard and clayey throw in 
the hole a spadeful of woods earth. In transplanting 
hollies, pull off all the leaves; and small plants 
thrive best and grow very fast. 

The lemon verbena (Aloysia citriodora) will stay 
out all winter; the manure thrown on the flower 
beds in the fall is sufficient protection for it. Cut 
back the heliotropes and bury the roots in the cold- 
frame, and set out slips in the greenhouse. 

Get your plants ready for the window garden or 
the conservatory. See that the earth in the flower 
pots is loosened with a hand weeding fork and place 
moss from the woods around the large plants. This 
keeps the earth from baking and holds the moisture 
so essential in a furnace-heated house. 

Trim off the dead leaves from ferns, palms, and 
rubber plants, and wash the leaves with weak 
lemon water. 

It is not too late to dig up some young plants of 
petunias, verbenas, larkspur, and wallflower and put 
in flower pots for the window or conservatory. 
Give all plants a thorough watering before putting 
them in the house. Leave the windows open as 
often as possible on the mild days, and indeed 
during the cold weather, flowers should have a little 
fresh air every day, if it can be arranged so they are 
not directly in a draught. 

In the fruit sections, farmers are busy gathering, 
packing, and shipping their Albemarle Pippins; 
other apples especially fine are Winesap, York Im- 
perial, and Grimes' Golden. The large crops that 
are not sold go immediately to cold storage. The 
fruit from the home orchard is easily kept in an un- 
heated cellar, especially if the fruit, both pears and 
apples, are placed on shelves or racks so as not to 
touch each other, and where the air can circulate 
freely. None but perfect fruit should be stored. 
Tomatoes can be kept the same way if gathered 
green before the frost touches them, and each one 
wrapped in paper and placed on shelves in the cellar. 

Sow seed of Big Boston or Boston Market, and 
some Hanson Lettuce in the coldframes for trans- 
planting later, and transplant lettuce plants from 



The Readers' Service will give information about the latest automobile accessories 



October, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



99 




Don't Buy Pumps 
Blindfolded! 

There are over 300 types of pumps — each best for 
a certain purpose. 

Can you pick out, unaided, the one that will exactly 
suit your needs ? 

Won't you be saving time and money by getting 
expert advice ? Write our Mr. Gould, in care of our 
Consultation Department. He will advise you from 
his expert knowledge — help you choose the pump 
that will best serve you, and at the lowest cost. There 
is no charge for this service. You may as well have 
the benefit of it. 



RELIABLE 
JE»TJTHK. 



Before you make up your mind on pumps, in justice to your- 
self, you ought to investigate Goulds Reliable Pumps. 

For over two generations they have held top place. There are 
more Goulds in use than any other line of pumps made That's 
pretty good evidence of their quality. And you'll find Goulds 
Pumps sold by the best dealers in your town. That's another 
proof. 

We make hundreds of thousands of pumps yearly. This big 
output enables us to give maximum value at lowest cost. Be sure 
to look up the Goulds dealer, whether you need a small cistern 
suction pump or a large power pump. 

Tkic Rnnlr FVoo Tells how t0 nave running water any 

nis Doutt. rree p i ace on lne f arm> ni ustrate d with pic- 
tures and diagrams. Twenty pages crammed full 
of pump information you ought to have. 
By filling out the blank in this book 
you will, without obligation, get facts 
and cost of the very pump outfit you 
require. Write at once. 

THE GOULDS MFG. CO. 

82 W. Fall Street 

SENECA FALLS, N. Y. 

Largest Manufacturers of 
Pumps for Every Purpose (31) 






HARDY 


PERENNIALS 






Lists with 


culture directions free 




Rosedale Hardy 


Plant 


Farm, Camden, N. 


J- 



Landscape Gardening 

A course for Home-makers and 
Gardeners taught by Prof. Beal, 
of Cornell University. 

Gardeners who understand up- 
to-date methods and practice are 
in demand for the best positions. 

A knowledge of Landscape 
Gardening is indispensable to 
those who would have the 
pleasantest homes. 

250 page catalogue free. Write today 

THE HOME CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOL 

Dept. 9, Springfield, Mass. 




Prof. Beal 



mmmmmmmtmmmtmmmmmmmmu 



i 



44*; 




By Following these Suggestions this 
Fall Your Lawn, Shrubs and Flowers 
Will be Better and Earlier Next Spring 



SPRINGTIME means rush time. The later the 
Spring, the more the rush and the more things 
you must slight. Good help is almost impossi- 
ble to get then, but easy enough to secure this Fall. 

Every year our Springs are growing later, but for- 
tunately our Falls are longer. So the sensible 
thing, is to do all possible gardening, lawn making, 
and shrub work in the Fall. Trees, Shrubs, and 
hardy flowers can just as well be transplanted then. 
Many of the leading nurserymen claim that Fall is 
even better than spring for such work. One thing 
is certain — one of the main essentials of successful 
growth is a rich soil. All such enriching, with 
Alphano Humus for example, might just as well be 
done this Fall, as next Spring. Not only will you be 
that much ahead on your Spring work, but your results 
Will be much earlier and in every way, far better. 

Don't hesitate to use Alphano now because you 
are afraid " the good of it " will leach away during 
the Winter. It won't. As a matter of fact, the 
freezes and thaws of Winter (as every good gardener 
knows) act as a mixing process that makes the 
plant foods more readily available next Spring. It's 
sort of a predigestive action of nature. 

Fall is unquestionably the ideal time to make a 
new lawn or repair an old one. The dry hot winds 
are over. The cool nights and 
heavy dews are highly conducive 
to making strong, sturdy roots. 
The stored up warmth of the 
ground will promote continued 
root gTowth long after the topt 
have been frosted. 




$12 a ton in bags. $8 a ton by the carload in balk. 
F. 0. B. ALPHANO, N. J. 



With your hardy flowers, Fall is the time to sep- 
arate and transplant old ones, as well as add new. 
While the plants are now plain to be seen, it is the 
very best time to dig enrichment around their roots 
without fear of harming them, as is the danger in 
Spring. 

Delayed enriching means delayed results — there 
is no getting around that fact. 

How many times you have been unable to spade 
up both your flower and vegetable gardens, because 
of the delay in getting the manure enrichment you 
wanted. By building up your soil with Alphano 
Humus this Fall, you will overcome all that. 

The Fall digging around and enriching of your 
shrubs and trees stimulates a new growth of fibrous 
roots, which means an earlier start and better results 
next Spring. 

For all this Fall work, Alphano Humus, in its 
granulated, odorless form, comes pretty close to being 
the ideal soil builder. It contains all the enriching 
foods of the animal manures with none of its offensive 
unsanitariness. One of the strongest points in its 
favor is lasting qualities. 

If you want to know exactly what this Alphano 
Humus is, where it comes from, and how prepared 
for your use; then send for our Convincement 
Book. In it you will also find 
ample evidence of what Alphano 
will do for you as proven by 
what it has done for others. 

When writing, kindly state size 
of space you want to use it on, so 
we can advise the amount needed. 



AloK 



arLO 



H 



UtTLU^ 



17C Battery Place 



New York City 



* S W B * 



mm 



EVERGREENS 

SHOULD BE TRANSPLANTED BEFORE THE END OF OCTOBER 

We have the finest, healthiest, stock of pines, hemlocks, cedars, etc., at reasonable prices. We 

also carry a full line of all kinds of shrubs and plants of the famous BEDFORD QUALITY 

Tell Us Your Troubles 





NEW ENGLAND 



Catalog 



NURSERIES 

Dept. H2, 



Bedford, Mass. 



The Readers' Service will gladly furnish information about Retail Shops 



100 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1914 



Gardencraft for Children 




Not the photograph of a Country Place, but of FRANCES DUNCAN'S Miniature Collapsible Country House with 

the Plant-as-You-Please-Garden in Landscape Gardening Size. $12.50. Other sets $1.00 up. 

A Most Joyous and Fascinating Pastime for Children 

Educational along the newest scientific lines, very beautiful in color and line. Accurate horticulturally. Of practical value 
to the grown-up gardener. If you cannot visualize your garden-to-be, get Gardencraft for Children, make it and see it in miniature. 
Endorsed by Montessori, Louise Klein Miller and other Garden loving folk of high intelligence. 

Send for Catalogue of Gardencraft Toys — the most delightful Toys on the market 



THE GARDENCRAFT TOY COMPANY 



Workshop. 1 Milligan Place (6th Avenue, between 10th and 11th Streets) 



New York City 



111 r"""fBBr"I SSiI IlVS^HM^^HHfl , 









Let's Talk Fence 

IF YOU are looking for a fence particularly suited 
to your particular purpose — one having an Ever- 
lasting Lastingness — the chances are we can 
do business together. 

We make all our own fence. It comes straight 
from our works; straight to you. 

If you want just the plain, everyday, practical 
fences of either iron or wire, or the more economical 
ones — we can meet your wants. 

Send for our catalog. Let us know in your letter, 
for what purpose you want a fence. Our answer 
will contain several fence suggestions, and reasons 
for the suggestions. 



_ Ip>oin Works 

1120 East 24th St. Indianapolis, Ind. 

y » p p o o o gffiHEg OQQQoJl 



Peonies 

From the Cottage Gardens 
Famous Collection 



YY7E OFFER a selection of over 
three hundred and fifty of the 
choicest varieties in one, two and 
three year old roots. 

Do not fail to send for our FREE 
CATALOGUE which gives authentic 
descriptions. It also tells you how to 
plant and grow this beautiful flower 
successfully. 



Shipping season commences September 
1st and continues during the Fall months. 



COTTAGE GARDENS CO., Inc. 
NURSERIES 

QUEENS, LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK 



Write for 
1914 Fall Floral Guide 

It presents one of the most interesting arrays of gorgeous and hardy- 
flowers for fall planting, indoor blooming and growing under glass, ever 
offered. It's free. With especial pride do we display in this book our ex- 
quisite roses selected for winter bloom. They are strong and ready to 
bloom this winter and all next summer. Exceptional offers await you. 

"Beautify Your Yard" 

is another book you should have by all means. It gives expert advice in 
adorning the yard, suggesting groups of plants according to their decorative 
value, hardihood, etc., and gives cultural methods. Well illustrated. 
Shows diagram of 50 x 125 lot properly planted. Not a mere catalog. 
This book costs 10 cents — which is refunded on first $1 order if re- 
quested. The Fall Floral Guide is free. Get both. Write today. 

THE CONARD & JONES CO. 

Rose Specialists Over 50 Years' Exper 

Box 24, West Grove, Pa. 



those seeds which were sown in September, to their 
permanent beds. Make the ground very rich to force 
them, and during the winter a small amount of 
nitrate of soda, sprinkled occasionally between the 
rows, pushes the lettuce along and makes good heads. 
Give air each day if possible throughout the winter. 

It is not too late to set -out strawberry plants if 
the ground is not wet. Prepare the land carefully 
and enrich with commercial fertilizers, potash and 
phosphates, and only a very small amount of nitrates, 
as they force the plants and make them too 
tender for winter. Be careful, when planting, not to 
bury the crown. 

Orchard trees can be set out the last of the month, 
with the exception of peaches and plums and other 
stone fruits which are best set out in early spring; 
also all shrubs and deciduous trees, with the ex- 
ception of those with a pithy fibre like the tulip 
poplar, spring being the best time for them. 

There is much to be done to the celery bed. The 
earth should be carefully heaped up around each 
plant. If the plants were set in a trench in rows 
six inches apart and six inches apart in the row, a 
good way to blanch them is to tie up carefully each 
plant with soft twine, beginning at the corner and 
twining it once around each plant all across the bed 
and down one row and back again the second row, 
holding the plant together with the other hand and so 
on to the last row. Then shovel in the earth carefully 
between the plants, for in this way no soil can get 
into the crown of the plant to rot it. Every few 
weeks, this has to be done, as the celery grows rapidly 
up to Christmas, although some of the self-blanching 
kind is ready to use by Thanksgiving. Rutabagas 
and turnips can remain in the ground until late in 
the winter, or put in earth kilns in November. 
Force the fall cabbage by giving a little nitrate of 
soda between the rows and by constant cultivation. 

The cabbage plants for early spring should be 
fertilized with potash and phosphoric acid. Be 
chary of nitrogen; leave that for spring for a top 
dressing, the object being to have stocky plants. 

Lettuce plants for the open ground and late spring 
consumption should have a furrow plowed or dug 
on the north side of the row, throwing the earth up 
as a protection against cold winds. 

Make the onion beds rich with hen manure mixed 
with kainit. Work thoroughly and plant the 
potato onions for early spring use. A few Queen 
and Pearl onions may be set out, taking chances 
on a mild winter. Sow crimson clover for turning 
under in spring as humus, and also sow grass seed 
wherever needed; orchard grass in the fields for hay, 
and a good mixture of lawn grass for the lawn. 

Alfalfa might be sowed this month, though it is 
usually done earlier in the fall. It is such a good 
food for hogs and cows and all farm animals, farmers 
should have more of it. It is difficult to get a good 
stand, but well repays one for the trouble and ex- 
pense; one gets four or five crops a year, and it en- 
riches the soil as well. The soil should be gotten 
in first class condition before sowing alfalfa. A 
field first planted to cow peas and then to crimson 
clover and both times plowed under are the first 
steps to take for alfalfa. Then put on slaked agri- 
cultural lime, a ton to an acre, plow it in, and follow 
that with 400 pounds of bone meal and 53 per cent, 
potash to the acre. Sow thirty pounds of alfalfa 
seed with soil from an alfalfa field for inoculation. 
Virginia. J. M. Patterson 

Bulbs and the Dibble 

I HAVE this year seen very great difference in 
results from Holland bulbs planted with an 
ordinary dibble, and from their mates planted on 
the excavation principle. The dibble is very likely 
to leave a pointed air chamber under the bulb; be- 
cause, while a dibble makes its hole point down and 
blunt end up, a tulip, hyacinth or narcissus is 
planted point up and square end down. The Eng- 
lish gardeners term a root in this predicament a 
"hung" bulb; that is, it is hung by the waist and 
must stretch down its toes through air (and in 
January through a lump of ice) in order to sustain 
itself. Bulb for bulb, the "hung" planting which 
I saw this season gave smaller flowers, later flowers, 
fewer flowers, and more blasted spikes and abortive 
half-flowers, than its duplicate planting in poorer 
ground, where all the bulbs were set level in an 
excellent bed and then earthed in with a spade. 
Pennsylvania. E. S. Johnson. 



The Readers' Service will give suggestions for the care of live-stock 



October, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



101 




We have issued a Very Interesting Catalogue en 

"PERGOLAS" 

AND GARDEN ACCESSORIES 

showing a series of new designs; can be had free on request. 
Catalogue 'H 28'j for Pergolas and Columns for Pergolas. 
Catalogue "H 40" for Exterior and Interior Wood Columns. 

Hartmann-Sanders Co. 

Exclusive Manufacturers of 

ROLL'S PATENT LOCK JOINT STAVE COLUMN 

Suitable for Pergolas, Porches or 

Interior Use 

Main Office and Factory: 

ELSTON and WEBSTER AVES. 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

Eastern Office: 
6 East 39th St., New York City 

Pacific Coast Factory 
A. J. Koll Pig. Mill Co., Los Angeles, Cal. 





The Best 

Everbearing 

Raspberry 



RANERE. The heaviest cropping everbearing rasp- 
berry known. Better than any raspberry ever planted. 

BEARS THE FIRST YEAR PLANTED, produc- 
ing its first fruit in June and continuing to produce 
lavishly of bright crimson, luscious berries every 
day all summer until frosts. Rich, sugary, melting, 
firm texture; keeps longer than any other. 

RANERE is the earliest of all raspberries, ripening in 
Northern New York, June 20th, just as the strawberry crop is 
waning. It is wonderfully prolific, equaling the most prolific 
black cap or purple cane sort; it gives a good crop of fruit all 
summer, and autumn, fruiting on the old canes in generous 
quantities until late in August. By this date berries begin to 
ripen upon the young, or current year's canes which continue to 
produce berries in increasing numbers until late autumn. 

RANERE has a rugged constitution, withstanding severest 
winters as well as severe drought; does well on heavy soil, or on 
light sandy soil; is a strong grower, with luxuriant foliage, which 
never suffers from sunburn. 

Our 1914 Catalog and Planting' Guide — 

Includes Nut Culture, FREE on'request. 

GLEN BROS., Inc.Glenwood Nursery. Est. 1866 

2261 Main St., ROCHESTER, N. Y. 




/,, 



The Stephenson System of 

Underground Refuse Disposal 

keeps your garbage out of sight 
in the ground, away from the cats, 
dogs and typhoid fly. 

Opens with the Foot Hands never touch 

/ _s^" .-'"'•■:" " - , Underground Garbage 
EI3EI13a3321SEl and Refuse Receivers 
LYMM ^ '■■ ofr ~ MASS * 

A Fireproof," "sanitary disposal for oily waste and S 

sweepings in your garage or house. , S_ 

Our Underground Earth Closet 

means freedom from polluted water. 

Sold Direct. Send for Catalogue. 

Beware of Imitations. 

In use lOyrs. It pays to look us up. 

Thousands of Users. 

C. H. STEPHENSON. Mfr. 
40 Farrar St., Lynn, Mass. 





Build a Fireproof Concrete 
Basement-Garage 

If your lot is small, or you do not want the lawn broken by 
other buildings, build your garage in the basement of your 
house. The solid concrete walls and ceiling make it fireproof 
and separate it completely from the rest of the building. The 
concrete basement-garage is a very convenient and space- 
saving arrangement. When buying cement for its construction, 
be sure to say 



UNIVERSAL 



PORTLAND 

CEMENT 



It is known to big users and small users for its high quality, great 
strength, soundness and uniform results. The following books contain 
much practical information for the home builder and farmer. 

Concrete for the Farmer ------------- Free 

Small Farm Buildings of Concrete - - - Price 25 cents 
The Concrete House and its Construction - - Price $1.00 

UNIVERSAL PORTLAND CEMENT CO. 

CHICAGO :: PITTSBURGH :: MINNEAPOLIS 
Annual Output 12,000,000 Barrels :: Plants at Chicago and Pittsburgh 



Pictorial Proof 

of the artistic, wood-preserving and lasting qualities oi 

Cabot's Creosote Stains 

is given in all our advertisements. These houses, designed 
by the leading architects for owners of refined tastes, 
are all stained with our stams, and thousands of other 
houses all over the world testify to their beautiful and 
durable coloring effects, low cost and preservative value. 
"Cheap'' stains cost a few cents leis but wash off and 
waste your money. 

You can gel Cabot's Stains all over the country. Send 
for stained wood samples and name of nearest agent, 

SAMUEL CABOT, Inc., Manufacturing Chemists, 
1 Oliver Street, Boston, Mass. 



ePS* 


' 


3H 








^§5 


B^vK" 








1 — - ^" ' 








■ ~-i.'. 








B^BB^jl-^mS 








ill 


WjA 


T^j 


1^^ 





Stained with Cabot's Creosote Stains 
C. M. Hart, Architect, Bay Shore. N. Y. 



Write to the Readers' Service for information about live stock 



102 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1914- 




SUGGESTIONS FOR. 



THE HOME TABLE 




Cotid'ucteW ^&J> 

EFFIE M . RJDBINSON 



Canning Vegetables by the Cold- 
Pack Method 

ANY vegetable or fruit that grows can be canned 
by the cold-pack method. It requires little 
time and much less labor than the old open kettle way. 
It is not even necessary to have sound, unblemished 
products. It isn't possible to can a poor string bean 
and have a high-grade product when the can is opened 
next winter, but it is possible to keep cold-packed 
products in the same state in which they are canned; 
that is, over-ripe, spotted fruit will still be over-ripe 
and spotted after canning, but it will not spoil. 

Two things only are necessary in canning. First, 
to sterilize the product and so kill whatever bacteria may 
be present; second, to seal the sterilized product so 
that no other bacteria can get in. 

Take sweet corn, for instance; to get the best results, 
the corn should be canned immediately after picking, 
within a half hour if possible. It will keep and be 
fairly good, if you buy it in the market and can the 
next day, but it is best and surest of keeping nicely 
if it is picked and canned during the same half-day. 

CANNING CORN AT HOME 

First Gather it with the husks on and a good bit of the stalk 

stem. 

Second Husk, silk, and grade for size and ripeness. Unripe prod- 
ucts need longer processing than ripe ones, and in order 
to get it cooked just right, all the corn in one can should 
be of the same degree of ripeness. 

Third Put the clean ears in a kettle of boiling water and let them 
blanch for from five to fifteen minutes according to the 
degree of ripeness. 

Fourth Take out of blanch, plunge in cold water for a few seconds, 
and pack at once. 

Fifth If it is to be canned on the cob, pack in large two quart 

cans — any style that will seal — packing one ear, butt 
down, the next, tip down, and so on. This is for con- 
venience in packing and saves room, as this way, you can 
get more in a jar. 

Sixth Add i teaspoon of salt per quart. 

Seventh Fill the can one third full of water. (Some packers fill the 
can full. Others think this makes the corn taste watery, 
and prefer to fill the can only about one third full. Ex- 
periment and see which way you like it best.) 

Eighth Put the rubber and cover in place and screw the cover 
down loosely. A good guide is to use the thumb and 
little finger only and whenever the cover catches, stop. 
The cover should not be tight. 

Ninth Process as per directions below. 





Processing is just another name for sterilizing, or 
cooking to kill bacteria. 

Have ready a vessel twelve to fifteen inches deep. 
A large kettle, a pail, or for canning in quantities, a 
boiler, will do. Be sure that it is scrupulously clean. 

If you are to do much canning, it pays to buy a 
regular canning outfit. They are not expensive and 
one will easily pay for itself in a season in the time, 
heat, labor, and temper saved. 

Make a false bottom for this vessel. Wire screening 
or lath may be used. If boards are used they should 
be perforated. This bottom should rest on slats so 
that it is one to one and one half inches above the 
bottom of the kettle, so as to prevent the bottom of 
the jars getting too hot and breaking, or causing the 
contents to exhaust under the lid. 

As each can is filled, set it in the boiler with the 
boiler cover off to keep warm until the whole pack is 
ready. Have the water in the boiler hot, but not boiling, 
so there will be less danger of breaking the cans when 
setting them in. Dip them a little, then lift them, dip 
again, once or twice, to heat them, then let them down 
gently into the water. 

Cover the jars at least one inch above the top with 
the hot water. Leave the boiler cover off a few minutes 
until the cans get warmed through; then cover, and 
heat to the boiling point as rapidly as possible. 

As soon as the boiling point is reached, begin to 
count time and keep the water boiling for four hours. 
Do not begin to count time until the boiling point is 
reached. 

If you have a good reservoir which can be kept at 
the boiling point and the weather is not too warm to 
use the range, use the reservoir for processing. 

With a wood fire it is necessary to be very careful 
that the water never stops boiling. With a gasolene 
or kerosene stove, when the boiling point is reached, 
regulate the burner to keep the heat at that point and 
it will need no further attention. 

When the time is up, turn the fire off, let set a minute, 
then uncover, dip the water out until the cans can be 
reached, then lift them out, tighten the covers, and set 
aside to cool. 

Do not set them too close together or they will hold 
heat and keep on cooking. If canning in glass, wrap 
the cans before putting them away. This excludes 
light and keeps the product in better condition. 

If the corn is to be cut off the cob, proceed in the 



Graduate oftRe XationdPlmmmff Scffoot 
/ ofCooiery, X^oncfon, (£rt<fian<f? 



same way, only, after blanching, cut the corn off drawing 
the knife from the top toward the butt of the ear so as 
to get all of the chit or germ which is the best flavored 
and the most nutritious part of the ear. 

If the corn is intended for sale, do not scrape the ear 
into the pack as that will give it a milky appearance and 
lower its commercial value. The portion scraped from 
the ear may be canned for soup. 

Pack the cut corn, salt, add water only about one- 
third of the way to the top, cover, and process as above. 

With a home-made outfit, canning corn is a slow 
process. An outfit such as you can buy, which will 
maintain the heat two or three degrees above the boiling 
point, requires less time to process, and a steam outfit 
requires only one hour. 

As corn requires so long to sterilize, it is economy to 
have a number of cans ready at once. But it is well 
to experiment with a small amount first, so as to be sure 
of each step. 

If you have never used the cold pack method, ex- 
periment with a small quantity of tomatoes. 

RECEIPT FOR CANNING ANY VEGETABLE 

1. Select fresh, firm, ripe product 

2. Wash clean j 

3. Blanch per time table 

4. Dip in cold water 

5. If desired, remove skins and cut to convenient size 

6. Pack 

7. Add 1 level spoonful salt per quart, or 1 rounded spoon of J 

salt and f sugar 

8. Add water 
Put cover in place. If tin, seal 
Process per time table, Count time after boiling point is 

reached. If using home-made outfit have water one inch 
above top of can. 

11. If glass, tighten cover. 

12. Invert to cool and test joint. 

13. Wrap, if glass; label, if tin. 

CANNING FRUITS 

All fruits may be canned by the same method. They 
do not need to be blanched unless it is desired to skin 
them, as in the case of peaches, or, they are very tart, 
as apples. 

In place of adding salt and water, pour over fruits 
a hot syrup; or if you prefer to can without sweetening, 
add 1 teaspoon sugar per quart and fill can with water. 

Any fruit jars or bottles which can be sealed will do. 
For convenience in handling, tin cans are preferred by 
(Continued on page 104) 



9- 
IO. 



Renders tbe food finer and more digestible. 
Absolutely Pure 

Contains no Alum 



If I Only Had More Money 
For Christmas 

We heard you the first time you said it years ago, and answered the 
cry by giving you and everyone in the same dilemma an opportunity 
to make this money in a highly interesting and profitable occupation. 

We have several thousand happy men and women securing subscrip- 
tions to the World's Work, Country Life in America, and The Garden 
Magazine, and there isroomfor youinthis active, prosperous, healthy ag- 
gregation. We suggest that you use your spare time for this work and 
add five or ten dollars a week to your present income ; this is our busy 
season, thousands of subscriptions expire during the next few months 
and we want you to help us. 

This is a good opportunity. Don't decide to pass it over just yet. 
Think about it and then write to the following address for information. 

DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY 

Circulation Department 



GARDEN CITY 



NEW YORK 



All foods advertised in this department have been tested and approved by Effie M. Robinson. They are also sold and recommended by the Doubleday, Page & Co. Cooperative Store 



■M 



October, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



103 



SUCCESTIONS FOK 




EFFJE M . ROBINSON 





"FERRIS" 

There used to be an impression that 
"Ham is Ham" and "Bacon is Bacon", 
until the Name "FERRIS" became a 
distinguishing Name, absolutely guar- 
anteeing a richness of flavor that the 
average Ham or Bacon of commerce 
does not possess. 

Insist upon FERRIS and accept no 
substitutes. 



'The Greatest of All Cook Books"— n. y. Evening Telegram 

THE INTERNATIONAL 
COOK BOOK 

By ALEXANDER FIL1PPINI 

A collection of the world's best recipes arranged 
in diary form with a complete menu for every 
meal in the year. A cook book for moderate 
purses and the average housewife. 

3,300 Recipes Net $1.00 Complete Index 




Garden City DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY 



New York 



•V/-' sr ^-»w]L . Graduate oftlie Nationof^Irainin^ Scffoof 
• 'fts ("TiE'TSl/ of Cookery, I^ncfon, <s,nytand~? 





U.S.Pat. Off. 



It is delicious 

A well made cup of good cocoa best ful- 
fils the requirements of those who wish a 
delicious and nourishing hot beverage, and 

Baker's Cocoa t'ir 1 " 

in every sense of the word, absolutely 
pure and of high grade. 

Walter Baker & Co., Ltd. 

Established 1780 
Dorchester, Mass. 



The New Housekeeping 



Some of the Subjects : 

% A solution of the servant 
problem. 

If Efficiency in the kitchen. 

nf Business and the house- 
keeper. 

H Household economies. 

IT Men and the household 
efficiency movement. 



By Christine Frederick 

Consulting Household Editor of the Ladies' 

Home Journal, and the National Secretary of 

the Associated Clubs of Domestic Science. 

Says the New Orleans Times -Democrat : 
It is the most practical book ever written for solv- 
ing the problems every housekeeper has to meet — 
the reduction of the cost of living — the elimination of 
drudgifying work. 

Illustrated. Net $1.00 



Garden City 



DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & CO. 



New York 



Free Cook Books Every Reader Ought to Have 

MANUFACTURERS of standard food products are much interested in proper cooking 
and serving of dishes in which their products are used. Many of them publish cook 
books of great usefulness. We have requested a few of these manufacturers to allow 
us to distribute their books of recipes to Garden Magazine readers without charge. 

Write us a letter containing your name and address and we will send your name to these 
manufacturers. If there are certain books that you do not want include in your letter the 
numbers of those you desire mailed to you. 

Address letter to Miss Efne M. Robinson, Home Table Dept., The Garden Magazine, 
Garden City, N. Y. 



No. 



Manufacturer 



1 Royal Baking Powder Co. 

2 F. A. Ferris & Co. 

3 Walter Baker Co. 

4 Genesee Pure Food Co. 

5 Diamond Crystal Salt Co. 

6 Burnham & Morrill Co. 

7 A. Colburn Co. 

8 Cresca Company 

9 The Fleischmann Co. 
io Gorton Pew Fisheries 



Product 

Baking Powder 

Hams & Bacon 

Chocolate & Cocoa 

Jell-O 

Salt 

Fish-Flakes 

Mustard & Spices 

Preserves, etc. 

Yeast 

Cod Fish Flakes 



Name of Book 

Royal Baker 
Table Hints 
Choice Recipes 
Desserts of the World 
I oi Uses for Salt 
Good Eating 
Recipes 

Cresca Delicacies - 2C 
Excellent Recipes 
True Food Economy 



No. 



Manufacturer 



1 1 Hawaiian Pineapple Packers 

12 Hills Bros. Co. [Ass'n 

13 Geo. A. Hormel Co. 

14 Knox Gelatine Co. 

15 Francis H. Leggett & Co. 

16 Minute Tapioca Co. 

17 Proctor & Gamble Co. 

18 Southern Cotton Oil Co. 

19 Stephen F. Whitman & Son 

20 Worcester Salt Co. 



Product 

Canned Pineapple 
Dates, etc. 
Hams & Bacon 
Gelatine 
Premier Foods 
Tapioca & Gelatine 
Crisco 
Salad Oil 
Chocolate, etc. 
Salt 



Name of Book 

100 Recipes 

Dromedary Cook Book 
Dainty Ways of Serving 
Dainty Desserts 
Pure Foods 
Minute Cook Book 
Story of Crisco 
Recipes 

Marshmellow Whip 
Worcester Cook Book 



All foods advertised in this department have been tested and approved by Effie M. Robinson. They are also sold and recommended by the Doubleday, Page &• Co. Cooperative Store 



BOS 



104 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1914 




That tense moment 

■ — when the cue ball pauses with indecision right on {he 
edge of the pocket. 

It's just one of the ever-changing, exciting situations 
that make Home Billiards or Pocket Billiards the game 
of a thousand thrills. 

Give your little steam "boy-ler" this "safety-valve" 
for his explosive energies. Let all the family share 
this royal diversion that steadies nerves, braces the 
body and induces sound sleep. 




Brunswick "Baby Grand" 
Carom Billiard Style 



i( 



11 



BABY GRAND 

Carom or Pocket Billiard Tables 

A cabinet masterpiece in rich San Domingo ma- 
hogany. Note the equipment — genuine Vermont slate 
bed, celebrated Monarch quick-acting cushions and 
fast imported billiard cloth. These give the same 
speed, accurate angles and long life of Brunswick 
regulation tables, from which the "Baby Grand" varies 
only in size. Not a toy nor cheap-made make-shift. Yet 
sold to you at factory prices — terms as low as 20c a day. 

Note, also, the concealed cue rack and accessory 
drawer that holds entire playing outfit. 

"Baby Grand" sizes 3 by 6 feet, 3^ by 7, 4 by 8. 
Brunswick "Grand" 4.5 by 9 feet. All furnished as a 
Carom, Pocket Billiard or combination Carom and 
Pocket Billiard Table. 

Other Brunswick Home Billiard Tables include 
"Convertible" Models, which can be changed in a 
moment from full-fledged Billiard and Pocket Billiard 
Tables to Library or Dining Tables, and vice versa. 

30 Days' Trial — A Year to Pay 
Playing Outfit FREE 

We give with each Brunswick Table a complete playing outfit 
FREE — balls, hand-tapered cues, rack, markers, spirit level, 
cover, cue-clamps, tips, brush, chalk, book on "How to Play, "etc. 

Mail the Coupon or send a postal for our brand new edition 
of "Billiards — The Home Magnet," a de luxe book that pictures 
Brunswick Tables in actual colors; gives easy terms: factory prices 
and full information of our 30-day trial offer. You incur no ob- 
ligation and book comes postpaid. 

r-— -Clip and Mail Today— — 1 

The Brunswick-Balke-Collender Co. 

Dept. 2-S, 623-633 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago 

Please send me the free color-illustrated book — 

"Billiards— The Home Magnet" 

and details of your 30-day free trial offer. 



Name 



j Address (307) ! 



Canning Vegetables by the Cold 
Pack Method 

{Continued from page 102) 
many. In selling products canned in glass, add 6 
or 8 cents per quart to pay for the container. 

The U. S. Department of Agriculture has a force 
under direction of O. H. Benson of the Office of Farm 
Management to help beginners get started. 

Fruits do not need blanching; but if it is desired 
to skin them they may be scalded after which 
plunge in cold water and pack quickly. The time 
for blanching vegetables and fruits is as follows: 

Peas, beans, etc., 5 minutes 

Corn on the cob, 5 to 15 minutes 

Pumpkins, squash, mangoes about 5 minutes. 

Okra, cabbage, sweet potatoes, 5 minutes. 

Asparagus, spinach, kale, etc., 5 to 10 minutes. 

Rhubarb, beet tops, etc., 1 to 3 minutes. 

Beets, carrots, turnips, etc. (either blanched or scalded), 6 

minutes. Apples, 5 minutes. 
Scald tomatoes, plums, pears, etc., 1 to 2 minutes. 
Scald peaches, apricots, 1 to 2 minutes. 

Note: Cook greens, cabbage, chard, etc., about 20 
minutes before packing to reduce bulk, 

TIME TABLE FOR PROCESSING 

Hot water Water seal Steam 
bath and Outfits Pressure 

Homemade above 21 2 Cooker 
outfit 212 5 lbs or 

more 

Minutes Minutes Minutes 

Apples 15 15 10 

Apple cider 20 15 12 

Beans, lima, and string go 60 60 

Beets 20 20 15 

Corn on or off cob .... 240 180 60 

Grapes, pears, plums ... 15 15 10 

Greens 60 60 40 

Hominy 60 50 40 

Peas (garden or English) . . 60 60 40 

Sweet potatoes 80 70 60 

Succotash 60 60 40 

Tomatoes 22 2: 10 

Tomatoes and corn. ... 80 70 60 

Grape juice 15 15 10 

Pumpkin 50 50 40 

Squash 50 40 30 

Illinois Grace M. Smith. 




Amateur Bulb Notes 

LAST year, while bringing to the fight a number 
of hyacinths kept in the cellar for six weeks, I 
broke the pot of one. Rather than repot it, I 
washed the dirt from the roots and finished growing 
the bulb in a hyacinth glass. It bloomed two weeks 
ahead of those in the soil, and produced two magni- 
ficent flower spikes, better than those from bulbs 
grown "all the way" in glasses. 

As hyacinth glasses I use pint milk bottles. They 
are less liable to break than the regular glasses, and 
their thick rims hold a bulb nicely. Covered with 
dark paper, they shield the roots from the light 
better than the green or yellow glass of the ordinary 
hyacinth glass. Milk bottles also have the ad- 
vantage of costing nothing, as nearly every city 
dairy delivers milk in glass, and the bottles can be 
returned, undamaged, after they have been used. 
Some experts advise the use of paper collars, placed 
around the growing leaves just before blooming 
time, to "draw the spike," or lengthen it, but I 
cannot see that it makes any difference with bulbs 
left in the dark for several weeks. 

In planting bulbs singly in small pots, for winter 
blooming, be sure to get at least two-thirds of the 
bulb below the ground. In deep pots, where there 
is plenty of room for the roots, this care is not 
necessary, but I found that with 3-inch pots the 
roots of daffodils and hyacinths would force the 
bulbs out of the earth. 

Ohio. Fred Haxton. 



7^4 




Waterer's 


tf^lkCjPt^ 


PRIZE-WINNING 


j^W/^, 


Bulbs 


( ^$8$f / ^w 


Always the 


yrfll ll 


leaders in the 


^AfV^^wL 


pnze winning 


r-J)f l^J^rjYX 


exhibits at the 


/S^L I V *J r V \ \ 


flower shows. 


mJ 1 \i 


With Waterer 


J I \l 


it is not how 


9**9 SXJ \\ 


cheap but 


^•HdgnU I 


how good. 


jr\ v$$ J 


Unique As- 


< uNjpf *L 


sortment 


l/^>|W^ 


of the new Dar- 


win, and May- 


*?2*r\ll fQ^Hji A^cfr 


Flowering Tu- 


V^VJ | 2^7/ ygpt. 


lips, Rare and 


ilfc\^) /v Cfi^* 


Choice Daffodils, 


fa^-Y/*C~"3f*C 


Hyacinths ; and 


fsJ&W&y 1 JT^^^ 


all the fine things 


V^c 1! > H 


for fall planting 


V s * // <L^ 


that are worthy 


' 'Sweet Hyacinths their bells 


of the highest 
taste and best 


did ring. 
To swell the music of the 


culture. 


spring. 


ffiS^* Send (or our new 




illustrated catalog. Free 






Hosea Waterer, 


SEEDSMAN 

Philadelphia 


7th below Chestnut St. 




Your Chance to Get a Twenty- Year 
Old Norway Maple at a Low Price 

TJERFECT in top, trunk and roots. Guaranteed to 
•*■ grow, not one year, but to keep on growing and grow 
at a normal rate. If it doesn't, we will cheerfully re- 
place it. We shall insist on replacing it because we 
want to demonstrate that the planting of large trees can 
be an economical success. 

The bargain prices are because these trees will make 
our nursery roads too narrow. The regular price is 
$90.00, bargain price $45.00; packing $5.00; estimated 
freight to Pittsburg, $7,00. 

Can you afford to wait twelve years or more for a little 
maple to reach this size? This tree is 18 feet wide. 

Send for special bargain list for other trees. You 
have seen these big trees advertised for 10 years. They 
have satisfied others and will satisfy you. 

October is the time to plant flowering shrubs, fruit, 
and hardy flowers. The Hicks' catalogs 
will aid you in fitting trees to your soil 
and climate, and maintain your place 
with the least expense. 




Isaac Hieks &>Son 

Westburu . Lon<* Island 



The Readers' Service will gladly furnish information about Retail Shops 



J 



OCTOBEE, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



105 



KIPLING 

POCKET EDITION 

Bound in Full Flexible 
Red Leather 

Light and convenient to carry, easy to read 
Each, net, $1.50 

Puck of Pooks Hill. 

Traffics and Discoveries. 

The Tive Nations. 

Just So Stories. 

Kim. 

The Day's Work. 

Stalky & Co. 

Plain Tales from the Hills. 

Life's Handicap; Being Stories of Mine Own 
People. 

The Kipling Birthday Book. 

Under the Deodars. The Phantom 'Rick- 
shaw and Wee Willie Winkie. 

The Light that Failed. 

Soldier Stories. 

The Naulahka (With Wolcott Balestier). 

Departmental Ditties and Ballads and 
Barrack-room Ballads. 

Soldiers Three, The Story of the Gads- 
bys and In Black and White. 

Many Inventions. 

From Sea to Sea. 

The Seven Seas. 

Actions and Reactions. 

Rewards and Fairies. 

Recently Issued: "Songs From Books" 

An interesting collection of scattered poems made 
by the author himself. Net $1.40 

For sale at all Bookshops, and in our own 
in the Pennsylvania Station, New York 

A "Kipling Index" will be sent free to any 
one on request 

Doubleday, Page & Company 

Garden City New York 



STANDARD 




\^W^ 



EVERYWHERE 



Well Drilling Machines 

Have a Business 

of your own and clear $15 to $20 or more a day with 
our well drilling machines. Many men earn bit' 
incomes with some one of our 59 styles and sizes'. 
Use any power. Made for drilling earth, rock 
and for mineral prospecting. Specially adapted to 
boring- wells for irrigation. Standard for 46 years, 
all over the world. Large catalogue No. 120 FREE. 

THE AMERICAN WELL WORKS 

General Office and Works: 
AURORA, ILL. 

Chicago' Office: First National Bank Bldg. 




PoTtery 

IS THE SETTING EXQUISITE THAT ENHANCES 
m,-^ . THE BEAUTY OF FLOWERS 

Send for our illustrated- — 
'catalogue of Rower Pots. 
Boxes,"Vases,Benches, Sundials, 
GazingGlobes, Bird Fonts and 
other Artistic Pieces for Garden 
and Interior Decoration. 

Gadoway Terra CoTta Go. 

3214 WALNUT ST. PHILADELPHIA, PA. 





T REES and SHRUB C 
PORTER'S HIGH QUALITY STOCK ^J 

Illustrated Price List free- Write for copy today 

PORTER'S NURSERIES 
Box 201 Evanston, III. 

NOTE — Big Stock of Large Specimen Norway Maples at Low Prices 



East or West, North or South 

Large or small, expensive or cheap, wher- 
ever your property may be, you can reach 
a probable buyer through the 

Real Estate Department in 

COUNTRY LIFE IN AMERICA 

The National Real Estate Medium 
11 West 32nd Street New York 



The Best Hedge 
JAPANESE BARBERRY 

Good Small Plants $5. 00 per Hundred 
A. R. LAWSHE YARDLEY, PA. 



r 



THREAD 

AND 

THRUM 
RUGS 



-r 



Made to ordet — to exactly match 
the color scheme of any room 

HAVE your fine rugs made to order, not 
cheap stereotyped fabrics, made in unlimited 
quantities; but rugs that are different and sold 
only through exclusive shops. We are only too 
glad to submit sketch in color to harmonize with 
surroundings of the room. Woven in selected 
camel's hair in undyed effects or pure wool in 
any color tone. Any length, any width — seam- 
less up to 1 6 ft. Order through your furnisher. 
Write us for color card — today. 
Thread £f Thrum Workshop 
Auburn, New York 



WEBSTERS NEW Whatever your question; — be it the pronunciation 

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INTERNATIONAL the location of Nigeria, the meaning of 

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If you wish to systematize your business the Readers' Service may be able to offer suggestions 



106 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1914 



Plant Peonies Now 

Pick out the spots 
where you would like 
to see them blooming 
and plant now, Next 
spring you will be re- 
warded with their beau- 
tiful fragrant flowers 
and they will increase 
in size and profusion of 
bloom fromy ear toyear. 
This climate and rich 
soil are particularly 
adaptedtoPeonies. Our 
Peony roots are full of 
real life and vigorous 
promise. No flower can 
be grown with greater 
ease or less regular at- 
tention. No matter 
■where you are we are near to you who want the 
best. Send for our catalog now and plant this fall. 

Wild Bros. Nursery Co., Box 514. Sarcoxie, Mo. 




GROWING BULBS 

by Maurice Fuld 



is the name of a book just published that is 
needed by every reader of the Garden Mag- 
azine. It shows you how to use 20th Century 
Methods in planting and caring for bulbs, 
and is written so as to help the Amateur Gar- 
dener to get the best results. Describes 
Original Cultures in complete detail, by an 
eminent Bulb Specialist. A necessity to 
every one who has a garden and wants to 
enjoy the beauty of bulbs next Spring. 

Send for your copy to-day 

KNIGHT & STRUCK COMPANY 

1 Madison Avenue, New York 



Price 

$1.°° 
postpaid 



Baltimore Nurseries 



California Privet 

Any quantity, size and age. No better grown. 
Shade and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs and Vines. 
Full line of Fruit Trees and plants. 

Get our prices and catalog 



Franklin Davis Nursery Co. 

BALTIMORE, MD. 



PEONIES 



Fifteen fine named Peonies for $2.50, or 25 for $5.00 all 
different and truly labeled, a chance to obtain a fine 
collection at half price, comprising such varieties as 
Festiva Maxima, Felix Crousse. Delachei, Achillea, Lady 
L. Bramwell, Couronne d'Or, Prolifica Tricolor, Louis 
Van Houtte, and various other fine sorts. With any 
order of above for $5.00 I will include one plant of 
Baroness Schroeder, free. I have the largest stock in 
America of Lady Alexandra Duff (absolutely true) and 
many other fine varieties. Send for catalogue. 

W. L. GUMM, Peony Specialist 

Remington, Indiana 



" We grow our own trees' * 

Evergreen Seedlings and 
Transplants 

For Fall Planting 
Forest Tree Seeds 

It will pay you to get our Fall Pricelist. 
The North-Eastern Forestry Co. 

Cheshire, Conn. 



Bulbs For Indoor Use 

FOR several years I have had a continuous 
succession of blooming bulbs in the house, 
from December to May. By planting in the usual 
deep bulb pots, about five bulbs to each pot, in 
early October, the first variety comes into bloom 
in December, and the rest follow in unbroken suc- 
cession. I plant lightly, not firming down as for 
outdoor planting, and I sift the soil. Then put in 
a dark, cool place, water occasionally, and as each 
variety shows green tips I bring it to the light. 

The following list has always proved very satis- 
factory: Paper white and poet's narcissus, white 
Roman hyacinths and Dutch Roman hyacinths, 
early French daffodils, Golden Spur, Emperor and 
Barri conspicuus daffodils. 

Connecticut. E. M. F. 

An Excellent Double Tulip 

LAST October I planted as usual 100 bulbs of 
the double-flowering tulip Murillo, massing 
them along the edges of the borders in our little 
front garden. The results, as is always the case 
with this reliable variety, were most satisfactory; 
but to my surprise, I noticed while the plants were 
at the height of their bloom that each bulb had 
thrown up a second flower-bud that looked fairly 
promising. After the main crop of flowers had 
faded, they were carefully removed and a liberal 
dose of manure water applied to the bulbs. 

This seemed to encourage the plants to greater 
effort, for the new flower stalks shot up strong and 
straight; the buds swelled, and I was rewarded 
by a second crop of blossoms which, although smaller 
and less double than their predecessors, made a 
very creditable garden effect, and prolonged the 
tulip season for about eight or ten days. 

Although, as a rule, I do not admire double tulips, 
Murillo could scarcely fail to please the most critical 




The double tulip Murillo, which opens pure white and 
changes to soft rose as the flower fades 

taste. On first opening the flowers are pure white; 
then as the days grow warmer, they become faintly 
flushed with delicate pink, which in turn changes 
to a beautiful soft rose that suffuses the entire 
flower. The blossoms remain in perfection for 
nearly three weeks, being much more lasting than 
the single varieties, and I have always found that 
a thorough soaking of the roots at the close of a 
warm spring day helped wonderfully to retain their 
freshness. 

When fully expanded under the hot noonday 
sun, the tulips resemble great wide-open, pink water 
lilies; during the early morning and twilight hours, 
they look like delicate peonies, or even suggest great 
tea roses. 

Pennsylvania. H. M. Goodkop. 



HorsfordV 

Cold Weather Plants 



Bulbs for fall planting, Lilies, Iris, 
Ferns which are hardy but better be 
set in spring, all the better class of 
Old-fashioned Flowers, Paeonias, 
Day Lilies, Plantain Lilies, Tril- 
liums, Shrubs, Trees and Vines. 

When you get plants that have 
wintered in Vermont, you know 
they are hardy. Don't fail to send 
for the Horsford catalogue and 
fall supplement before placing 
your orders. It will save many 
disappointments. 

F. H. Horsford 

Charlotte, Vermont 



<■' 


Byzantine 


% ' 


Wonder Lily 




Introduced by us in 1908. 


i 


Blooms without soil 


& 


or water. Color, rose 


JL 


to rosy lilac. Needs 




only warmth and sun- 




shine. Unique table and 
house decoration. Ready 




now. 

1 3 6 12 
$0.20 $0.50 $1.50 $1.75 
.30 .80 1.50 2.75 


Large Bulbs . . 
Monster Bulbs . . 


Jumbo size very scarce — $.40 


Delivery included. All 


our Bulbs are in from Eurorje: 


narcissi, tulips, hyacinth: 


, etc. Send for our bulb book. 


H. H. BERGER & CO., 


70 Warren St., NEW YORK 



DWARF APPLE TREES 

DWARF PEAR TREES 

DWARF PLUM TREES 

DWARF CHERRY TREES 

DWARF PEACH TREES 

Also a Full Line of Standard Fruit Trees 

Fall Planting Bulletin Free 

THE VAN DUSEN NURSERIES 

W. L. McKAY, Prop., Box G, Geneva, N. Y. 



Successful growers use Brandywine 
Spawn. Send "$i for enough to cover 30 sq. ft. 

' Int wii-,... inctrnrfiAnc . ,-, , ■...-,.. />nn f/illi-nxr 




1 iui cuougn to cover 30 sq. u. 
instructions anyone can follow. 



West Chester, Pa. 



Conrad at his Best. — N. Y. Tribune. 



Third 

Large Printing 

CHANCE 

By JOSEPH CONRAD 

Flora De Barral , bruised and battered by 
"chance" dominates his novel. Hei life 
is one continued recurrence of unforeseen 
events that toss her to and fro. It is a 
great big book. That is Conrad, 
splendid in detail, grouping in his en- 
semble all the mighty things of 
omen, with an escape to the 
illimitable at hand. 

— Boston Post. 

Net $1.35- 



October, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



107 




rEWER \ "Cleek is a wonder — even more 
/andbetterV 

I so than the irrepressible Sherlock 
Holmes." — Brooklyn Citizen 

Cleek of Scotland Yard 

By THOMAS W. HANSHEW 

A new detective story in which Cleek fights 
with his old-time enemies, the Apaches of Paris, 
solves a mystery in Maurevania, yet shows 
himself human withal in his romance with the 
beautiful Ailsa. 

Some Press Opinions: 

There is freshness and virility about this detective story 
that will carry with it a strong appeal to every lover of such 
adventurous stories. Cleek is seemingly a real man, not a 
creature of shreds and patches who is made to do impossible 
things by some author who lacks imagination and a sense 
of proportion. — Portland Evening Telegram. 

There is plenty of invention and the interest is sustained. 
The writer has invention and audacity. — The Outlook. 

He is original and startling in his methods. The account 
of his adventures is one of the best among the many detec- 
tive stories, and hereafter Cleek must be considered when 
any great mystery is to be solved. — Boston Transcript. 

Illustrated, Net $1.25 

Published by 
DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & CO. 

GARDEN CITY, N, Y. 



Do You Use Photographs 

To illustrate articles and advertising 
matter? Our file of 75,000 
various subjects, is at your disposal. 

Illustration Department 

DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY 
1 1 West 32nd Street, New York City 



Only Three Months 
to Christmas 

Does this startle you or have you realized the 
silent and rapid approach of the most joyous time 
in the year? 

The Christmas spirit is wonderful — everbody 
wants to give a present to someone — then someone 
else; these beneficiaries grow in numbers until in- 
comes are sorely strained and a halt is called for 
self-preservation. 

You have some spare time every day that can 
be made to produce Christmas money and we have 
a magazine that is popular, easy to sell, and an 
appreciated gift 

The World's Work 

This is our busy season and your Christmas will 
be happier with the additional money you can earn 
by getting subscribers to this magazine. 

Write to the following address for particulars: 

Circulation Department 
Doubleday, Page & Company 

Garden City New York 



Dreer's Bulbs 

For Spring Flowering 

T~\ON'T overlook the planting of 
^~^ Spring Flowering Bulbs. Order 
them right away — now. The sooner 
they are planted the more roots the}' 
will make before the ground freezes 



hard. 



Dreer's Autumn Catalogue 



contains a complete list of the very choicest Hya- 
cinths, Tulips, Narcissus or Daffodils, Crocus, 
Glory of ^the Snow, Freesias, Iris, Lilies, Spring 
Snowflakes, Oxalis, Scillas, Snowdrops and a host 
of others; all of which are described, and many illus- 
trated. In addition, the catalogue offers a splendid 
line of HARDY PERENNIAL PLANTS that can be set 
out this Fall, as well as Palms, Ferns and other decorative 
plants for home adornment. In fact, everything worth while 
that can be planted this Autumn. 

Let us send you a copy; free on application 

1-4 17 NT DV A PlDETITD 714-716 CHESTNUT SI 
rilLlNKl A. UKlLK, PHILADELPHIA, PA 




Dutch Bulbs 

We have just received from our Hol- 
land Nurseries, a full supply of 

Darwin and Early Tulips, Hyacinths, 
Narcissi, Crocuses, etc. 

of exceptionally fine quality. Order early 
while assortment is complete. 

Peonies 

Phlox Iris 

in strong clumps and choice varieties 
direct from our Deerfield Nursery. 

IT IS PLANTING TIME NOW. 
Send today for our catalogue. 

Franken Bros. Deerfield, HI. 




Make the Farm Pay 

Complete Home Study Courses in Agriculture, 
Horticulture, Floriculture, Landscape Gardening, 
Forestry, Poultry Culture, and Veterinary Science 
under Prof. Brooks, of the Mass. Agricultural Col- 
lege, Prof. Beal of Cornell University and other 
eminent teachers. Over one hundred Home Study 
Courses under able professors in leading colleges. 
250 pnze eutalog free. Write to-day 
THE HOME CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOL 
It. pi , 8 , Springfield, Mass. 



Two Fine Garden Tools 

This fine trowel is almost everlasting. Blade is 
1/16 of an inch thick — made from crucible steel 
of highest grade. Steel rivet holds maple handle 
so it can't work loose. Blade, neck and socket 
all one piece. Will last a lifetime. 

mnrnmn 

Garden Tools 

are all first quality. This Keen 
Kutter garden fork is made from 
highest grade crucible steel, one 
piece, forged, polished tines and 
neck. Head 54 inches long. Var- 
nished hardwood handle. No 
better at any price. Ask your 
dealer to show you. 

Send for our Garden Tool 
Booklet No. ISkS. 

If not at your dealer's, write us. 
SIMMONS HARDWARE 
COMPANY 
St. Louis, U. S. A. 





Plant Them Now 

Roses, Peonies, Phlox, Hardy Plants, Lilies, Bulbs, 
Shrubs, French Hydrangeas, all varieties, all in 
high grade quality. Please write us list of your 
wants, let us quote you by each, by doz., by ioo. 
J. P. & L. McCoy, Irvington, New York 




a*C Will YOU Help Save the Birds? 



Dodson Sheltered Food House 

Built of clear white pine — 24X24X 18 
inches. Price with 8-ft. pole, $8 f.o.b. 
Chicago — with copper roof, $10. A 
Feeding Table— with 8-ft. pole, $6 
— with copper roof, $7.50. Feeding 
Car, $5. Feeding Shelf, $1.50, 



Thousands of dear little birds die of starvation every 
year — and you can save many of them. Birds stay 
north well into the winter — many stay all winter — 
and they need shelter and food. If you would win bird 
friends, put out, now, one or several of the 

Dodson Sheltered Food Houses 

particularly designed for birds — used successfully for 
many years. They give a life-time of service, adding 
beauty to your grounds and happiness to your life. 

Right now is the time to put out Bird Shelters and Food Houses. 
Let the birds know you are going to help ihem. 

If you want birds write for my book. I've worked for 18 years for the 
birds — I'll help anybody who will help our native birds. 

Joseph H. Dodson, 709 Security BIdg., Chicago, III. 

Mr. Dodson is a Director of the Illinois Audubon Society 




FREE 



11 y il- 
lustrated 
Book About 
Birds — tells 
how to 



*c —Hi and keep na- 
" "^ rive birds liv- 



Famous Dodson 
Sparrow Trap 

Get rid of sparrows and native 
birds will return. This trap catcher 
as many as 75 to 100 spnrrows a 
day. Works automatically. You 
remove sparrows once a day. 
Built of strong, tinned wire, elec- 
trically welded. Very strong-, 
practical, durable: size 36x18 x .1 
inches. Price, $5 f.o.b. Chicago. 



108 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1914 




BULBS 

Send today for 
your share of these 
lovely Thorburn 
Tulip Bulbs: 

12 selected bulbs for 25c. 
30 selected bulbs for 50c. 

Postage prepaid 

THORBURN Bulbs are 
famous for their beauty 
and reliability. We offer 
you for very little money first 
size tulip bulbs — the pick of the 
crop recently received from the 
best growers in Holland. 

Plant these bulbs now for 
your Winter enjoyment, or your 
Spring display. 

Ask us also to send you our 

19 14 Bulb Catalog 

It is rich in just the sort of 
garden information you will 
most appreciate. And it is free. 

J. M. THORBURN & CO. 

Established 1802 
53 B Barclay Street, New York 



Fin a dollar to a 
letter and we'll 
send you the best 
money's worth of 
fine bulbs you 
ever had. 



Ask our advice 
about what to 
plant and when. 
Our long experi- 
ence is at your 
service, free 




Three Color Combinations 

NOW that the garden season is about over it is 
easy to see where we made mistakes. 

One arrangement which gave me great pleasure was 
in May, when, against a wall where Ampelopsis Veitchi 
was putting out its tender, bronze-green, varnished 
leaves, great masses of white Spirtza Van Houttei 
broke in a feathery spray. Below these fairy breakers 
lay a quiet sea of beautiful purple Iris German tea. 
Along the margin, rising to the same height as the iris, 
soft pink and dull lavender Darwin tulips melted in to 
the purple. 

Again in early July came a vision of gladness. Tall 
English hybrid delphiniums threw a blue mist against 
this same ampelopsis-covered wall, and below them 
double white Japan iris, which one seedsman calls 
Yomo-no-umi, whatever that may mean, rested upon its 



tall reed-like stems like a flock of rare and lovely birds. 
In August', when the season wanes and colors 
deepen, a lovely group consisted of Liatris pyenostachya, 
its spectacular upward flight brought out against the 
white of Hydrangea paniculata, var. grandiflora. Be- 
low, the feathery spray of Coreopsis verticillatus starred 
with pale yellow blossoms, softened the angular 
stems of the liatris, while to the right bloomed great 
bunches of auratum lilies, their white and gold 
making the high light of the picture. Farther in 
the border, but with no other blooms intervening, 
came groups of phlox, that nearest the liatris in soft 
shades of purple melting into the lovely lavender of 
Eugene Danzenvilliers, while farther on the glowing 
lavender-pink of phlox Frau Von Buchner brought in a 
warmer note and softened yet heightened the colder 
tones. 

Pennsylvania. Helen McKeehan Sharpe. 




11 



frafflcraoi 



mX 




Meetings and Exhibitions in October 



2. 

2, 3. 

3, 4. 
5. 

6. 

7-17. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

14. 



Oyster Bay, L. I., Horticultural Society: dahlia show. 

Garden Club, Lawrence, L. I.: exhibition of mari- 
golds, salpiglossis, snapdragons. 

Pasadena, Cal., Horticultural Society: regular 
meeting. 

Short Hills, N. J. Garden Club; fifth annual dahlia 
show. 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society, Horticultural 
Hall, Boston, Mass.: fruit and vegetable exhibit. 

New Jersey Horticultural Society, Orange, N. J.: 
ninth annual dahlia, gladiolus, fruit and vegetable 
show. 

Nassau County Horticultural Society, Glen Cove, 
L. I.: dahlia show. 

Wichita, Kansas: International Dry Farming Con- 
gress and Soil Products Exposition. 

Worcester County Horticultural Society, Worcester 
Mass.: exhibition. 

Connecticut Horticultural Society, Hartford, Conn, 
regular meeting. 

Dobbs Ferry, N. Y., Horticultural Society: regular 
meeting. 

Nassau County Horticultural Society, G'.en Cove, 
L. I.: regular meeting. 



15, 16. 



17. 



21, 


22, 23. 


22, 


23, 24. 


23. 




23, 


24, 25. 


24. 




26. 
29, 


30. 


30. 




30, 


Nov. 3 



25th Anniversary of the organization of the Board 

of Trustees of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 

St. Louis, Mo. 
Pasadena, Cal., Horticultural Society: regular 

meeting. 
Staten Island Garden Club, New Dorp: lecture on 

bulbs. 
New Hampshire Horticultural Society, Antrim, N. 

H.: annual meeting. 
Pasadena, Cal., Horticultural Society: fall flower 

show. 
Connecticut Horticultural Society, Hartford, Conn.: 

regular meeting. 
Menlo Park, Cal., Horticultural Society: fall flower 

show. 
Dobbs Ferry, N. Y., Horticultural Society: regular 

meeting. 
Staten Island Garden Club, New Dorp: meeting. 
Nassau County Horticultural Society, Glen Cove, 

L. I.: chrysanthemum show. 
Oyster Bay, L. I., Horticultural Society: chrysan- 
themum show. • 
Horticultural Society of New York, Museum 

of Natural History, New York City: exhibition. 



Owing to the war in Europe, many of the foreign fixtures already announced have been indefinitely 
abandoned. 

Note: The Editors will be grateful for information about the doings of gardening societies, 
clubs, etc., and especially as regards coming events. In order to ensure timely publication, the 
information must reach the Editors by the twelfth day of the month preceding the date of issue in 
which the notice should appear. 



The International Flower Show 

We have recently received the preliminary schedule 
of the 1915 International Flower Show, which will be 
held, as last year, in the Grand Central Palace, 46th 
Street and Lexington Avenue, New York City, March 
17th to 23rd. This will be conducted under the 
auspices of the Horticultural Society of New York and 
the New York Florists' Club, and it is hoped that it will 
meet with the same enthusiastic reception that it ex- 
perienced last year. Here is an opportunity for the 
amateur to become acquainted with all the novelties. 
Even if one has no garden and has never raised any 
flowers to speak of, it is a most delightful experience 
to see them in such profusion, and we have no doubt 
but that this year's show will b.e even more beautiful 
than that of last year. 

The Horticultural Society of New York offers its 
gold, silver, and bronze medals for exhibits of unusual 
merit, the exhibits to be judged and the awards to be 
made by the Society. The complete schedule will be 
issued later, but in the meantime, if any definite in- 
formation is desired, apply to Mr. John Young, 53 
West 28th Street, New York City, who is Secretary of 
the New York Florists' Club. 

The Garden Clubs 

The garden clubs of Long Island have formed them- 
selves into a Red Cross Auxiliary, and are organizing 
together for the purpose of collecting funds to help the 
sufferers in the War. 

We have also been informed that plans are now under 
way for the establishment of a garden club at East 
Hampton, L. I. 

A Correction 

In the September issue of The Garden Magazine, we 
referred to the July meeting of "The Garden Club of 



Michigan." We are sorry to say that was a mistake; 
the note referred to the Garden Club of Alma, Michi- 
gan. 



Anniversary of The Missouri Botanic 
Garden 

The twenty-fifth anniversary of the organization of 
the Board of Trustees of the Missouri Botanic Garden 
will be held October 15th and 16th. This event first 
took place September 10, 1889, when the Missouri Bo- 
tanical Garden, as a botanic institution, public in char- 
acter, was established under the will of Mr. Shaw. Be- 
sides the numerous lectures and sight seeing trips and 
the annual banquet, scheduled for this year there will 
be special floral displays. The old museum building, 
closed for a long time, has been renovated and will 
contain an exhibit of disease-producing plants, and the 
effect of these parasites upon other plants, as well as 
upon various woods and timbers will be shown. 

International Dry-Farming Congress 

Probably one of the largest industrial expositions ever 
held in the Southwest will be the International Dry- 
Farming Congress and Soil Products Exposition at 
Wichita, Kansas, October 7 to 17. Space has been 
bought by nation'al and local manufacturers in all sorts 
of industry; in a special building some of the railroads 
will have comprehensive displays; horticulture, dairy 
and live stock will be well represented; and the United 
States Government, with an appropriation of $20,000, 
has called for exhibits covering every important phase 
of agricultural work and life. The various state depart- 
ments and colleges of agriculture will also have repre- 
sentative exhibits. 



// you wish information about dogs apply to the Readers' Service 



October, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



109 



Books by 

Stewart 
Edward White 

A Forty-niner writes: 



a 



GOLD 



Is a true delineation of the situ- 
ation in California at the time." 

The Bookman adds: 

" It is not merely a story of the rough 
life of the gold fields that Mr. White 
has written; it is the depicting of the 
birth of an empire. It is this which 
gives his book the epic quality. 
Illustrated by Thomas Fogarty. Net $1.35 



The Adventures of Bobby 

Orde. Illustrated - - - - - 

African Camp Fires. Illustrated 
Arizona Nights. Illustrated - - 
The Blazed Trail. Illustrated 
Blazed Trail Stories. Illustrated 
The Cabin. Illustrated - - - - 

Camp and Trail. Illustrated - - 
The Claim Jumpers ----- 

Conjuror's House. Illustrated - 
The Forest. Illustrated - - - 
The Land of Footprints. Illustrated 
The Mountains. Illustrated - - 
The Mystery (with Sam'l Hopkins 
Adams) -------- 

The Pass. Illustrated - - - - 

The Riverman. Illustrated - - 
The Rules of the Game. Illustrated 
The Silent Places. Illustrated - 
The Westerners ------ 



Net $1.20 

" 1.50 

" 1.35 

" 1.35 

" 1.35 

" 1.50 

" 1.25 

" 1.35 

" 1.20 

" 1.50 

" 1.50 

" 1.50 



1.35 
1.25 
1.35 
1.40 
1.35 
1.35 



Published by 

Doubleday, Page & Company 

Garden City New York 




COLLINS' 

Garden and Orchard 
Guide, free on request. 

Lists, fully describes and illustrates 
the best varieties of fruits, shrubs 
and decorative plants. Contains 
unique, helpful 



Special Collection Offers 

which save you money and assure con- 
tinuous, long-season yield of luscious 
fruits or fine flowers. Write today for 
your free copy. 

ARTHUR J. COLLINS 

Box 23, Moorestown, N. J. 





IRON FENCE OF EXCEPTIONAL STYLE AND QUALITY 

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\\^HEN you have put the best into the planning of your CEND sketch with measurements and our Designing and En- 

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Iron Statuar 
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Stable Filling 
ds andLanlcri 



"Symphonies in Stains" 



Stained with 
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Shiras Campbell 
Architect, New York 




D 



f mns 



A worth-while, informing booklet about high-grade shingle 
stains — what they are, how they should be selected and used. 
It will pay you to write for it and get thoroughly acquainted 

-^ fp-ys-j0w~£f ENGLISH SHINGLE 
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An Author Whose Books Have Sold Nearly 3 Million Copies 

GENE STRATTON-PORTER 



Other Nature Romances 

"FRECKLES" and 
"A GIRL OF THE 
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Two idyllic nature-romances 
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Each, Net Si. 20 
Leather, Nel$i.6o 

"AT THE FOOT OF 
THE RAINBOW" 

Illustrated, Net Si. 20 

"THE SONG OF 
THE CARDINAL" 

Cloth, Net Si. 25 
Leather, Net $2.00 

Garden City 



Her Two Recent Novels 



"LADDIE" 

A True Blue Story 

In "Laddie — A True Blue Story" Mrs. Porter has 
expressed the thoughts, the hopes, the feelings of 
the great middle class of the country. She has 
tapped the springs of sentiment that are in every 
heart. That it has found a welcome place there is 
shown by its record sales of more than 300,000 copies 
in seven months. 

"THE HARVESTER" 

A Limberlost Romance 

"The Harvester" is replete with incident, dramatic 
situations, pathos and humor delightfully blended — 
a story which by reason of its wholesomeness and its 
idealism will win and hold its readers, while the 
memory of it will linger." — Grand Rapids Herald. 

Each, Illustrated 
Cloth, Net Si. 35. Leather edition. Net Si-75 

Doubleday, Page & Co., 



Beautiful Nature Books 

"MOTHS OF THE 
LIMBERLOST" 

Illustrated in colors from rare 
photographs of living moths, 
taken by the author. 
Net $2. 50 

"MUSIC OF THE 
WILD" 

A volume of the songs and the 
voices of nature. Illustrated 
with 120 exquisite photographs 
of birds and insect life. 
Net $2. 50 

"WHAT I HAVE 
DONE WITH BIRDS" 

A remarkable series of bird 
character studies with pen and 
camera. 

Net S3.00 

New York 



The Readers' Service will give information about latest automobile accessories 



110 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1914 



Fall Fiction — Forget the War 

EXTRACT FROM LETTER: "Why don't publishers print a plain, truthful account of 
what the book really is instead of generalities and adjectives ?" (See this advertisement) 




BAMBI 

By 
Marjorie Benton Cooke 

Author of "Dr. David," etc. 

A book that will make 
you forget the war in 
the sheer delight of 
reading. 

Marjorie Benton Cooke 

From a pen and ink drawing by James 

Montgomery i'lagg 

Bambi is here! She arrived on the 26th of 
September. 

Do you know her? Have you heard of her? 
Don't make the mistake of missing her. 

First "Bambi" captivated her publishers — two of them. 
Then she set out to storm the citadels of the booksellers all 
over the country — and that is harder work than the Germans 
had at Liege. But she took them all, did "Bambi." 



"Tell your husband to put yo 
in a play, and I'll put it on.' 
"Much obliged, I'll tell him 
Good morning." 




"Bambi" is a book. But what is more important, she is 
a person. Read what one of her admirers says: 

Thank you; many times thank you for "Bambi." It's a shady place 
on a hot day, a warm cosy place when you're freezing, a gentle dig in the 
mental rib, and such a relief after that last story of 

Thank you for being natural and not trying to be funny for half a 
page at once — thank you for your clean humor, for those two unusual, 
yet possible characters, so perfectly handled. It is a long time since I 
have had such a nice taste in my mind. Gratefully yours, E. L. S. 

Illustrated by Mary Greene Blumenschein. Net $1.25 



A New Romance by 
'The Novelist of the 
Home." 

The 

Twenty-fourth 

of June 

By 
Grace S. Richmond 

Author of "Red Pepper Burns," etc. 




Grace S. Richmond 
"The Novelist of the Home.' 



Grace S. Richmond's new story "The Twenty- 
fourth of June" is in her own vein, a sympathetic 
and tender story of American home life. There 
are no extravagant situations, no attempt to 
cater to bizarre tastes in fiction. It is a clean, 
merry and wholesome tale of how a wealthy and 
much spoiled young millionaire gave up loafing 




"It was the heart of the home, so close that even a stranger could 
catch a glimpse of it by chance." 

and made good in business for the sake of a girl 
who despised him on account of his wealth. 

The booksellers are glad to handle a book like " The 
Twenty-fourth of June." The following is typical: 

It will be a pleasure and a satisfaction to be able, from reading "The 
Twenty-fourth of June" to assure admirers of Mrs. Richmond's writings 
that her latest is in her best vein. It is clean, wholesome and interesting. 
I appreciated the parts recounting the hero's business experiences. It is 
good sense in an attractive form. A. B. Fifield 

The Edward P. Judd Co., New Haven, Conn. 

Frontispiece and decorations in two colors. Net $1.25 



PUBLICATIONS OF DOUBLED AY, PAGE & COMPANY, GARDEN CITY, NEW YORK 



The Readers' Service gives information about insurance 




KELSEY FRESH AIR 

HEAT CHANGES THE 

AIR4to6TIMES 

AN HOUR W 



THE KELSEY will, if you wish it. deliver to each 
room a large enough volume of fresh air, heated 
to an agreeable temperature, to make a complete 
change 4 to 6 times an hour. 

The Kelsey both heats and ventilates. 

It's an healthizer and economizer. 

It is free from complication. Easy to regulate. 
Conspicuously free from repairs. Has no pipes to 
freeze or water to leak, spoiling walls or ceilings. 
It should, ho.vever, in no way be confused with hot 
air furnaces. It is entirely different. It is a Warm 
Air Generator. Warm fresh air containing just the 
desirable amount of moisture to insure health and 
prevent drying out and pulling apart of your 
furniture. It delivers more heat from less coal than 
other systems. We can prove it. What we want is 
the opportunity to prove it to you. 

Will you grant us the opportunity? 



Chicago I 1*1 L» I \ 

Liu«oln J WARM AIR 



E.L5LV 



GENERATOR 



York 
103 P 



232 James Street, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Dealers in all Principal Cities 




Davey Expert 
treatment would 
have prevented 
the splitting of 
this crotjli. 




Your trees are in 
danger of this! 

Assure yourself at once that physical weaknesses and 
internal decay are not menacing the very existence of 
your trees. A tree weakened by decay may be destroyed 
by the next windstorm. 

Davey Tree Surgeons 

— (the only kind good enough for the U. S. 
Government) will save your trees. 
WRITE FOR BEAUTIFUL BOOK 

It tells how real tree surgeons work and 
shows the way to preserve the beauty and 
charm of your grounds. Address 

The Davey Tree Expert Co. 

INCORPORATED 

1022 Elm Street KENT, OHIO 





A yard of Sunlight Double Glass Sash 



The Only Testimonials We Use Are Extracts 
From Letters Ordering More Sash 

Sunlight Double Glass Sash have become the standard sash and are cutting out half the labor and 
cost and doubling the net profits of early gardening wherever used. This superior efficiency is due 
to these facts; the two layers of glass enclose an air space — a transparent blanket — through which 
the Sun's rays pass freely to the beds, carrying heat and light, but through which the cold from 
without and the stored heat from within pass very slowly. 



Save Fifty Percent 

The result is that mats and shutters, which 
must be used on the old style single layer sash, 
need not be used. Thus half the labor is elim- 
inated. These extra covers need never be 
bought or renewed; thus half the expense is 
saved. The plants, having constant light and 
a steadier temperature, grow better and 
stronger and insure earlier crops; thus the busi- 
ness gives far better returns. 

Our Inexpensive Greenhouse 

Besides their use on cold frames and hot-beds 
the same double glass sash may be used during 
all or a large part of the greenhouse months on 
the ready made sash greenhouses made espec- 
ially for them. These houses, made entirely of 
cypress and glass, are inexpensive and excellent. 



They are made to rest on the ground with a 
sunken path to give access to the beds, or they 
can be placed on side walls of frame, concrete 
or brick construction so as to use benches for 
the plants. These side walls may be as much 
as z}4 feet high. The door is made to fit either 
a path z}4 feet deep or walls z]/i feet high, but 
may be cut off at the bottom to fit any lesser 
height or depth. Any one can set up the house 
without a valid chance to make a mistake. 
The frame-work is assembled as far as is prac- 
ticable for shipment. Read all about this 
most attractive little house in our catalog. 

Write For These Two Books Today 

/. The catalog, with net prices, free. 
2. Prof. Massey's excellent booklet on The Use 
of Hot-beds, Cold-frames and Small Greenhouses, 
4.C in stamps. 



SUNLIGHT DOUBLE GLASS SASH CO., 927 E. Broadway, Louisville, Kentucky 

The Sunlight Greenhouse on sunken path and frame construction 




WE WILL HELP YOU 

We have helped many youns men and women to make money. 
If you have the time we have the opportunity. We want new sup- 
scribers to The World's Work. Country Life and The Garden Mag- 
azine. For particulars address Circulation Dept. 
Doubleday, Page & Company, Garden City, New York 



DAHLIAS 



MOST POPULAR GARDEN 
FLOWER! Cordial invitarion 
extended 10 all to visit my gard- 
ens during flowering season. 
Sample box containing 50 blossoms, different kinds, all labeled with names, 
for $1.00, to cover labeling and packing; express to be paid by purchaser. 

Geo. L. Stillman, Dahlia Specialist, Westerly, R.I., Box C-4 



KEWANEE PRIVATE UTILITIES 

WATER SUPPLY, SEWAGE DISPOSAL, 
ELECTRIC LIGHT& POWER, 
MAKE COUNTRY LIVING 

EFFICIENT, HEALTHFUL,COMFORTABLE 

Give service equal to the best PUBLIC UTILITIES PLANTS in cities. Vacuum Cleaning, Refrigerating, Wash- 
ing Machines, Cream Separators, Churns, etc., driven from one engine or motor. SIMPLE, COMPACT, 
ECONOMICAL. Last a life time. Any size from a cottage to a palace. Send for bulletin 53 on any subject. 
KEWANEE PRIVATE UTILITIES CO., Formerly Kewanee Water Supply Co., Kewanee, 111. 

Factories: KEWANEE, ILL., and LANCASTER, PA. Branch Offices: NEW YORK and CHICAGO. DEALERS EVERYWHERE 





Victor Exclusive Talent 

The best friends you can have — who cheer you with their music and song, who 
unfold to you all the beauties of the compositions of the great masters, who through 
their superb art touch your very heart strings and become to you a wellspring of inspiration. 



Painting adapted from the 
Chicago Tribune cartoon of John T. McCutcheon. 



Copyright by 
Victor Talking Machine Co., Camden, N. J. 




THE COUNTRY LIFE PRESS, GARDEN CITY, NEW YORK 



!> 



Vol. XX, No. 4 



NOVEMBER, 1914 



15 Cents a Cc 











FARMING 




COUNTRY LIFE 
IN AMERICA 



DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & CO. 

Chicago GARDEN'CITY, N. Y. New York 



THE WORLD'S 
WORK 



. -. y ....,,■. 





Wouldn't You Rather Live on the Side of the Street that Moons' Trees Are On? 

•I This street in Philadelphia is planted with shade trees from Moons' Nurseries. The usual bareness and sunny glare have vanished on the tree 
side; houses there will rent for more and tenants stay longer. <J It pays to plant trees — in money returns as well as in the pleasure one gets 
from their shade and beauty. ^ Moons' trees have a vigor of growth and shapeliness of form that make them look well and transplant well. 
There is a wide range of sizes, and varieties for Every Place and Purpose. <J Now is the time to plant shade trees (there is no season better) . 
Send for catalog that describes and lists Moons' Trees as well as other Hardy Nursery Stock for Autumn planting. 

THE WILLIAM H. MOON COMPANY 



PHILADELPHIA OFFICE: Room D, 21 S. 12th Street 



Makefield Place, MORRISVILLE, PA. 





i 



lii-iiliii 



Hi 



ijii liiumMiMmmiam i twti iw< 



The Exquisite Art of Stewart Iron Fence and Gates 

brings out the real character of your building and grounds. They are 
masterpieces of the Iron Worker's handicraft. Not garish, but beautiful 
with the virile art of a well-poised design. They create an atmosphere of 
elegance and exclusiveness that no other improvement can produce, and 
add to the value of the property. 

Blue Prints, Photos, Book of Designs, Catalog, etc., sent Free, if you 
will tell us what you have in mind. A brief description of your property 
will be of material assistance to us in making suggestions?. 

THE STEWART IRON WORKS CO. 



"The World's Greatest Iron Fence Builders" 
Dept. D CINCINNATI 

Iron Vases, Setters, Garden and Drinking- Fountains, Iron 
Statuary, Stable Fittings, Lamp Standards and Lanterns 



OHIO 



Daffodil Bulbs 

At Special Prices 

These are extra good bulbs 
which will give many beautiful 
golden yellow flowers next 
Spring and for several sea- 
sons thereafter, if planted in 
the garden before the ground 
freezes. We will send to 
any part of the country 

Fifty Assorted Bulbs 
for One Dollar, postpaid i / 

We have a fairly good supply, but advise ordering 
early if you want to secure bulbs at this special price. 

Our catalogue is ready — send for a copy and see our list 
of Hyacinths, Tulips, Crocus, and other Bulbs for Fall planting 
and Spring blooming. 

Weeber & Don 

Seed Merchants and Growers 
1 14 B Chambers St. New York City 




November, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



111 



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With a Victrola every home can 
enjoy the world's best music 

The Victrola is the "open sesame" which admits you to the 
enjoyment of all the music of all the world. 

It reveals to you in their grandeur the musical gems of the 
ages. It brings to you the art and personality of the most famous 
singers and instrumentalists. It presents an endless variety of 
melody and mirth to suit your every mood. 

That is the charm of the Victrola, 
and right in your own home you can 
have ready access to this inexhaustible 
supply of musical riches and enjoy them 
at your pleasure. 

Any Victor dealer in any city in the world 
will gladly play any music you wish to hear and 
demonstrate the various styles of the Victor and 
Victrola— $10 to $200. 

Victor Talking Machine Co. 
Camden, N. J., U. S. A. 

Berliner Gramophone Co., Montreal, 
Canadian Distributors. 

Always use Victor Machines with 
Victor Records and Victor Needles 
— the combination. There is no other 




way to get the unequaled Victor 
tone. 




Victrola XVI, $200 

Mahogany or oak 



New Victor Records demonstrated at all dealers on the 28th of each month 



. 



n« 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



November, 1914 



Michells W Bulbs 



1 



m 



Never were our Bulbs of Hyacinths, Tulips and Narcissus larger or finer than this year. 
The unfortunate war in Europe has caused our growers to select and re-select until every 
doubtful and undesirable Tulip, Hyacinth and Narcissus bulb was eliminated from the 
hhhmhb| stock shipped to us. Below is a short list of the most popu- 

) lar kinds in the different classes. 



Single Red 
Single White 
Single Blue 
Single Yellow 
Single Pink 




Named First Size 




Hyacinths 








Each 


Doz. 


too 


Single Red Varieties 


.10 


$1.00 


$7.00 


Single Pink 


ii 


.10 


1.00 


7.00 


Single White 


< 


.10 


1.00 


7.00 


Single Blue 


« 


.12 


1.25 


8.S0 


Single Yellow 


t 


.12 


1.20 


8.00 


Single Orange 


< 


.10 


1.00 


7.00 


Double Blue 


i 


.10 


1.00 


7.00 


Double Red 


c 


.10 


1.00 


7.00 


Double Pink 


c 


.10 


1.00 


7.00 


Double White 


( 


.10 


1.00 


7.00 


Double Yellow 


« 


.10 


1.00 


7.00 



Unnamed Hyacinths in 
Separate Colors 



(Especially for Bedding) 

Each Doz. 

all shades 



.05 
.05 
.05 
.05 
.05 



.50 
.50 
.50 
.50 
.50 



lOO 

$3.50 
3.50 
3.50 
3.50 
3.50 



Special OHer — With every bulb 
order amounting to $5.00, or over (if 
asked for), we will include Michell's 
Bulb Growing Guide, con- 
taining the most up to date 
cultural directions, and de- 
scribing very explicitly every 
bulb offered in our catalog. 



Each 


]>oz. 


100 


.05 


.50 


3.50 


.05 


.50 


3.50 


.05 


.50 


3.50 


.05 


.50 


3.50 


.05 


.50 


3.50 


.05 


.45 


3.25 


.05 


.50 


3.50 


.05 


.45 


3.25 



Single Dark Red all shades 
Single Pure White " " 
Single Blush White 
Single Light Blue 
Single Dark Blue " " 

Single Mixed, all colors 
Double in same shades as single 
Double mixed, all colors 

Crocus 

I>oz. lOO lOOO 

Baron Von Brunow, blue .15 $1.00 $8.50 

Mont Blanc, pure white .15 .90 8.00 

Mammoth Yellow .20 1.00 8.00 

Blue mixed .12 .60 5.50 

Striped mixed .12 .60 5.50 

White mixed .12 .60 5.50 

All colors mixed .10 .50 4.50 
Also all other varieties 

For Snowdrops, Scilla, Iris 

Ranunculus, Anemones, Etc. 

See our catalog 



Single Early Tulips 

Doz. lOO lOOO 

Artus, Bright Scarlet .20 $1.25 $10.00 

Belle Alliance, Brilliant Scarlet .30 
Cramoise, Brilliant Scarlet .25 
Cottage Maid, Pink and White .25 



Chrysolora, Golden Yellow .25 

Flamingo, Rich Pink .55 

Gold Finch, Golden Yellow .25 

La Reine, Pure White .25 

L'Immaculee, Pure White .25 

Kaiserkroon, Red and Yellow .35 

Pink Beauty, Clear Pink .65 

Rose Luisante, Deep Rose .40 

White Hawk, Pure White .40 

Wouverman, Purple Violet .50 

Yellow Prince, Yellow .25 
Also all other varieties 



lOO 

$1.25 
2.00 
1.50 
1.50 
1.60 
3.50 
1.50 
1.25 
1.25 
2.00 
4.25 
2.50 
2.25 
3.25 
1.50 



17.00 
13.00 
12.00 
13.50 
30.00 
12.50 
9.50 
11.00 
17.50 
40.00 
22.50 
20.00 
28.00 
12.50 



Double Early Tulips 



Cochineal, Brilliant Scarlet 
La Candeur, Pure White 
Murillo, Pink 

Tournesol, Red and Yellow 
Yellow Rose, Pure Yellow 



Doz. 

.40 
.25 
.30 
.40 
.25 



$2.50 
1.60 
1.50 
2.50 
1.50 



$22.00 
14.00 
12.50 
22.50 
12.00 



Also all other varieties, for which see our catalog 

Darwin Tulips 

(See Illustration) 

Doz. lOO lOOO 

Clara Butt, Salmon Pink .60 $3.75 $32.50 

Glow, Scarlet, blue center .60 4.00 35.00 

Gretchen, Rose .40 2.50 22.50 

White Queen, White .60 4.00 35.00 

Wm. Pitt, Brilliant Carmine .60 4.00 35.00 

Also all other varieties of Darwin and May- 
Flowering Tulips 

Superb Single Narcissus 

Doz. lOO lOOO 

Bicolor Victoria, Yellow and 

White .40 $2.75 $23.50 

Emperor, Golden Yellow .40 2.75 24.00 

Golden Spur, Yellow .40 2.50 22.50 

Trumpet Major, Deep Yellow .25 1.50 12.00 
Also all other varieties, contained in our catalog 

Superb Double Narcissus 

Doz. lOO lOOO 

Alba Plena Odorata, Pure 

White 
Von Sion, the true Yellow 

Daffodil 
Double Mixed, all colors 
Also all other varieties 

Lilium Candidum 

White Madonna Lily 

Each Doz. 

Large Bulbs .12 $1.00 



.20 $1,20 $ 9.75 



.30 
.20 



2.00 
1.00 



18.50 
8.75 



lOO 

$7.50 



Darwin Tulips 



Upper— White Queen 
Lower— Wm. Pitt 



Our handsome illustrated catalog of 104 pages on Bulbs is mailed free 
■I wi i|i|* -m || *-i Direct Importers of the Best Bulbs that Grow 

nCIiry I . IVUCnCll L0. 520 market st., Philadelphia, pa. 



The Readers' Service will give information about Ike latest automobile accessories 



wam^mmmm^mKmMmmmmmmmmmmmmmKmm 




Cover Design 



Nathan R. Graves 



The Month's Reminder in 

Photographs by Nathan R. Graves 

Roberta of Roseberry Gardens - Frances Duncan 119 

Drawings by Jack Manley Rose 

Garden Pictures with Simple Material - - - - 123 

Photographs by Jessie Tarbox Beals 

Fall Bulb Planting from a Different Viewpoint 

Carl Purdy 124 

Photographs by Turrill & Miller, Charles Jones, and others 

Some Good and Bad Cases of Garden Design 

Fletcher Steele 

Photographs by Mary H. Northend 

Saving the Season's Produce 

Photographs by the author 

Gardening for Young Folks - 

Photographs by Charles Jones 

Fall Planted Sweet Peas in the South /. G. Cisco 



F. F. Rockwell 



127 
129 



Ellen Eddy Shaw 131 



133 



One Amateur's Views of "Odds and Ends" W. G. W. 
Keeping Rose Plants Over Winter - W. R. Gray 
A Hanging Basket for Indoors - - - - A. H. B 

Quinces for the Home Garden - - J. R. Matter 71 
Wood Ashes for Potash --------- 1^ 

A Hardier Barberry Hybrid - William P. Gundry 134 
More Uses for Lime-sulphur Wash Harold Clarke 
The Mistletoe Fig -- J. D. Eisele 

Photograph by Henry Troth 

Coal Ashes and Their Uses - Archibald Rutledge 

Winter Vegetables in Alabama - Evelyn Vose Peck 136 

Last Duties of Fall - - - - - J. M. Patterson 136 

Suggestions for the Home Table Effie M. Robinson 140 

Photographs by Mary H. Northend 

Club and Society News 142 



i33 

i33 
i33 

i33 



i34 
J 34 

134 



SUBSCRIPTION: 

$1.50 a year 

Single copies, is cts. 



F. N. DOUBLEDAY, President 
HERBERT S. HOUSTON, 
Vice-President 



LEONARD BARRON, Editor 

COPYRIGHT, IOI4, BY 

DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY 

Entered as second-class matter at Garden City, New York, under the Act of Congress, March 3, 1879 



S. A. EVERITT, Treasurer 
RUSSELL DOUBLEDAY, 

Secretary 



For Foreign Postage 

add 65c. 
For Canada add 35c. 



A G&fden Full 
R 4 Tulips 

75 Tulip Bulbs, all first size, 
taken from 25 named va- 
rieties for $1.00. 

PLANT THIS FALL 

These Tulips have been selected from 25 

of the most beautiful varieties, embracing all 

the colors that are to be found in this splendid 

class of Spring blooming bulbs. 

Plant near your home — in your garden or back 

yard. The beautiful blossoms in a multitude of 

brilliant colors and shades will make April a Spring 

month worth while. 

75 Tulip Bulbs, Finest Mixed, $1.00 

Write or call at our store, mention "Garden Magazine" and secure this 
splendid collection of Tulip Bulbs for only $1.00 prepaid to your home, anywhere 
in the United States, with our 1914 Fall Catalogue. 

Our Bulb Catalogue, Free on Request — Contains complete list of choicest 
varieties of Darwin Tulips, Exhibition Hyacinths, New and Rare Narcissus and other 
miscellaneous Bulbs. 




30-32 Barclay Street 



NEW YORK 



BOBBINK & ATKINS 

World's Choicest Nursery and Greenhouse Products 

Autumn Planting 

EVERGREENS, CONIFERS AND PINES. We have more than 75 acres 
planted with attractive EVERGREENS. Our collection is conceded to be 
the most complete and magnificent ever assembled in America. The varie- 
ties comprising same have been thoroughly tested and proved hardy. Our 
plants are dug with a ball of earth and burlapped previous to shipping. 
Before purchasing, those interested should not fail to inspect our collection. 

The Following Plants for Outdoor Planting, Interior and Exterior 
Decorations are Among Our Specialties 



DECIDUOUS TREES and SHRUBS. We 

have an enormous collection ^in all varieties 
and sizes. 

RHODODENDRONS. We have many 
thousands of acclimated plants in hardy Eng- 
lish and American varieties. 

TRAINED, DWARF and ORDINARY 
FRUIT TREES and SMALL FRUITS. 

We grow these for all kinds of Fruit Gardens 
and Orchards. 

BOXWOOD. We grow thousands of plants 
in many shapes and sizes. Everybody loves 
the rich green color and delicate aroma of old- 
fashioned Boxwood. 

ROSES. We have several hundred thousand 
Rose plants for fall sales. 



HEDGE PLANTS. We grow a quantity 
of California Privet. Berberis and other 
Hedge plants. 

HARDY OLD-FASHIONED FLOWERS. 

We have thousands of rare, new and old-fash- 
ioned kinds, including Peonies and Iris. 
HARDY TRAILING and CLIMBING 
VINES. We have them for every place and 
purpose. 

AUTUMN BULBS AND ROOTS. We 

grow and import quantities of Bulbs and 
Roots from all parts of the world. 
PLANT TUBS, WINDOW BOXES, ENG- 
LISH GARDEN FURNITURE AND RUS- 
TIC WORK. We manufacture all shapes 
and sizes. 



OUR NEW HYBRID GIANT FLOWERING MARSHMALLOW. Every- 
body should be interested in this hardy new old-fashioned flower. 

OUR ILLUSTRATED GENERAL CATALOG NO. 25 and AUTUMN 
BULB CATALOG, describes our Products; mailed upon request. 

" We Plan and Plant Grounds and Gardens Everywhere " 

Nurserymen, Florists and Planters Rutherford, New Jersey 



113 



114-116 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



November, 1914 



NEW LILIES FOR THE GARDEN 

Hardy, Fragrant and Beautiful 




LILIUM MYRIOPHYLLUM 



With the introduction of these two magni- 
ficent new varieties blooming in July and 
early August, it is now possible to have 
continuous display of Lilies in bloom 
from early summer until frost. 
Our Lily fields during the flowering 
period were the admiration of all who 
saw them. 

LILIUM MYRIOPHYLLUM 

Flowers white, slightly suffused with pink 
and with a beautiful shade of canary yellow 
at the centre and extending part way up 
the trumpet; fragrant. Awarded the Gold 
Medal of the Massachusetts Horticultural 
society and a First-class Certificate by the 
Royal International Exhibition, London, 191 2. 

LILIUM SARGENTIAE 

Greenish white shading to purple on outside, 
pure white within, with a tint of citron in the centre. Awarded 
Gold Medal of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 1913. 
Bulbs of each of above varieties, $1.50 ea., $15.00 per doz. 
Illustrated catalogue free on application 

R. & J. FARQUHAR & CO., BOSTON, MASS. 




Grow Mushrooms — $5 to $20 a Week 



$56.00 Worth from a 
$2.00 Bed 

Dear Sir: 

I am pleased with my success. 
It is just 3 months tomorrow 
since I picked my first mush- 
rooms and the bed is still yield- 
ing. Altogether from this one 
bed of 50 square feet I have 
gathered so far 80 lbs. I have 
good sale for all I can grow at 
70c. per pound. . 

(Signed) Yours, 



Others Do, Why Don't 
You? 

Increase your income at home in 
spare time. A small bed 5x10 feet in 
your basement, barn, shed , almost any- 
where — will grow from 60 to 100 lbs. 
of mushrooms selling at 50c. to $1.00 
a lb. Mr. Jackson, who is at the head 
of the largest 
scientific mush- 
room plant in 
the world, cost- 
ing $ 1 s o, o o o 
to equip, has 
shown over 
50,000 people 
how to grow 
them success- 

f ullv. Jackson, the Mushroom Man 




Write for free illustrated booklet telling how to raise, how to sell, etc. 

V. JACKSON, FALMOUTH MUSHROOM CELLARS, INC. 

279 Gifford Street, Falmouth, Mass. 



Are You Searching for a Country 

Estate, Model Farm, Suburban 

Residence or Bungalow ? 



r INHERE are complete descrip- 
tions of very desirable prop- 
erties that are not publicly known 
to be on the market in our Real 
Estate Directory File. If you 
wish to know their location, acre- 
age, price, terms, etc., kindly com- 
municate at once with 



Mgr. Real Estate Department 

COUNTRY LIFE IN AMERICA 

The National Real Estate Medium 
Garden City, L. I. 11 West 32nd St., N. Y. 



If you wish to systematize your business the Readers' Service may be able to ofer suggestions 



The Garden Magazine 




COMPILED 
THE TEN 



The 
Flower Shows 



The 
Roses 



NOVEMBER is the month 
of flower shows in nearly 
every residential centre, 
and it is the duty of 
every person interested in flowers, 
fruit, and vegetables, to attend 
some one of these exhibitions, not 
only for the moral and financial 
support afforded, 
but to see what 
other people are 
doing and thereby gain knowledge. 

If you have anything from a head of cabbage to a rare orchid 
that is exceptionally good or has some peculiar characteristic, 
by all means exhibit it; and go yourself to see the novelties that 
the trade exhibits. Keep up the good work by lending every 
effort you can toward the success of your local flower show 

PENDER roses will need protection of some sort to carry them 
through the winter. Some gardeners apply a dense covering 
of leaves which cover most of the top. Strawing up the plants is 
also very popular, and covering the plants with pine boughs is 
also excellent, the object being simply to keep the 
sun off the wood and to maintain more even tempera- 
ture and conditions around the plants. The ground 
must be well mulched with fairly good manure after the ground has 
frozen a little on top. Standard or tree roses should be bent down 
and buried slightly. We have tried strawing them also, but have 
always had the best success by burying. 



TF THE perennial borders have not been 
cleaned up already that little bit of work 
had better be attended to at once. Cut 
down all dead flower stalks and burn them. 
p . . Clear the ground in between the 

. , plants of all weed growth. 

After the surface is slightly 
frozen, a mulch of good quality manure 
may be applied. Ah the perennial grasses 
that are near buildings of any description 
should be cut off and burned because they 
are very inflammable. The only reason 
for cutting them now is fire precaution. 
Remote from buildings they may be left 
alone since they make a good winter effect; 
leave them until spring whenever possible. 
It is also advisable to keep leaves raked 
away from buildings. But fill the rhodo- 
dendron bed with leaves, which afford the 
finest protection for the plants and in 
time - decay into a soil that is simply ideal 
for the bed. Surplus leaves may be stored 
elsewhere to rot. But do not sacrifice the 
winter blanket over the ground just to 
have a compost heap. The mulch is of 
more importance. 



'p |_J r JkM f\ XT np If * C DANSY beds set out last month 



REMINDER 



WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE HOME GARDEN, FROM 
YEARS' DIARIES OF A PRACTICAL EXPERT CARDENER 



Pansies 
for spring 



For reckoning dates, the latitude of New York City is generally taken as a 

standard. In applying the directions to other localities, allow six 

days' difference for every hundred miles of latitude 



Bay trees and 
Hydrangeas 




The most important thing to see to for winter protection 
is the mulch. Covering the ground is far more effective 
than covering the tops alone 

117 



for early spring flowering must 
be covered with salt hay or leaves 
before heavy freezing weather sets 
in. The mulch should 
be applied just as 
soon as the plants 
have been slightly frosted and 
hardened. This can be followed in 
a few days with a light covering of 
hay. A great deal depends upon 
finding a suitable place for storing 
your hydrangeas over the winter. A cold yet frost proof cellar 
where the air is quite stationary, makes an ideal place. Keep the 
plants on the "dry side" when resting, which 
means, don't give water enough to make the 
tree wet. Bay trees must now be stored for 
the winter. The mistake too often made is keeping them too 
warm and wet, which promotes a soft, sappy growth. Maintain the 
temperature between 40 and 45 degrees, and water very sparingly. 

TT IS not yet too late to plant perennials, though of course, it 
should be done just as soon as possible. We have always had 
better results from anemones planted in the fall, but any of the 
„ ... . hardiest perennials, such as rudbeckias, iris, holly- 

hocks, helianthus, phlox, etc., can be moved now with 
P an absolute security ; of course, mulching them after cold 

weather sets in. Plants that are soft and sappy by nature must 
not be planted in the fall, however; such things as campanula, 
eremurus, anchusa, or the pompon chrys- 
anthemum all have soft fleshy roots that 
will not as a rule stand fall planting. 

Certain plants, listed as tender, require 
protection during the winter. In most cases 
it will be found that such plants will endure 
the winter if somescheme bearranged so that 
water is shed from them and not on to them r 
with an after covering of leaves or litter. For 
water shedding, boxes or boards can be used 
or a mound of earth will prove sufficient. 

DE SURE that all bedding plants, such 
as coleus, geraniums, alternanthera, 
etc., are not being neglected, as your next 
season's supply depends upon these plants, 
and much depends upon 
the quality of your stock 
plants when it comes to 
propagating later on. Plants that have 
been benched for forcing, such as antir- 
rhinum, heliotrope, mignonette, etc., should 
be kept well cultivated and watered very 
carefully this month. In fact, everything 
in the greenhouse should be watered care- 
fully at this season of the year, as we are 
now going into the short days. 



Plants for [the 
Greenhouse 



118 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



November, 1914 



Plants in 
Pots 



A LL pot plants, such as calceolaria, cineraria, cyclamen, and 

primula should now be placed on the benches where they are 

to be flowered. They must now have good care, with a sharp 

lookout for insect pests as these plants are very 

subject to these pests. Be prompt to apply the 

remedy at once. Don't feed too freely at this season, 

in fact if you used good soil when potting, no feeding need be 

resorted to as yet. 

/CAMPANULAS for forcing should now be in large pots and 

placed in the coldframe. They must be kept cool and 

watered very carefully until a little later on, when they can be 

brought inside. Early lilies should now be brought in to force. 

These will stand a high temperature and plenty of feed- 



Forcing 
Begins 



Roses, Carnations, 
Chrysanthemums 



ing when they show bud. A few early Paper White 
narcissus can be forced for early flower. Some of the 
French grown narcissus can be brought in late this month. 

/^ARNATIONS should now be growing rapidly and while 

pinching has been resorted to up to the present time, it is 

now time to let some of the flowering shoots mature. Do not feed 

to any extent. An occasional dose of nitrate of soda in solution, 

however, will keep up good growth. 

Don't let the roses get mildewed. This is 

the time when you cannot ventilate quite 
so freely, but you have the advantage of fire heat to keep the house 
dry. It is good practice always to have the ventilator open even 
though it is only a crack; this will prevent the house from getting 
stuffy. Chrysanthemums will be finished shortly, and we should 
endeavor to save stock plants for next year. Many make 
the mistake of keeping these plants in a warm greenhouse over 
winter, and in spring the cuttings are soft and sappy and do not 
produce good stock. The plants should be kept in a very cool 
place — a dormant fruit house or coldframe — where heavy freezing 
weather can be kept out. Be sure the plants are properly labelled 
before they are put away. 

CWEET peas should now be growing rapidly. Do not make 
the error of trying to force them a little more by 

raising the temperature, nor by too frequent feeding. 

Sweet peas delight in a temperature of 45 degrees, and 
any attempt to force them with a higher 
temperature is ruinous. Be content with a 
robust but rather slow growth to produce 

high grade flowers. 



Sweet 
Peas 




DEANS can be sown a couple of times this month, I, ;, || | , 
and the sowings made last month should now be ,//:!., 

ready for staking. Short brush, about eighteen inches 
long, is ideal; set the sticks up alongside 
the row. A sowing of beets and carrots 
can be made this month right on the 

benches where the crop is to mature. Cauliflower, 



Vegetables 
under Glass 



lettuce, and cucumber should all be sown. To keep up occasional 
crops two sowings should be made of the cauliflower and lettuce. Of 
cucumbers, one is sufficient. The cauliflower and lettuce are sown 
in pans and afterward transferred to thumb pots from which they 
are benched when large enough. The cucumbers are sown in 
2-inch pots, one seed to a pot, and benched when large enough. 

A sowing of melons made at this time will bring the crop in at a 
good season of the year. It is also a favorable growing season, as 
after the plants are benched, they will have the benefit of the days 
becoming longer. Sow the seeds in 2-inch pots and when the 
plants are large enough transfer into 4-inch pots from which, when 
well rooted, they are planted into hills. 

Tomato plants that were started early and are carrying a lot 
of fruit had better have a little additional plant food which is best 
supplied by mulching. Mix up a good rich mixture and apply a 
couple of inches of it to each hill. This is preferable to liquid 
feeding at this season of the year. 

ALL root crops, such as beets, carrots, chicory, celeriac, salsify, 
turnip, rutabaga, and sea kale should now be lifted and stored 
for the winter. Some people place them in cellars, but outside 
trenches answer perfectly well. Bury some large packing cases 
^ . in which the roots can be placed (such as bulbs are 

R shipped in). The top is covered with boards and 

then some salt hay with a covering of earth is placed 
on top of this. When severe freezing weather sets in, an additional 
covering of leaves or litter can be used to keep out the frost. Make 
vents through the earth so that they can be opened up in mild 
weather. Select high ground for storing and dig trenches about six 
feet from the boxes on each side and throw this soil toward the 
cases so as to keep the water away. 

{CELERY must now be placed in winter quarters. Some leave 
it where it grows, hilling it up well and covering with leaves 

or litter to keep out the frost. This I consider the best method 

r , where only small quantities are grown. Another method 

is to store in cellars, which has one disadvantage because 

the celery becomes stringy. I think the best practice for 
large quantities of celery is to store it in trenches. The 
idea is to select a dry spot, store the celery in a trench that 
is deep enough so that the tops are about level with the 
surrounding grade. Cover the plants with a few inches of 
earth and then mound up, using leaves or salt hay in courses 
between the earth. This will keep out the frost and insure 
dryness. After the top is crusted by freezing, a good cover- 
ing of leaves or litter can be applied as a further frost pro- 
tection. When taking out the celery, always work from 
one end. 

Cabbage is stored in a similar manner. The heads are 

placed in the trenches, upside down — the whole plant is 

lifted entire — the soil mounded up and the same protection 

given as for celery. French globe artichokes must be protected 

with care not to overdo it. 




Protection for the partly tender shrubs can be given with any available material: burlap, mats, straw, corn stalks, etc. But don' I forget the mulch! 




j)ffi>rta of^ 
pseoerry (ford en 

^~Bj£s Jrances J (-Duncan 

Gjbecorationsoy- 'JacK GKCaitley, (Rose 




Roseberry Gardens is not a historic account of an actual nursery, although I 
dare say it is typical of other days and many of the older nurseries, when the 
nursery business was more leisurely and perhaps more scholarly than to-day. To one who has ever been in touch with 
the growing of plants there is a poetry and charm in the life of the place which no other business possesses. And if the reader 
finds a little of the sheer happiness there is in having to do with the exquisite young life, the story will have been worth while. 



ROSEBERRY GARDENS is an 
adorable place of a May morn- 
ing. The brown old earth 
fairly sings with color. 
The flat plowed land, a few days ago 
stretched acre after acre in dull monotony 
of nursery squares, has changed as 
suddenly as if the old earth were Cin- 
derella and May were the Fairy God- 
mother. The commonplace has van- 
ished. In its stead is a wonderful garden 
laid out on a splendid scale: a great 
parterre, where broad grass paths sep- 
arate wide beds of radiant color- — white, 
through all the shades of rose to deepest 
crimson, and from white again through 
all the yellows to flame color and deepest 
orange — the great squares are ablaze 
with color. The only green is the green 
of the broad grass paths, the young 
foliage of the oaks in the distance, and 
the smooth, close-clipped hemlock hedge 
that divides the azalea plantation from 
the drive. 

And the peculiar charm of it all is 
that these brilliant parterres of marvel- 
ous color are not dominated by a huge, 
impressive pile of a house — a mansion 
which seems to say, with a patronizing 
wave of the hand toward the garden, 
"Oh yes, very handsome. These are 
my clothes; this is my setting — a fairly 
suitable accompaniment to my magni- 
ficence." 

At Roseberry Gardens it is the plants 
that are in possession; the flaming 
azaleas, the magnolias and all the lovely 
host that are the masters. As for build- 
ings, there is an unpretentious little 
affair, low and almost dingy, scarcely to 
be noticed if it were not for the brilliant 
magnolia at its door; behind it stretches 
a long, low packing shed and in its side 
white-washed greenhouses bury their 
heads. But as for these, "Merely our 
caretakers and nurses," say the gardens. 
Instead of the lady of the manor 
walking along the broad paths of 
magnificent parterre surveying her pos- 
session, it would be elderlv workmen in 



blue blouses and overalls, that you would 
meet of a May morning, probably each 
with a bit of a limp, for rheumatism is 
apt to touch an old gardener. Or you 
might see Rudolph Trommel, short and 
broad, with a beard like a gnome, and a 
basket on his arm going about among 
the plants like an elderly Troll, clipping 
here and there, peering carefully at each 
over his gold-rimmed spectacles — look- 
ing for treasure also, in veritable Troll- 
fashion, for a wonderful new color or 
some variation of keen interest, now and 
then touching or lifting the lovely heads 
with adoring fingers and wonderful 
gentleness. 

Nowhere, I believe, are plants so 
loved as in a nursery. Here they have 
nothing of the flippant, casual treatment 
that falls to their lot elsewhere. The 
very fact that they are to stay but for a 
few years serves but to endear them the 
more: for, like the young folk in a 
family, as soon as they are well-grown 
they must leave the home to make then- 
way in the world and take their chance 
of treatment; while the gardeners are 
like the parents who must stay at home 
and watch from a distance. 

"How could you, Michael?" said old 
Rudolph reproachfully to the white- 
haired Irishman who, marshalling two 
workmen, was approaching along the 
grass path in the morning when our 
story begins. The workmen were push- 
ing a small hand-cart loaded with young 
magnolias. 

"How c'ud I what, Mr. Trommel?" 
asked the man addressed as Michael, 
cheerful and ruddy of countenance, with 
a mustache like Prince Bismarck's. The 
red kerchief knotted around his neck 
served to strengthen the impression of 
the Iron Chancellor. 

"How could you sell that Gloria 
Mundi?" 

"Indeed, and what was it here for?" 
queried Michael. "And 'tis gone to 
Mr. Geor-rge Gold's place, and 'tis a 
foine position it will have there. If it 
had been the Glory av Hiven I'd have 
sold it!" 

119 



"It was the finest Gloria Mundi we 
had!" said old Rudolph sadly, as he 
turned again to his work. 

To a horticulturist, like Rudolph 
Trommel, plants are not for personal 
aggrandizement, not to make his place 
look handsome, nor even to show his 
skill as a gardener. They are as dear 
children, to be petted, loved, cared for, 
each with its own peculiar gifts; each 
new one a thing of wonderful possi- 
bilities. There is the same intense 
happiness in its success, the same eager 
interest in its future, the same poignant 
disappointment in its failure that a 
parent has for his child. 

It is for this reason, because of this 
attitude, that the gardens of horticul- 
turists and plant lovers are not often 
notable for their "effects," and that it 
is easy enough for a landscape gardener 
to pick flaws in them. He may care no 
more for putting a plant in an effective 
position than a mother cares for placing 
a child where it will look decorative: 
what interests him is the plant's com- 
fort, well-being and happiness. Old 
Rudolph, for instance, would see with 
pleasure that a Judas tree showed 
wonderfully at a distance with the 
delicate white of Halesia for company. 
He may even have advised placing it 
there. But he cares exactly as much for 
the Judas tree in a row with a dozen of 
its fellows. -"Of course," he would say, 
"he knew the child would look well in 
that position"; he can see it in dozens 
of other admirable positions — if one 
cares to put it there ! 

On this particular May morning, after 
leaving old Trommel, the white-haired 
Irishman whom we saw before led his 
workmen and the cart at a brisk pace 
along the path past the bright azaleas 
through the hemlock gateway and along 
the narrow drive to the little office- 
building. As the small cavalcade reached 
it the door opened and a young girl 
appeared on the threshold. 

"Oh, Michael! I want vou dread- 
fully!" 

Michael stopped. 



"Take them plants to the shed, b'ys," 
he said briskly, addressing his elderly 
assistants. "Here's the tag for them, 
Give it to Conklin. Quick! Run!" He 
spoke with such infectious energy that 
the old workmen disappeared on a 
brisk trot. Then he turned to the 
speaker with a smile as infectious as his 
order, and took off his old felt hat with a 
bit of a flourish. 

"Good morning to you, Miss Daven- 
ant. 'Tis yerself that looks like a piece 
of the morning!" 

As she stood in the dingy doorway, the 
girl was good to look upon. The sun- 
light touched her coppery hair to red- 
gold. She could not have been more 
than eighteen, and the roundness of her 
face, the troubled look about the mouth, 
made her look even younger. But there 
was a boyish clearness and directness 
in the gaze of the gray eyes and a de- 
cision in the chin that contradicted the 
dimple. She wore heavy, English- 
looking boots that had been afield already 
that morning and a rough, brown tweed 
skirt, rather short, and a jacket with 
deep pockets. 

She put her hand into one of the 
pockets and pulled out some slips of 
papers. 

"Whatever is the trouble, Miss Daven- 
ant?" 

"Tompkins," answered the girl 
briefly. 

"Him again!" 

"He won't take the cases for the Brazil 
shipment — says he can't. He's half 
the load that Washy has and those boxes 
ought to go." 

"Is that all?" exclaimed Michael. 
He followed her into the office and went 
briskly through to the packing shed, 
where were the large wooden cases 
and the protesting teamster. Outside, 
through the doorway, the horses and the 
waiting, half-loaded truck. 

"Ye cu'dn't manage to get the boxes 
on, Tompkins?" he said sympathetically. 
" 'Tis a shame. The b'ys here will help 
you. Come, lads, up with them! " 

"No, no!" protested Tompkins, as 
one of the offending boxes was almost 
in place on the truck, "I didn't need 
help to get them on " 

"I know, that's the foine man," broke 
in Michael, " 'tis the ne'er-do-weels that 
are afraid of their jobs, but the b'ys may 
as well help you. Come, lads up with 
the other!" 

"I don't want them on; I won't have 
them!" protested the luckless teamster. 
"I can't go to all those places. I'll 
never get home ! " He was a small, dark 
man with the little chin beard, midway 
between a goatee and a full beard which 
clergymen wore in the '6o's. 

"Give me your list, Tompkins," said 
Michael O'Connor soothingly. "Pier 
36, Pier 15, the Mary Powell" he read. 



"It w'ud be hard for a stupid lad or for 
a greenhorn, but 'tis a clever man like 
yerself, Tompkins, that can do it and 
do it foine. Thim big cases ye'll put 
off first, and the rest goes as aisy as a 
May morning. Ye'll do it foine, ye'll 
plan it so there's not a hitch. Ye 
needn't be worried, man. Ye don't 
re-elize, Tompkins, what a cliver team- 
ster ye are. But I know how ye felt," 
he concluded sympathetically, "fearing 
ye'd have to disapp'int the young lady 
on a pretty morning like this. Up wid 
ye now! Here's yer receipts an' the 
ferry-money." 

"How did you ever do it, Michael?" 
asked the young secretary as he re- 
entered the office. She turned from 
watching the grumbling teamster as he 
went down the road between the great 
magnolias. 

Michael grinned and nodded com- 
placently as he settled the Bismarckian 
neckerchief. 

"Molasses," he said briefly. "It 
seems a bit sticky, but 'tis the best thing 
I know to make the wheels of life run 
smooth." 

Chapter II 

The young secretary lived in a great 
old-fashioned house, square and white 
painted in the older part of the town. 

The freshet of village improvement had 
struck Meadowport, sweeping away the 
old boundaries, carrying off the trim 
picket fences, thrusting new little houses, 
coquettish and impertinent and highly 
colored, all gables and turrets and piazzas 
and gingerbread trimmings, between the 
old houses, spoiling the beautiful spacing, 
troubling the quietness of the wide, elm- 
fringed street. But the Davenant place 
remained unchanged. Not even a 
flower bed broke the smooth stretch of 
green under the great elm trees. The 
picket fence stood its ground, dividing 
the lawn from the garden and running 
beside the shady sidewalk, reaching past 
the house and the garden until it reached 
the place beyond. 

The garden had not changed either. 
Behind the box borders were stiff little 
bushes of flowering almond, very soft 
and pink for all their stiffness, tall cor- 
chorus bushes that met over the central 
path. , Beside the fence was a row of 
currant bushes with broad blades of iris 
coming up between ; in the shady corner 
under the fragrant lilac bushes there was 
lily-of-the- valley. 

Because of its long and intimate fellow- 
ship with human folk, an old garden has 
a curious charm and appeal. Whatever 
has happened in the house of which it is 
a part — birth and life and death, separa- 
tion and meeting — there is the same 
sweetness and fragrance each recurring 
year for the household, whether sad- 
dened, or gay and content. For which 
120 



reason the lilacs, the lily-of-the-valley 
and the little almond bushes are woven 
into the life and feeling with a sweetness 
and a poignancy that the gardenless folk 
know nothing about. 

Inside, the house had changed as little 
as the outside. You passed through the 
gate up a walk of small rounded cobble- 
stones and rapped with the great brass 
knocker on the wide door, beautifully 
paneled, and while you waited looked up 
at the large oriel window with leaded 
panes. Within, the house was dim and 
quiet, with heavy, handsome furniture. 
You spoke quietly when you stepped 
into the great parlor — at least the young 
secretary did — for the chairs and the 
long Chippendale sofa stood as they 
had stood before she was born. Even 
the whatnot in the corner bore the same 
ornaments on the same shelves — the 
carved ivory elephant from Japan, the 
boxes of sandalwood from India. Even 
at eighteen, Roberta Davenant had the 
idea that if she did anything amiss in 
that room or sat in the wrong chair, the 
chairs and tables would know it, would 
express their opinion of her irreverence 
when she was gone and would whisper 
it to her aunts. 

The only modern thing in the place 
was Miss Roberta. She lived with three 
maiden aunts, all more than sixty, dim 
and stately and decorous like the furni- 
ture of the old house. In fact her aunts, 
with their dark curls that should be 
gray, and clear, pale complexions, re- 
minded Roberta of the heavy black 
walnut, marble-topped furniture of their 
bedrooms. The girl herself was more 
akin to the vivid color of the garden. 

Roberta Davenant had been, from 
the first, a surprise in Meadowport. 
Her mother had been even more of a 
surprise, for Robert Davenant, a hard- 
working-lawyer and staid quiet bachelor 
until forty-three, had the experience 
which sometimes, but rarely, befalls a 
New Englander, when a temperament 
starved and repressed broke suddenly 
free, sweeping his life as clear of tradition 
as a freshet sweeps a mountain brook of 
last year's leaves; and he married, after 
a sudden and impetuous wooing, a girl 
twenty years his junior, a Southerner 
with copper-colored hair and vivid color 
and as gay as a bobolink on a June 
morning. And he brought her back to 
the old house at Meadowport; and 
Meadowport looked at her and dis- 
approved. Meadowport feared she 
would make Robert Davenant unhappy; 
that she would prove "flighty," for with 
that hair and coloring one "never can 
tell," and Meadowport waited omin- 
ously. 

But Robert Davenant grew ten years 
younger and radiantly happy. She 
brought flowers into the house, bowls of 
great crimson roses in the dim corners, 



and later woke them to life with warm 
hearted hen- marigolds; and music, 
for she brought her violin and coaxed 
Miss Adelaide to play a stiff accompani- 
ment, coaxed her to play the old- 
fashioned dances while she taught Robert 
Davenant to dance. She brought her 
saddle horse up from the South and made 
Robert ride with her early in the morn- 
ing. And the good folk of Meadowport 
would see them pass, laughing like chil- 
dren, and said again that they hoped she 
would settle down before she ruined 
Robert Davenant. Even Miss Adelaide 
protested: "Dear child, the early morn- 
ing is the time for duties, not for pleas- 
ures." 

"But, Adelaide," said young Mrs. 
Davenant, fixing her clear brown eyes 
on her sister-in-law, "why did God make 
the early morning so exquisite if it were 
not that he wished to pull us out of our 
houses? The rest of the day isn't so 
pretty. You've no idea how wonderful 
the light on the mountains was this 
morning. If you w r ould only come with 
us once!" 

But Miss Adelaide shook her head 
with a reluctant smile, and hoped, like 
Meadowport, that Margaret would 
"settle down." Major Pomerane, the 
next neighbor liked her and when she 
sent a plate of hot Sally Lunn responded 
with a jar of mince meat of his own 
making — wickedly stiff with brandy, but 
very delicious. Serenely unconscious of 
the general disapproval, young Mrs. 
Davenant invited the frowning Meadow- 
port folk to dine and sup. She invited 
with a Southern readiness and ease and 
frequency that Meadowport, (used only 
to invite on rare occasions and then after 
careful consideration and much prepara- 
tion), was astonished, and disapproving — 
but came. An invitation was a serious 
thing not to be given lightly, but soberly, 
advisedly and in the fear of God. But 
young Mrs. Davenant invited to break- 
fast, merely because the roses were in 
bloom; and would have supper served 
on a garden table under the great elm 
trees. 

"But my dear," remonstrated Miss 
Adelaide, "it has never been done!" 

"How dreadfully unappreciative they 
must think us! " said young Mrs. Daven- 
ant. 

"Unappreciative, my dear?" 

"The elms," explained young Mrs. 
Davenant. "They have been casting 
those exquisite shadows for a hundred 
years, and to think that no one cared 
enough to bring a supper out to have it 
in company with them! Don't you 
think it time, dear Adelaide?" Then 
she would put a soft young arm around 
the older woman's neck, put her cheek 
against hers like a child. "Please ! You 
won't dislike it. Truly you won't!" 

And Miss Adelaide, who petted her 



almost as much as did Robert Davenant, 
would smile reluctantly. "Whatever 
pleases you, dear child." 

And so neighbors and friends would 
breakfast with the roses and have supper 
under the great elms; they came with 
alacrity and passed the time happily 
enough, but with a certain guilty enjoy- 
ment. It should not have been so 
pleasant to do what "was not done." 
And after they went home they said 
that "Mrs. Robert Davenant was 'differ- 
ent,'" and that you "never could tell," 
and that they hoped for Robert's sake 
and his sisters that she would "settle 
down," that it wasn't quite right. 

Poor child! She did settle down. 
For after two luminous years which made 
the first part of his life seem blank and 
lifeless and the last ashes, she was laid 
in the little churchyard beside the 
decorous Davenants, and Robert was 
left suddenly aged and broken, more 
silent than ever, with a coppery haired 
baby in his arms. 

But he brought the flowers into the 
house as she had taught him, the red 
roses and the marigolds and the tall 
larkspurs, and he took his baby into the 
garden where she played with the poppies 
and hollyhock blossoms and laughed and 
cooed at their warmth and color. Then 
he, too, "settled down" to the church- 
yard and the little Roberta was left 
to her three aunts, as out of place in the 
dim, stately old house as a humming bird 
in a family of owls. 

Chapter III 

At eighteen Roberta was still con- 
sidered by Meadowport as an experi- 
ment. 

The Davenant ladies did their best. 
Miss Adelaide taught her the piano, 
for Miss Augusta she dutifully embroid- 
ered, but the embroider} 7 would get 
taken out to the garden and lost and 
forgotten. Also she went dutifully to 
school. But always in the morning, if 
she w T ere not miles away up the hill to 
hear the thrushes, you could have found 
her in the garden. 

She made friends with Major Pome- 
rane, an elderly bachelor who was eyed 
askance in Meadowport, for he never 
went to church and he had fast horses 
and won prizes with them at the Coun- 
ty' Fair. From the time Roberta was 
ten he would let her ride anything he had, 
and if she was not afield on her own 
account she might be found over at the 
Major's watching his darkey groom the 
horses, and taking a hand at it herself, 
if it was the chestnut colt. If not there, 
she would be sure to be in the garden, 
poking with trowel and slim brown 
fingers among the plants. 

She made friends with Rudolph Trom- 
mel, of the famous Roseberry Gardens, 
who used to stop and chat over the 
121 



garden fence on his way to work, and 
look critically at the plants. 

"Uncle Rudolph," she said to him one 
morning, just after her eighteenth birth- 
day, "why couldn't I be a gardener?" 

"I consider you a fery good gardener," 
replied the old man ponderously. ' ' Those 
larkspurs are the best in town." 

"I don't mean just this," she said 
looking quickly around the old garden, 
"I mean to know really about all the 
plants and the wonderful new ones, and 
how they are grown. Do you know that 
great magnolia at the old King place, 
which was once a botanic garden?" 

Old Rudolph nodded. 

"There was a staging round it once 
high up and lots of little magnolia 
plants in pots, and they bent down young 
branches of the old tree and grafted 
them, one to each little plant. That 
was an old way. I want to know how 
it's done now. I want to do it with 
those!" she concluded, holding up earth 
stained brown hands and spreading out 
slim capable fingers. "Is there any 
reason why I couldn't?" 

"Only that you are not a man," said 
Rudolph Trommel. 

Roberta sniffed. "What has that to 
do with it!" she said hotly. 

"Chust this. So far as I haf ob- 
serfed, among plants, there is of course 
a slight structural differentiation in the 
sexes. I haf yet to obserfe a marked 
difference in energy 7 or in strength or in 
usefulness; und, in any difference in en- 
ergy the balance would be in fafor of the 
female. In human kind there iss this diffi- 
culty. Suppose a horticulturist iss making 
experiments. Und then suppose there iss 
a baby with the colic. If the experi- 
menter iss a woman und if it iss her baby 
— alas for the experiment ! If the experi- 
menter iss a man und if it iss his baby, he 
iss sorry it has the colic: that iss his wife's 
affair. He goes on with the experiment. 
If the woman iss not married und has no 
baby to haf the colic — then it is relatif, 
aunt, friend, brother that calls for her 
when in need of aid. Und — she drops the 
experiment. The man is sorry, he sends 
his sympathy (by his wife), he does not 
drop his experiment. No one expects him 
to. 

"It is not a difference of intelligence, 
of energy-, of ability, but of concentra- 
tion. It may be confention, it may be 
instinct — the woman feels the social, 
human claim binding in a way that the 
man does not. That iss the difficulty. 
It may be ofercome by concentration 
und by uncultifating the natural und 
expected-by-society female altruism." 

"Um-m," said Roberta contempla- 
tively, then she changed the subject. 
"How did you learn, Uncle Rudolph? " 

"I? When I wass a lad at Zurich, I 
learnt there what there wass to know 
about plants; when I had what could 



be learnt there, I put my bundle on my 
shoulder, und I went to France, und I 
worked one year, two years, und I 
learned roses. Und then I went to the 
rhododendron growers und I worked 
there. I learned what they had to 
teach. Und then I went to England — I 
worked there in the nurseries one year, 
two years. I went to one nursery; I 
found they knew nothing; I left. I 
went to another. I learnt what wass to 
be learned there. Und then I went to 
Boskoop, for I had grown much inter- 
ested in azaleas und rhododendrons, und 
I worked there. Und at night always I 
read, und when I found the man lied I 
burnt him." 

"What?" 

"I burnt his book in my fire. If he did 
not gif the information that one does 
not know, that wass nothing. But if 
he stated as a fact something he had 
not proved, he wass not to be trusted. 
There wass one man: he had been my 
authority for ten years. But he said 
something. My experiment made me 
think it wass not so. I tried again and 
yet again. The same result. He had 
lied, he had said a thing wass true that he 
did not know to be true. I burnt him. 
He should give no false information to 
any one else after I wass dead." The old 
man ended calmly. 

The girl's eyes laughed, but her mouth 
was grave. 

"Have you many books left, Uncle 
Rudolph?" 

"A few. With plants one gets the 
knowledge here," he tapped his cap 
with his stick, "und here" — he held 
out a broad short-fingered capable 
hand. 

"That's where I want it. Would 
they give me a job at the Gardens, 
Uncle Rudolph — like you had at Bos- 
koop?" 

"There is no woman there but one, 
und she iss in the office und writes und 
that sort of thing." 

"Accounts?" asked Roberta anx- 
iously. 

"No, no, she hass not intelligence. 
Henry Sterling does the accounts. I 
think she leafes soon also. She iss to be 
married soon. That takes no intelli- 
gence." 

"Um-m," said Roberta thoughtfully, 
as she watched old Rudolph go down 
the street, a thick broad figure stump- 
ing heavily with his cane, and then 
turned again to the phlox she was 
dividing. 

"I wonder what she does? Dictation 
I suppose, that sort of thing. Is there 
at probably 8.30. If one gets there at 
seven," she laughed to herself, "there'd 
be apples of wisdom to pick up like the 
apples for the wise early little pig in 
the nursery story. Anyway one could 
try. 



Chapter IV 

So it happened that September found 
Roberta Davenant at work at the famous 
old Roseberry Gardens. 

"But, my dear," protested Miss 
Adelaide, "none of the Davenant ladies 
have earned their living!" 

"More shame to them!" said Roberta 
cheerfully. "If I were a boy I'd have 
been at work two years ago instead of 
living off you. I can't help not being a 
boy, Aunt Adelaide, but I can help 
loafing. Besides, haven't you wanted 
me to settle down? And if getting 
rooted in a garden isn't settling down, 
what is? It will make me very happy and 
I'll bring you home such pretty things!" 
she ended coaxingly. 

Roberta fitted at Roseberry Gardens 
as she had never fitted into the Davenant 
house. She liked it. She liked the head 
of the firm, Mr. Horace Worthington, 
a little old gentleman with charm and 
rare courtesy of manner, a scholar and a 
botanist. He was slight and silvery 
haired and wore large gold-bowed spec- 
tacles. In fact, it seemed as if everyone 
at Roseberry Gardens had silvery hair 
or gray. The only young life really 
evident was Roberta herself and the 
freckled office-boy, Barney. There was, 
it is true, a sprinkling of sons and 
nephews among them, and there was 
Conklin the packer, thin, nervous, 
rapid, and black-haired; but the im- 
pression of the workmen's heads one 
saw bending here and there among the 
nursery rows was of gray and silver, like 
the big Alcock's spruce at the drive end. 

The young secretary liked it all. She 
liked the excitement of packing and 
shipping: the scent of fresh earth from 
the heaps of little plants awaiting their 
journey, the fragrance of young ever- 
greens that made the long packing shed 
"smell like Christmas," as she said. 

She liked the romance of it: the 
Christmas trees that were started south 
in late September to bring a northern 
Yule tide to little South Americans; 
the trees that went West like valiant 
pioneers to the treeless regions to combat 
drought and winds and make a foothold 
for others; the stout young junipers that 
were sent to the sea coast to protect wind 
swept gardens from the northeasters. 

She loved the heaps and heaps of rose 
bushes, only brown stems and roots in 
the autumn that were to wake up in the 
spring in a new home to make some bit 
of a wilderness blossom. She used to 
wonder how they'd like it in their new 
homes. There was no cause for worry 
about the delicate stately camellias that 
went away most carefully packed and 
attended. Those were sure, like fine 
ladies, to get most careful treatment 
simply because they demanded it! 

And she liked the people who came 

122 



and went. Those that bought but a 
few plants and chose them most care- 
fully, taking home as a prize to the little 
garden some lovely new thing; little 
old ladies whose one outing in the year 
was a visit to the famous gardens and 
the purchase of a long desired plant, 
Daphne or Andromeda, and took it back 
with pure delight. Most of the owners 
of the large places, if they visited the 
gardens, were real plant lovers and en- 
joyed to the utmost the beauty of a new 
sort. If they weren't plant lovers they 
didn't come, but sent their gardeners, 
usually a Scotchman or German or 
Englishman who knew and loved the 
plants. The dealers Roberta hated — 
the hard commercial type to whom a 
plant was something to make money of 
in the handling; the prosperous looking 
and florid gentleman who would look 
casually at a row of exquisite young 
mountain laurel — as poetic a flower as 
ever was made — and say patronizingly: 

"Pretty good material. I'm using 
a lot of it." Roberta went back to the 
office in disgust. 

"Hope you didn't sell him any of 
those lovely things, Michael," she said 
when O'Connor came into the office. 
"I wouldn't mind his having privet. I 
think the Lord must have made catalpas, 
and privet for just such people — those 
and Thunberg's barberry! None of 
them has any feelings!" 

Michael laughed. 

"You're as bad as Mr. Trommel, Miss 
Davenant ! Whatever would Roseberry 
Gardens do if it wasn't for Michael to 
forget about feelin's and sell plants? 
You've not the right understanding. 

'"Tis an ar-rt, to sell plants, and a 
foine art. Ther's no pleasure in life 
like it! To take a man, who has no idea 
in his head but to buy a bit of somethin' 
green to stick somewhere and that as 
cheap as he can, and to wake him up to 
see how foine is this and this and this! 
To make him feel there'll be no peace in 
his sowl until he has a Magnolia stellata 
or a group of foine azaleas! 'Tis an 
achievement! And once he larns to 
buy, he'll buy plants till the day of his 
death, and thin he'll leave ordthers 
about plants in the cemint'ry lot and its 
maintenance. 

"Still, I had trouble to-day. Mrs. 
Hewson was here — the old lady — wit' 
her daughter. Now, the old lady '11 buy 
foine if she's let alone. But Miss 
Hewson— it's homely she is, and not 
young neither! And 'tis nothing she 
thinks of but 'I'm Miss Hewson, I am! 
And I own the whole State of Pinnsylva- 
nia, I do!' And it was— 'Now mother! 
You don't want that!' 'Now, mother, 
that's quite like a snowball we have!' 
'Now mother! It's time we were going!' 
At last I c'ud stand it no longer. 
(To be continued) 



3 




Garden Pictures With Simple Material 



Photographs by JESSIE TARBOX BEALS 



T 



HE doctrine of massed planting has been 
preached over and over again, by various 
writers in 



marvellous splendor. Stepping stones, leading from 
the porch to the garden walk, form a rather unexpected 

feature. Great 



various 
publications, but 
how many amateurs 
realize what massed 
planting really 
means? To the 
person with a small or medium 
sized garden, 50 or 100 plants 
of any one kind is a stupendous 
collection ; but it is only by such 
quantities that rich, glowing 
colors can be obtained and the 
appearance of comfort, well- 
being and permanence given 
to the garden. 

In this Maine garden, there 
is not a profusion of many kinds 
of flowers, but each bed is de- 
voted to one variety and many 
plants of it. The house faces 
the sea, and is built with a wide 
central hall with front and back 
doors, so that when standing in 
the middle of the garden one 
can look through the house and 
see the water in the distance. 
Planted close to the house, on 
both sides of the small porch, 
covered with Virginia creeper 
and crimson rambler rose, is 
Spiraea rotundifolia, which, 
when in full bloom, makes a 





hedges of Rosa 
rugosa extend either 
side of the main 
walk, and form a 
boundary line be- 
tween the house and 
the garden. Two large beds of 
lupin are directly beyond the 
hedge, and are separated by a 
cross garden walk from beds of 
foxglove. Another of the beds 
is devoted to German iris, a 
mass of beauty in June, and so 
on. One plant, and quantities 
of it, in one place. 

The garden is enclosed on two 
sides by a pergola covered with 
vines, in front of which are 
planted poppies, hollyhocks, col- 
eus, and many of the other 
plants that always make a 
hardy border, with its continual 
bloom, so interesting. 

An interesting and rather 
distinctive feature in this garden 
are the broad grass borders to 
the flower beds, which serve 
to enhance the beauty of the 
flowers. The vine clad walls 
of the house serve as a fitting 
background for such beautiful 
pictures. 




Scenes in a Maine garden which illustrate how rich effects are produced by using a few plants in heavy masses 

123 




Fall Bulb Planting from a Different 

VieWpoint-By Carl Purdy, 



Cali- 
fornia 



THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF BULB GROWING TOLD ONCE AGAIN BUT WITH 
SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE PECULIAR CONDITIONS OF A WARM WINTER- 
HOW THE DIFFICULTIES OF THE PACIFIC COAST CLIMATE ARE OVERCOME 



B 



Japanese iris 



Y ALL means 
the bulbs for 
spring flow- 
ering should 
be liberally planted 
in Northern Califor- 
nia, Oregon, and 
Washington. And the gar- 
dener of Southern Califor- 
nia need not deny himself 
this great source of enjoy- 
ment although he must 
comply more closely with 
some] conditions peculiar to 
this coast. 

On the whole we can 
grow such bulbs with as 
good success as is attained East of the 
Rockies or in Europe. 

Some things we can grow even better, 
most sorts as well, while there are a few 
which do not often give us adequate returns. 
In the cooler portions of Northern Cal- 
ifornia unusually fine flowers can be grown, 
while in Oregon and Washington and on up 
into British Columbia conditions are ideal 
for the spring flowering bulbs. By South- 
ern California is meant all of that region 
south of San Luis Obispo County on the 
coast and of the Tehachipi Pass in the in- 
terior; and this would include in Northern 
California all of the great San Joaquin and 
Sacramento Valleys as well as the bay and 
coastal regions. Of climatic conditions 
there I will speak later. 

Certain broad general rules can be laid 
down which apply to the culture of such 
bulbs as tulips, hyacinths, daffodils, crocus, 
gladiolus and in fact to all bulbous plants 
which flower early and ripen perfectly 
every year, and of course form new root 
systems each season. 

I. The flower for the coming season is 
already formed in miniature in the bulb 
that you plant in the fall, and the first es- 
sential of success lies in buying good bulbs. 
If a good flower is not already formed in the 
bulb no care will develop one. 

II. A long season of root development is 
necessary. If this period is too much 
shortened even the best bulbs will give 



indifferent results. This is why early 
planting is advocated by all experienced 
growers. 

III. The growing bulb must be in soil 
and conditions which will give the healthi- 
est growth of root and leaf in order to store 
up energy for its flowering. 

IV. If the bulbs are to give good results 
the following year they must have good 
growing conditions after they flower for 
a period sufficiently long to allow them to 
fully develop and ripen; and they must go 
through their dormant period under such 
conditions as will not impair their vitality. 

Now, applying these rules, I would first 
urge the purchase of good bulbs. Buy 
named sorts, as mixtures are likely to con- 
tain a large percentage of the cheaper sorts 
and of bulbs that are off grade. Buy of a 
reputable dealer and pay a fair price. 

Cheapness and quality go together even 
less frequently in bulb buying than else- 
where. No need to buy high priced novelties 
unless you have money to spare. As fine 
varieties are to be found among the standard 
medium priced sorts as among the most 
expensive novelties. 

In applying the second requirement to 
the Pacific Coast we must take notice of 
the peculiar climatic conditions. Through- 
out Northern California there is very little 
really cold weather in winter. The rains 
set in during October or early November 
and there may be some frost, yet the orange 
is grown almost everywhere in this great 
section and in many places in large com- 
mercial quantities and 26 degrees above is 
as cold as it often gets. Along the coast 
and San Francisco Bay region the temper- 
ature is seldom low enough to injure ger- 
aniums or calla lilies. Only in the moun- 
tainous regions is the temperature lower 
at any time than 20 above, and that seldom. 
Southern Oregon is little colder while the 
winters in Northern Oregon and north along 
up the coast are mild. 

In such a mild winter temperature bulb- 
ous plants begin making vigorous root 
growth as soon as they become wet and 
continue all winter without interruption, 
and the stems come through the ground 




soon after the first of 
the year. For this reason, 
too, very good success 
can be had with bulbs 
planted much later than 
is advisable in colder 
regions. Bulbs planted 
as late as January 1st 
will do well while I have 
planted in late February 
and grown superb tulips. • 

I have never seen any 
advantage in very early 
planting,_and September Double daffodil sii- 
planting is impracticable ver Phoenix 
with us because bulbs 
shipped from Europe cannot well arrive on 
this coast earlier than the last week of Sep- 
tember, and it will not be often that bulbs 
are in the hands of the planter earlier 
than the middle of October. And that is 
quite early enough. 

I can see very little difference between 
October and November planting; none, 
excepting with a few sorts such as crocus 
and Spanish iris whose bulbs do not keep 
well. I would not intentionally defer plant- 
ing later than mid-November, yet if I could 
not get to it earlier I would plant without 
hesitation as late as Christmas, but no 
later. As a rule plan to plant as soon after 
October 10th as conditions will allow. 

The next and all important point is where 
Californian methods must part company 
from those of the East and Europe. Keep- 
ing in mind the mild growing winters of 
California remember also that, as a rule, Feb- 
ruary brings a period of quite warm days. 
From February 27th, 1914, for many days 
the San Francisco midday temperature 
was higher than 62 in the shade, while in 
March a few days passed 90 degrees; and 
in the interior and in Southern California 
such periods are still warmer. 

The inevitable result is that bulbs which 
have a liberal root system will be forced 
into bloom too rapidly, and that is the 
rock on which the Californian grower of 
early tulips and of hyacinths strikes nearly 
every time, until he learns that they cannot 
be grown as they are in the East; and it is 




Plant bulbs in groups or masses rather than in straight lines. The pictures (left to right) show the relative quantities and distances to plant hyacinths, gladiolus, and tulips 

124 



HHH^M^^B^m^HHHmHHHHHHHMMMn 



November, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



125 



the reason, too, why even with late tulips 
success is not always what it should be. 

We simply cannot have the massings of 
tulips and hyacinths in open lawns or 
borders which are featured in all Eastern and 
European catalogues. Many of us have 
tried it and to our sorrow. I remember my 
own first experience in the shape of a round 
bed of tulips in a design in the open sun. 
February brought a few warm days and my 
poor tulips flowered with no stems at all 
and my hyacinths 
little better — yet I 
plant fine masses of 
tulips now and grow 
them taller and finer 
than in the East, 
but ! 

Daffodils do not 
force so easily and 
do well in the sun, 
as do irises and 
gladiolus, yet even 
with them it is bet- 
ter to adapt plant- 
ings to meet the 
climatic conditions 
outlined above. 

Not every year 
brings warm spring 
weather and occas- 
ional successes may 
lead some growers 
to overlook this 
point yet it is fool- 
ish to risk failure in 
this way. 

The judicious use 
of shades and water 
is the remedy and in 
every garden there 
is some good posi- 
tion for the bulb 
beds. Remembering 
that the sun is in 
about the same posi- 
tion in October as in 
April, study the 
shadows in your 
garden. 

An excellent posi- 
tion is on the east 
side of a building 
or of a tree or wall. 
The afternoon sun is 
always hottest and 
if the sun is cut off 
from two to five it 
is usually enough. 

A still better shade is one that shifts from 
time to time during the day, never allowing 
the bed to get very hot. A line of trees 
may give an admirable position, or several 
buildings may answer the same purpose. 

The eastern or northeastern side of a 
clump of bamboos is another fine place and 
palm shades are good. The finest show of 
tulips in the West is along a driveway 
bordered on each side by great date palms. 
They allow the sun to come under them and 
the shifting shade has insured wonderful 
flowers year after year. 

If cut flowers are desired still better re- 



sults are to be had by artificial shades such 
as a lath protection or even the use of bam- 
boo sprays set upright on the sunny side of 
the beds; and I use (with very great success) 
limbs of bushes three to five feet high set 
on the south side of cut flower beds. They 
give a filtered light even better than laths 
and insure very long stems. They are put 
on just as the buds begin to develop well. 

The next method of insuring a long grow- 
ing season and of retarding the flowering 




An ideally sheltered spot for growing bulbs in sections where the winter does not get really cold. Planting in the 

open must be avoided 

season when weather tends to force them 
too fast is by the liberal use of water. As 
a rule our winter rains are amply sufficient 
but if they are delayed an occasional winter 
watering will help. As soon as the buds 
begin to develop the beds should be liber- 
ally watered. Let this be especially liberal 
for daffodils, Spanish and English irises; 
and abundant for tulips and hyacinths. 
Do not waterlog your soil, yet never let it 
get the least dry at flowering time. 

In a private letter the Dutch grower who 
stands first in Holland advised the liberal 
watering of Darwin tulips at the flowering 



time and if this is true in Holland it is 
doubly true in California. 

Passing on to the third essential we have 
the same conditions as to soil and manure 
to meet as elsewhere. 

Fine flowers cannot be grown in poor soil 
or soil that is not well drained. First see 
that the bulb bed is well drained. A tile 
drain or a layer of gravel or broken bricks 
under the bed will insure this although as 
a rule it is unnecessary. It is not advisable 
to raise the bed 
higher than the 
walk. 

Fine flowers can 
be grown in almost 
any soil not alkali 
or water soaked. 
Sand, loam, adobe, 
rocky soils or allu- 
vium alike give 
good results if other 
conditions are com- 
plied with. 

To be sure if one 
can give each sort 
just what they best 
like better results 
can be secured ; 
tulips, hyacinths, 
crocus and gladio- 
lus like a sandy loam 
best, while Spanish 
and English irises 
and daffodils like a 
heavy clay. 

Still, given a well 
enriched garden soil 
of any class with 
good drainage in 
winter and water 
when needed and 
the results will be 
excellent. 

The best manure 
to use excepting for 
daffodils is a well 
rotted cow manure. 
Any well rotted man- 
ure will do. The 
best manner of ap- 
plication varies with 
conditions. 

If the soil is work- 
able there is no bet- 
ter method than 
that used in Hol- 
land. The Dutch 
take the soil out of 
the bed to a depth of about seven inches 
and then put a layer of manure an inch or 
two deep in the bottom. Soil is then put 
in to bring the bed up to the planting level. 
The bulbs are set and then covered. If the 
beds are long this is done in sections. Lf 
your beds are in well-kept grounds have 
burlap cloths to lay the soil on. I have 
great success with this method and it has 
one advantage in the fact that the man- 
ure need not be well rotted. In fact 
I often use fresh manure when other is 
not convenient. 

If the soil is heavy and not workable it 



126 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



November, 1914 



is better to spade a couple of inches of well 
rotted manure into the soil and then to lay 
out the soil as before for planting. 

If the soil is very porous, or has a tend- 
ency to bake it is well to use a mulch of 
well rotted manure an inch or so deep put 
on top before the bulbs come through. It 
prevents packing on the one hand and 
drying out on the other. 

Commercial fertilizers can be used to good 
advantage on all bulbs, yet the well rotted 
manure is better. When I wish the very 
finest tulips for cutting I use nitrate of 
soda at the rate of 200 to 400 pounds to the 
acre. This means from j to 1 pound for 
every 100 square feet. The nitrate is 
dissolved in water to form a saturated so- 
lution and when diluted with double the 
quantity of water, making f strength, is 
sprinkled on the beds at the period when 
the buds are developing. It is well to fol- 
low up with a sprinkling of clear water as 
the nitrate sometimes burns the leaves a 
little. It is wonderful how quickly the 
plants respond. 

I like to use lime on bulb beds when 
planting as it insures sweet soil. Air 
slaked lime at the rate of five pounds to 
the 100 square feet will both sweeten and 
mellow the soil and daffodils in particular 
will be helped by it. 

Bulbs demand a continuance of the same 
care after flowering as during and before. 
The bulb which is to give results the suc- 
ceeding season makes most of its growth, 
or at least stores most of its starchy matter 
after it has flowered. The bed must be 
watered just the same until 
the leaves be- 
gin to turn 
yellow. Then 
water can be 
withheld and 
before the 
leaves are 
dry the bulbs 
can be dug if 
necessary. Never 
cut off the leaves 
before they ripen 
unless you care 
nothing for the 
future. In this 
connection it is well to 
call attention to the 
manner of cutting 
flowers. 

It does not hurt a 
hyacinth or a daffodil to 
cut the flower as low as 
you choose. There are 
no leaves on the flower- 
ing stem. But with the 
leafy stem of the tulip, 
the bulbous irises, and 
the gladiolus it is differ- 
ent. The long stems 
which are so much de- 
sired nowadays are apt 
ixia and Sparaxis to be had at the ex- 

thrive wonderfully pe nse of the bulb. All 

in California and f hese bulbg gim , 

have a remarkable v 

range of colors must have ample f ohage 




to ripen the bulb. If some leaves are not 
left the bulb will be dwarfed. At the very 
least the two lower leaves should be left on 
tulips and more are much better. It is 
hard to cut the bulbous irises without 
getting too many leaves, and the same, is 
true of gladiolus. Perhaps with cheap 
bulbs like Spanish irises and the Bride 
type of gladiolus the better way is to en- 
joy the flowers and get new bulbs. 

The care of the ripened bulbs is not a 
thing to generalize on, and much must be 
left to experience. I would not lift daffo- 
dils at all until they crowd. As a rule the 
third season is about right. If daffodils 
of the Poeticus type are not too thick I 
would not reset even then, as they resent 
any disturbance. 

If there is any reason for so doing daffo- 
dils can be dug and after being dried off 
can be stored in any shady place until fall. 
It is just as well to dig and reset at once in 
the summer. My observation is that late 
tulips give better flowers the second year if 
left in the ground. It is not best to depend 
upon early single tulips for the second year. 
They might be fairly good but new bulbs 
are safer. If the bulb bed can be dried off 
after flowering it is just as well to leave the 
bulbs in the ground unless the ground needs 
to be worked or fertilized. 

Hyacinths of first size are seldom good 
for much the second year. Get new bulbs 
for your show places and plant the old bulbs 
in some back place where the smaller flowers 
can be used for what they are worth; and, 
by the way, I would not buy first size hy- 
acinths for outdoor planting. The best 
second sized bulbs are excellent and very 
fine flowers can be had from the "bedding" 
sizes, which are really third size named sorts. 

Much could be said as to the arrangement 
of bulb beds to give the best effects but that 
is a subject by itself, and I will confine 
myself to a series of dont's. 

1. Don't plant any bulbous plants close 
to walks in the central parts of your garden. 
Their flowering season is brief and the 
ripening plants anything but decorative. 

2. Don't scatter any bulbous plants in 
long lines but plant in close groups with 
the bulbs from 4 to 6 inches apart each way. 
They are far more effective and more easily 
marked and cared for. 

3. Don't tiiink that you are going to se- 
cure a good effect with a few bulbs of each 
of many sorts. Better buy fewer sorts 
and mass. 

Before passing on to bulb varieties I 
must mention a strictly Western problem 
and that is the pocket gopher. This busy, 
hungry, burrowing rodent might be de- 
scribed as a burrowing rat, and we Cali- 
fornians have all paid tribute to him. We 
all know his fondness for bulbs and roots 
and we all know his shrewdness in escaping 
traps, poison, and all devices for his hurt. 

You simply must have him out of the 
way before you plant your tulips, iris, and 
gladiolus. He cares little for hyacinths 
and will not touch a daffodil. 

A study of gopher habits and gopher ex- 
termination is too long for this article. 




The pocket gopher, a pe- 
culiarly Western problem, 
hard to fight 



They can be trap- 
ped with some few 
traps if you have 
a knowledge of 
their habits. 
Poisoning them in 
a garden is diffi- 
cult. A gopher 
gun has been in- 
vented which is 
effective. A bel- 
lows fitted to a 
canister in which 
bisulphide of carbon gas is formed, and 
which is forced into their runs works 
well in level gardens where the soil is heavy 
or when it is wet even although light. 
First catch your gopher ! 

A very good protection for a bulb bed 
can be made with an underground fence. 
Dig a trench thirty inches deep around the 
bed. Drive stout stakes down flush with 
the ground or better projecting 6 inches 
above. Stand f-inch chicken netting thirty- 
six inches high in the trench and tack to 
the stakes. Then fill in dirt on both sides. 
This is a good protection and will last for 
years. 

Anemones and ranunculus do well in all 
Northern California. In the bay and 
coast region they will thrive in full sun while 
in the interior light shades are needed; and 
in all cases the best results will be had in 
rich mellow soils. They can be planted as 
late as March. 

Chionodoxas do very well in light soils 
and light shades. Snowdrops (Galanthus) 
thrive where chionodoxas would. 

Crocus does very well in loose soils yet is 
usually a disappointment and the trouble 
is not in the climate. The bulbs carry 
poorly and during the long trip from Hol- 
land almost always heat to some degree. 
The losses are enough to make the dealer 
sick and even bulbs which seem good may 
have suffered somewhat. 

Freesias simply luxuriate in light or 
sandy soils along the entire coast belt from 
Santa Rosa south. They are not quite 
hardy enough in the cooler mountain sec- 
tions. 

Hellebores are especially adapted to 
shady places in Northern California. They 
could hardly be better. 

Ixia and Sparaxis do wonderfully well 
throughout California. They thrive with 
little care year after year. It is advis- 
able to secure good named varieties of 
these. 

Montbretias do so well that they run 
wild in most sections of California. 

Ornithogalums thrive in any garden soil 
with little care; scillas are quite easy; and 
grape hyacinth will colonize readily. 

It is not necessary to dwell at length on 
the best varieties of tulips, hyacinths, daffo- 
dils, etc. A list made out for Eastern or 
European gardens will apply as well here. 
Stay with the good medium priced standard 
sorts and you will make no mistakes except 
that in early single tulips it is better to 
take the sorts that are normally long 
stemmed. 



Some Good and Bad Cases of Garden Design 



-By Fletcher Steele, 



Massa- 
chusetts 



[Editors' Note. — These notes are in the 
nature of constructive criticisms by an expert 
garden designer, are the personal convictions 
of the author, and are used to illustrate the 
application of certain principles of garden 
design. No one garden yet made is alto- 
gether perfect. The controlling factors are 
often unknown to the critic who deals only 
with the actual result, and ofttimes unsur- 
mountable difficulties compel a treatment far 
from the ideal in mind. The lessons here 
presented must be taken only on their face 
value and as they relate to an ideal.] 

I. A Simple Backyard Garden 

THERE is much both to admire 
and to criticise in this garden. 
Let me be guided first by what is 
admirable. 
The best point is the comfortable, livable 
character of the place. It is evidently 
much used; the light bench is the only 
witness of leisure, but leisure is probably a 
minor pleasure here. More important 
are the general neatness and the signs of 
attention revealed by each plant. There 
is no horticultural show or meticulous 
maintenance of an expensive corps of 
gardeners. It shows much more the simple 
interest of a good housekeeper. 

There is little to say about the design. 
Convenience must have dictated the lo- 
cation of the straight path dividing the 
lawn. Tradition or commonsense — the two 
frequently agree — led to making the narrow 
flower border following either side. Tra- 



dition alone explains the white paint on the 
old-fashioned grape trellis and picket fence. 
Interest in plants accounts for the different 
varieties, all well cared for. Refined taste 
and perhaps limited funds for gardening 
outlay are responsible for the simplicity. 

One concludes that the guiding spirit 
of the place was once paying a visit and 
returned to find the white stone edging of 
the path, much to her surprise. Probably 
she almost had it taken out, but finally 
said nothing because it would hurt some- 
body's feelings; and besides, it served to 
accent important lines and kept the path 
neater han before. 

She must have been in Europe, when 
they made the water lily pool. It is really 
very bad. It is well located — in the centre 
of one of the two garden lawn spaces. But 
its shape is inexcusable — the attempt of a 
"practical" person to be artistic, in all 
probability. The path around it accen- 
tuates the shape and makes it worse. Fancy 
the lady's difficulty trying to display the 
expected appreciation! 

She need not have left it as we see it, 
however. If the whole thing could not be 
made over, the path around it might have 
been turned back to turf and the pool rim 
painted dark gray or brown. Around it 
she might have planted low growing iris 
and creeping plants that would soon cover 
the stiff ugly rim. 

There are too many plants in the water. 
The whole surface of a pool should never 
be covered with leaves and lily pads. The 
interest in the individual plants is dimin- 



ished and the mirror effect of the water 
surface is lost. Three quarters of all this 
water growth should be removed. 

If she asked me for more advice, I would 
suggest that she make the flower borders a 
foot wider, and add twice as many tall 
perennials, and cover the ground thickly 
between them with low growing things. I 
would tell her to make a narrow flower bed 
along the picket fence, or else plant a few 
more vines like Akebia quinata or Clematis 
paniculata to about half cover it. 

Other than that I would congratulate her 
on the charming simplicity of the place 
and recommend that she should make all 
further "improvements" herself. 

, II. A Garden or Uncertainty 

'"THE garden shown on next page is bad 
because it is so indefinite in design. 
It is neither formal nor informal, land nor 
water, turf nor flower. It looks as though 
it might be the result of the work of many 
different men, each of whom was allowed 
to work his own sweet will on the place 
during his short stay. 

One can imagine that its history ran 
about as follows: Originally it was a tree- 
covered swale, probably swampy. One 
man cut the trees; the birches grew up 
themselves. The next man perhaps filled 
in the swamp, leaving the water line about 
as it was — a good thing to do usually in 
informal work. But it was not left whole 
heartedly informal. Turf was planted. 
If it had been left there, there would have 




127 



128 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



November, 1914 



been at least an in- 
offensive, and even at- 
tractive lawn. 

But no! Paths were 
laid out to wiggle 
hither and yon, cutting 
the lawns into ugly 
beds. Then trifling 
little flower beds were 
cut out of the turf to 
follow the paths, ac- 
centuating the bad geo- 
metrical lines. 

Probably the de- 
signer considered that 
his beds were natural- 
istic. But even a su- 
perficial observation of 
Nature's gardening will 
show that the lines on 
the edge of the wood, 
swamp or thicket do 
not follow mathemati- 
cal curves with sharp 
edges. Nature fre- 
quently follows a definite curve in a broad 
way. But the edges of such curves are con- 
stantly recessed and projected like the capes 
and bays of the ocean shore. In the pic- 
ture the edges are uncompromising and 
sharp. What is worse, they are edged with 
long lines of conspicuous plants. Even the 
relief of irregularity in planting is denied. 

There are good ways and bad ways of 
laying out beds and paths in natural design. 
The best way is to lay out the beds so that 
they follow, or appear to follow along bank 
or stream as nature would plant them. 
Paths laid out parallel with such beds will 
then seem to have taken advantage of 
existing growth. As the beds will not be 
sharply edged, but will have bays and pro- 
jections, the path should follow the general 
curve of the bed, however, not each minor 
irregularity. 

A clever designer can go at this problem 
from the wrong end and get the same effect. 




II. — This garden shows ambitions but does not hold together 



In other words, he can make his paths along 
curves and in positions where they are 
most convenient and comely. Then he 
can design his beds to make the paths appear 
to follow the planting as they should. But 
this is not an easy thing to do well, and the 
tyro should begin the other way. It may 
be asserted with assurance that paths which 
wiggle about aimlessly, accompanied by 
planting which follows aimlessly, obviously 
controlled by, not controlling the line of 
the paths, will always produce an artificial 
and with rare exceptions, an ugly effect. 

III. Artificial Stream Beds and 
Bank Treatment 

UERE are two pictures showing widely 
different naturalistic treatment of 
small waterways. In the first one the 
planting is very well done, and the picture 
up the stream reflecting sky and shadow and 



exquisite foliage pat- 
tern is exceedingly 
interesting. Natural 
vegetation has been 
preserved and sup- 
plemented. From the 
sharp slope into the 
water, uncovered with 
vegetation, together 
with the quiet surface, 
we may judge that it 
is near the mouth of a 
little stream on tide 
water or else a sluggish 
stream running 
through stiff clay. 

The second example 
is all frankly artificial. 
Large boulders have 
been brought in to 
cover and disguise the 
end of a conduit, and a 
stream bed has been 
made of smaller stones 
to carry off the water. 
It is not an easy thing to group boulders to 
get a naturalistic effect. Part of this work is 
very well done. From the mouth of the 
conduit down stream the work might well 
be the result of natural forces so far as the 
general appearance goes. On top of the 
conduit, however, is just a pile of rocks, 
looking as if they had been put there to get 
them out of the way. The difference in 
effect is plainly seen when first one part of 
the picture is covered and then the other. 
What is the reason that one part of the 
picture is good and the other bad? 

Under natural conditions one rarely sees 
a large boulder all above the surface of the 
ground. Occasionally a single stone is so 
found, but the other stones around it will 
be more or less buried, you may be sure. 
In this place all the stones below the con- 
duit seem to be half buried, at least, while 
those over the opening all rest on the surface 
of the ground. This makes it obvious that 



III a. — A well treated water effect on natural lines 




III b. — Another water treatment that is not entirely successful 



November, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



129 



these stones were simply dragged into 
position and left. If several loads of soil 
should be filled in over and between the 
rocks they would immediately look much 
more natural. 



As a landscape composition this large 
rockery would be very much improved if 
several good sized shrubs and one or more 
trees were to be planted here and there. 
Everything planted should be varieties 



which naturally grow in the neighborhood 
under similar conditions. Near the water- 
way I would put wild alder and higher up 
between the rocks the wild barberry and a 
couple of red cedars and junipers. 





Various methods of keeping garden produce. Tomato vines may be hung upside down under cover, 
the fruit ripening gradually; cabbages may be kept in the cellar suspended from the rafters, several 
heads being tied together. These five types of "containers" are used for keeping vegetables and fruit 
and may be obtained at small cost from any grocery store 

Saving the Season's Produce— b 7 f. f. Rockwell, 

GETTING A CROP WELL GROWN IS ONLY HALF THE STORY— SAVING 
AND KEEPING IS JUST AS IMPORTANT AS GETTING A GOOD YIELD 




Con- 
necticut 



IN HARVESTING, as in planting, the 
various crops may be considered in two 
general groups — the hardy and the 
tender. The small grower may not be 
able to have storage facilities especially 
designed to accommodate special crops, but 
he can provide suitable quarters by the use 
of a little ingenuity. A good dry, cool, tight 
cellar is of the greatest value for storage 
purposes, but even where such is not avail- 
able, substitutes may be found. 

Squashes, pumpkins, melons and cucum- 
bers should be gathered before danger of 
first hard frost. Usually a light "touch" 
that blackens the foliage will come first as a 
reminder, but if it is getting late in the 
season, do not wait for this warning. The 
muskmelons and cucumbers may be cut 
where the stem joins the vine, but the 
squashes, pumpkins and watermelons 
should be cut with an inch or so of vine 
on each side of the stem, which should 
never be broken off. 

Brush the soil from the under side, and 
turn them bottom side up to dry thoroughly. 
Handle them always as if they were eggs. 
Even though the rind may seem quite 
hard it bruises very easily, and a bruise that 
cannot be seen at all when it is made will 
develop later into a decayed spot that will 
spread rapidly over the whole fruit and 
possibly spoil those next to it. The drier 
the air the better (an ideal place being in a 
room with a furnace or stove) , but the tem- 
perature should be kept as near forty de- 
grees as possible. Don't discard the small 
immature squashes gathered: these are the 
best to keep, and often may be had in good 
condition for the table after the larger ones 
have been used. Melons and cucumbers 
may be stored in straw or leaves in a dark 
cool place, and used up as they ripen. 



Beans. All the pole beans and most- of 
the bush beans are good for winter use, 
gathered as soon as the pods dry, even if 
there is no danger of frost. If the work has 
to be done in a hurry, the plants may be 
pulled and hung up under cover where they 
will dry. 

Tomatoes. The first hard frost usually 
doubles the price of tomatoes. All the 
fruits on the vines should be gathered when 
the first hard frost threatens. The more 
mature will ripen up gradually for some 
time to come, and the green ones are usually 
in good demand for pickling. A few plants 
may be taken up and hung upside down in 
a shed or dry cellar, letting the fruit 
ripen on the vines, which it will continue 




Slatted crates are ideal for storing onions and anything 
else that needs a dry atmosphere. They may be stacked 
one on top of another 

T29 



to do for a surprisingly long time. Some 
of the best of the green fruits placed in clean 
straw in a dry cold part of the cellar or 
storehouse will often ripen for Thanks- 
giving and even later. 

Okra. The plants may be cut and the pods 
allowed to dry, and used for flavoring. 

Sweet potatoes should be dug as soon as. 
the tops are killed, dried thoroughly, and 
then stored in open crates in the attic near 
a chimney, or in some similar spot where 
they can be kept as dry and as warm a& 
possible. 

Eggplants and pepLers, though usually 
not injured by the first light frosts that 
blacken the leaves, should be gathered be- 
fore danger of frosts that would blister the 
fruits, and kept in the same way as sug- 
gested for melons and cucumbers. 

Sweet corn. When frost threatens, cut 
stalks and all, just as for field corn. It may 
be shocked in the same way, and the ears 
will remain in good condition much longer 
than if pulled from the stalks. 

In picking the tree fruits too much care 
cannot be taken to prevent the slightest 
bruising. A bruise so slight as to be in- 
visible at the time will develop into a de- 
cayed spot later. Only the soundest and 
greenest should be stored away. Barrels, 
or cracker boxes, which hold practically a 
bushel each, make good containers. The 
latter for home use are more convenient. 
Pears should be stored in a dark, cool, well 
ventilated place. The rapidity with which 
they ripen will depend to a large extent upon 
the temperature. For long keeping it 
should be kept as near thirty-two as possible. 

While a number of the late crops are 
handled in much the same way, three of the 
most important of them, potatoes, onions, 
and celery, require individual methods of 



130 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



November, 1914 



treatment. Potatoes for storing should not 
be dug until they are thoroughly matured 
as indicated by both the firmness of the 
skin and the cooking qualities. Dead vines 
are not a sure guide, as they may dry up 
prematurely from drouth, blight or frost. 
In cases where it is due to blight the tubers 
in the soil will begin to rot, and should be 
left until all that are going to spoil have 
done so. Otherwise they will rot after 
digging. The tubers should be left in the 
sun long enough to get thoroughly dried 
off, but not to sun-burn, as this spoils the 
table quality. 

Onions. Success in keeping onions will 
depend very largely upon the care given 
in harvesting. After the tops dry down 
they should be pulled and laid in rows, and 
turned every day until they are thoroughly 
dried. Then they should be brought 
under cover — cutting off the tops or not, as 
conditions permit — where the air may cir- 
culate freely about them in all directions. 
Spread them out thin on the floor or pack 
them in slatted bushel crates. The white 
varieties must be cured under cover or they 
will turn green, and if they get a ghost of a 
chance begin to sprout again immediately. 
No onions, after the tops die, should be 
left in the ground. Before hard freezing 
weather they should be sorted over again 
and the soundest and driest stored for long 
keeping, the others being 
put aside for more im- 
mediate use. 

Celery. Such celery as 
is wanted for early use is 
blanched in the field by 
drawing the earth up to 
the stalks in two or three 
successive hoeings or by 
the use of boards. The 
stalks should be blanched 
clear up to the foliage. 
Drain tile may be used 
for blanching small quan- 
tities for the home table. 
That part of the crop 
wanted for winter and 
spring use should have the 
soil worked in about the 
stalks sufficiently to hold 
them in an upright posi- 
tion. Upon the approach 
of hardTrosts, about No- 
vember first, part of it 
may be "trenched," or 
blanched in a long narrow ditch, dug in 
some well drained convenient position. It 
should be about a foot wide and deep 
enough to take the celery plants, standing 
on end as they grew, with the tips of the 
foliage about level with the soil surface. 
It should be taken up, roots and all, and 
packed in close in the trench. As hard 
freezing weather approaches the tops should 
be covered with meadow hay and boards 
to prevent freezing. This will keep in 
good condition until the advent of real 
winter weather. That wanted for winter 
and early spring use should be taken up, 
before hard frosts, and stored in long narrow 
boxes about a foot wide and deep enough 



to take the plants upright, packed in 
snugly together. As in trenching, the roots 
should be left on, and a couple of inches 
of moist sand should be put in the bottom of 
each box. These boxes may then be packed 
in a cold dark cellar, and the stalks will 
blanch out by the time they are needed. 
Boxes of the required shape and size may be 
readily made from plain pine boards, with 
a row of small holes bored in the ends of 
each to serve as handles. Celery should 
be handled or stored only when it is per- 
fectly dry. 

Beets, carrots, and turnips and radishes 
will not be injured by the first light frosts. 
Parsnips and salsify (or oyster plant) 
may be left in the ground all winter, with- 
out injury, but of course the bulk of these 
crops should be taken up, as once the ground 
freezes, it is next to impossible to get the 
roots out until spring. All these root crops 
should be gathered and "topped," being 
careful not to cut too close, causing the roots 
to bleed, and stored temporarily in piles so 
that they may be covered at night if there 
is danger of freezing. To keep well for a 
long period they should not only be stored 
in a dark cold place, where the temperature 
may be kept well down toward the freezing 
point, but should be packed in sand or moss. 
The only objection to the former material 
is its great weight. Sphagnum or swamp 




Pack root crops in boxes between layers of sphagnum or swamp moss, which retains moisture and is also 

light in weight 

moss may be gathered free in most places, 
or a few bushels bought from a local florist. 
It is clean, and light, and stays moist with- 
out being wet, for a long time, making an 
ideal packing for the root crops. 

Cabbage. A small quantity may be kept 
in a storeroom if it is cool and dark. A 
good way is to tie several heads together, 
first removing the outside leaves, by the 
roots and suspend from a nail. Where 
any amount is to be saved, however, it is 
usually "pitted." A common method is 
to simply dig a trench wide enough to take 
two heads side by side, and deep enough so 
that when another head is placed on top, 
the roots will come about level with the 



surface of the soil. Cabbages should not 
be trenched or pitted until cold weather, 
and as hard freezing weather sets in should 
be gradually covered up with meadow hay, 
corn stalks or other mulching sufficiently 
deep to prevent their freezing hard. Those 
to be kept over winter, through very hard 
freezing, should have a layer of earth over 
the mulch, and a second layer of mulch over 
this. The trench may be lined with hay, 
straw, or boards to make more certain of 
keeping the contents dry and clean. Brus- 
sels sprouts and kale may be left where they 
grow, as they are perfectly hardy. 

Lettuce will stand more or less cold 
weather, and may be had for several weeks 
later than usual by simply covering it with 
meadow hay to protect it from the first 
frosts, after which we frequently have two 
or three weeks of good growing weather. 
Small plants, which were started in August 
or September, may be transplanted to the 
coldframes in October, where by the use of 
double sash, they may be had through most 
of the winter, even in quite severe climates. 

Parsley should be cut back severely, a 
few roots taken up and put in pots or a 
small box, with drainage holes in the bot- 
tom, and after being allowed to root for a 
week or so in a cool shaded place, may be 
kept throughout the winter in any light 
place where the temperature does not go 
below forty at night. 

SUBSTITUTES FOR CELLARS 

If a furnace is used, a 
double partition should 
separate it from the part 
of the cellar used for 
storing the vegetables. 
Where the cellar is only 
one large room such a 
partition may be cheaply 
and quickly put up with 
"wallboard," which comes 
in large sheets and is very 
easy to use. Where no 
cellar is available a room 
on the north side of the 
house, which may be kept 
dark and cool but safe 
from freezing on cold 
nights, may be utilized to 
advantage. Root crops 
may be stored in a pit, 
like cabbage. 

All fruits and vege- 
tables should be clean, dry and sound 
when stored, and the storage room and 
boxes and barrels kept perfectly clean. 
Cellars should be whitewashed every fall. 
Ventilation is also very important. Until 
freezing weather ventilation should be 
given on cold nights, and shut off during 
warm days, the aim being to keep the tem- 
perature as constant as possible — about 
35 degrees F. being right for most vege- 
tables. Where any amount of things are 
to be stored it will pay well to get a few 
each of the following: sugar or flour barrels; 
clean cracker boxes; slatted crates; slat 
vegetable barrels ; and peach baskets, which 
are handy, for small amounts. 




^PSllzZ&xM^ */'*:;: ., . ; ■ • ■ ::. ~ ■■ " 



■ ' ^"'' ' .■^ ' vj ' r"" ' 1 '! 1 '' )^ * 



[" GARDENING 
YOUNG FOLKS 

CONDUCTED BY ELLEN EDDY SHAW 

"»"-"■■• ■■■' ■ »■ - ■■ • ■ . 




=33 



?K5?T= 






Indoor Planting 



AFTER the bulb-potting rush is over there are 
still many things to -do with the plants if one 
wishes to have bloom for later in the winter. 

Calla lily bulbs that were ordered in September 
should be potted in a 5- or 6-inch pot according to 
the size of the bulb. Wet the pot, place a curved 
piece of pot over the hole, fill in with a good potting 
soil, which, of course, should have been mixed before 
the actual work of potting started. Have a 
supply of rotted manure, garden soil, and 
sand. Take 
two parts each 
of garden soil 
and manure 

and one of sand and mix them 
thoroughly. Use the hands for this, as 
it can be done so much more effectively 
and there is nothing unpleasant in it. 
As the soil is filled into the pot press 
it firmly down, using the hands or a tamp- 
ing stick for the purpose. This stick is 
like a potato masher and may be whittled out 
of wood. Place bulb in the pot, with its tip 
just protruding out of the soil. Tamp the 
soil all about the bulb. Now put the pots in 
a cool place until the bulbs have started. A 
dark place is not needed — just a cool spot and 
half light. If a greenhouse is available, use 
the coolest house and place the pots under 
the bench. 

Window boxes should be put into good con- 
dition for winter bloom. These are often 
unsatisfactory because of the trying con- 
ditions under which the plants have to exist. 
Exterior conditions cannot be entirely con- 
trolled, so as far as possible make up for this 
lack by making perfect all the factors 
•you can control. First see that plenty of 
drainage material is placed at the 
bottom of the box, in this way elevat- 
ing the soil itself above the place where 
free water may stand. Use good light soil, taking an 
ordinary garden soil and working into it equal parts 
of leafmold and rotted manure. Those who have 
been wise and taken up from the outdoor garden 
some of their plants can use them. 

Fuchsia, heliotrope, geranium, petunia, and 
marguerite may be planted in the boxes. Petunias 
used alone are most satisfactory, blooming and 
reblooming all the winter. If lobelia and sweet 
alyssum or candytuft have been used as border 
plants in the garden, they may be added as low 
growing plants to the window box. Cut them back, 
leaving about four inches of top growth, to induce 
a new vigorous growth. They may be used, also, 
in hanging baskets after being back cut. Buy a 
small wire-framed hanging basket, line it with 
sphagnum moss and place the plant in the moss. 

If new plants are to be bought for the window, 
choose those which are best suited to the conditions 
of light under which the plants must live. In this 
way again conditions are partly controlled. Al- 
most any plant may be used in full sunshine; but 
if the box has to be in a dark place, such as a north- 
ern exposure, then care must be used in selecting 
plants which will live where there is little light. 
A box filled with ferns, such as the Boston or holly 
fern, will do well. Begonias, aspidistra, cocoa, or 
kentia palms, may be chosen. Try having one 
of the boxes filled with little evergreens, arborvita?, 
or junipers. English ivy, as a trailer, stands class- 
room conditions better than many others. Of 
course, tradescantia is always a standby for this 
purpose. 

If a single plant is to be chosen for the school 
room or the living room, choose the aspidistra, 
which will withstand trying indoor conditions. A 
Norfolk pine is also attractive; but this plant needs 
a cool room with a temperature not higher than 
60 degrees, and preferably lower. 



A pentstemon cutting prepared 
for planting 



Soon the children will ask whether or not it is pos- 
sible to use bulbs a second season. Throw away the 
Chinese lily bulbs. Most of the bulbs grown in 
water or in pots of soil are so forced that no energy 
remains for a second season, and no storage of force 
is possible. But the hyacinth, tulip, and narcissus 
family, with the exception of the Chinese lily and the 
paper white narcissus, may be planted outdoors in 
the fall. Left in the ground they slowly recover 
from the season of forcing and by a second year in 
the open may bloom again. 

If bulbs are to be kept over and used again, 
allow their blossoms to 
wither and fade. They be- 
come most unsightly, so 
bundle 
them off, 
pots and all, 
to the cel- 
lar or a store 
room. After this withering process is 
over, knock the bulbs out of the pots, 
cut off the foliage to within an inch of 
the bulb itself. Next shake the soil off the 
roots and dry out the bulbs. When dry, 
pack them away in tin boxes ready for next 
fall's outdoor planting. 

The outdoor bulb bed may be left. That 
is, after blossoming is over, cut off the tops 
of the plants, leaving the bulbs themselves in 
the ground. To be sure, all the bulbs may 
be taken up and dried out which means a 
complete replanting in the fall. 
If the outdoor bulb bed is left 
untouched, it must be renewed 
about once in three or four years. 
Or one may add a little new 
stock each year or so. Without 
renewal, the plants grow poor 
and weak. When renewal time 

comes and the bulbs are 
unearthed, notice the new 
young bulbs clinging to 
the parent stock. This is another 
nature lesson. 



the surface, putting on a fine coating of soil just 
to cover the seed. A piece of window glass, placed 
over the pan, will give greenhouse temperature 
for the start. Keep the glass tilted up a little 
from the pot, so that air may enter. Be careful 
in watering, for whenever fine seed is used careless 
watering washes away the seed, leaving it exposed, 
or flooding it to one place in the pot. 

Pips. It is possible during November to buy 
lily-of-the-valley pips from the seedsmen. When 
the pips are taken out of their wrappings, you will 
see the pinkish tip and the long roots. The roots 
must be cut back, so gather them into your hand 
and cut them back about one third. Pot up the 
pips, putting about six to a 5-inch pan, leaving all 
of the tip out of the soil. 

These pans of pips should now be plunged in sand 
and covered with canvas, just to act as a screen 
from the light. Keep the sand well moistened. If 
the heat can come from the bottom, as happens in a 
greenhouse, so much the better. If one is raising 
these in a school room, place them in as warm a 
place as can be found. Leave the pans covered 
until the buds are ready to burst open. Then take 
off the covers, remove the pots from the sand, and 
place them in strong sunlight. 

Runners. Some plants are started from runners. 
The Boston fern is the best of all plants to use for 
illustrating the method of propagation by runners. 
Take a large plant and knock it out of the pot; 
see how all the smaller ferns started as off shoots 
from the parent fern. You will be able to see the 



Methods of Plant Propagation 




THERE are various ways to start plants, 
which can be tried in schools and homes 
even where there are no special facilities, 
like a greenhouse, for the work. Most boys 
and girls have raised plants from seeds or 
bulbs; why not go on and try, for the fun of it, a 
number of different ways to raise plants? Plants 
may be started from seed, pips, runners, roots, leaf 
cuttings and stem cuttings. 

Seeds. Choose something unusual in this class 
so that the interest will be greater. Lots of fun 
and excellent results may be had with sweet peas. 
Use an indoor variety, such as the Christmas sweet 
pea. Right off this sounds interesting! Plant the 
peas in 3-inch pots, four seeds to each pot, and place 
in a sunny window. If an old, low, zinc pan can 
be had, place pebbles in the bottom of this and the 
pots may be set on this pebble drainage bed. As 
these sweet peas will grow to be about two feet 
high, small sticks must be put into the pots and 
the peas trained on them. The peas will bloom in 
February and if the blossoms 
are cut they will bloom con- 
tinuously until June. 

Another interesting seed to 
use is that of lobelia, Blue 
King being an excellent vari- 
ety to try out. Plant these 
seeds in low boxes or flats, al- 
though a 5-inch pan will do 
equally well. Fill the pan with 
soil, firming it down well; then 
sprinkle the lobelia seed over Propagating Iris Germanica, showing rooted divisions ready for outdoor planting 

131 



132 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



November, 191 4. 




Propagating tuberous begonias by division, showing the 
divisions ready for potting up 

runner holding the young fern to its parents. These 
runners are put off from the parent plant and soon 
put forth roots, making a new plant, which should 
be cut off and potted up. The large parent plant 
may be divided also. As you hold it in your hand 
you will see, perhaps, where it naturally makes two 
or three ferns. Take a sharp knife and cut it into 
these parts. You will not injure the fern at all 
unless you make ragged cuts. The soil for these 
new ferns, which lie on the bench before you, should 
be a rich one. Mix together two parts of garden 
soil, two parts of leaf-mold, one part of rotted 
manure and one part of sand. This will make a 
first-class soil for ferns. By division several new 
plants are obtained from one large plant 

Leaf Cuttings. Perhaps the most fasci 
nating of all the ways to propagate 
plants is that of starting from leaf 
cuttings. For this, use the leaves 
of Rex begonia. Choose a large leaf 
without any defects upon it, and 
turn it upside down on a clean board. 
Note the large veins; wherever two 
such veins intersect make a cut. Use 
a sharp knife and cut right through the leaf. 
Pick up the leaf and lay it, under surface 
down, on a moist sand bed. Lay some 
pebbles here and there on the leaf so 
that it will be held down close to the moist 
sand. After a lapse of two or three weeks 
roots will thrust their way down into the 
sand from each leaf cut and little leaves 
will appear from the upper surface. 
When the leaves of these new plants are in 
size about an inch, pinch out the little plant 
from the mother leaf and pot it up. Use a 
rather sandy soil for this, say one part gar- 
den soil, one part rotted manure and two 
parts sand. 

Stem Cuttings. Still another method of 
propagation is that of stem cuttings. For 
this work use old geranium plants, helio- 
trope, verbena, fuchsia, Marguerite, pentstemon 
and cuphea. 

Geranium cuttings should be made about four 
inches long. Make a good clean cut between two 
circles or nodes, either slantwise of the stem or 
straight across it. Pick off all the leaves except 
two or three terminal ones. Pinch out the ter- 
minal bud if it shows a bit of color. Cuttings of the 
other plants here mentioned should be only about 
two inches in length. All cuttings may be put 
into sand beds or started in pots in which is a very 
sandy soil, one part garden soil to three of sand. 
These cuttings root in from seven to ten days. For 
the first few days, screen them from the sun's rays 
by a newspaper covering. After they are rooted 
pot them up in a soil made up of one part garden 
soil to one of rotted manure and one of sand. 

In one of the pictures, note how the geranium 
cuttings are first placed all about the edge of the 
pot, and so on in. If two or three small cuttings, 
like those of coleus, are potted up in 3-inch pots, 
place them also about the edge of the pot, the 
centre space being left as room for the plant as it 
develops. Watch the coleus, for lice may appear 
on the undersides of the leaves or at the junctions 



of petiole and stem. As soon as the lice appear 
get rid of them. 

Roots. Another satisfactory plant to try is 
astilbe (the florists' spirea); buy the variety called 
Gladstone. Astilbes are roots and come in clumps, 
which may be broken or cut apart. At the same 
time trim back the rootlets which straggle from the 
root. These roots will probably require 8-inch 
pots, or larger. The root system gets large and 
quite fills the pot. After potting in a manner 
similar to that suggested for callas, place in a cold- 
frame or a cold room for a few weeks. The roots 
must be well started and the tip, too, before bring- 
ing into the warmth. These spireas are very 
satisfactory, indeed. They are not used often in 
school work, but there is no reason why they should 
not be, because in the first place they require no 
care in the potting; and secondly, they bloom freely 
and make a fine showing. They could be raised 
and used as decorations for the assembly halls. 

At the same time illustrate further by dividing 
the roots of clumps of iris in the outdoor garden. 
Dig up a plant of Iris germanica and show the need 
for division. Cut apart the clumps, using a spade 
if it is impossible to break them apart with the 
hands. After division, these should be replanted. 

It would be excellent to follow on the work with 
a division of aspidistra. To be sure spring is the 
better time to separate these plants, and unless it 
is to be part of a lesson I would not do this work until 
the spring time. This will represent a division of a 
rhizome. A rhizome is an underground stem giving 
forth roots or leaves at certain points. This 
underground stem, as it is called, may be on or 
under the ground, but is prostrate. The rhizomes 
are broken apart and 
repotted; each one 
gives a new plant. 




Plants of aspidistra ready for division, 
may be broken apart 



The rhizomes 



Sandy Soil Possibilities 




An old plant of zonal pelargon- 
ium before cuttings are made 



TPHESE are some interesting problems connected 
A with sandy soil, and there is yet much to be 
learned about its best management and its possi- 
bilities for greater development. 

The soil about most seaboard cities is generally 
of a sandy type, and market gardening is adopted 
because of close proximity to markets, and also 
because sandy soils will produce earlier and quicker 
crops. 

The best vegetables are those that are rapidly 

grown, as when so grown they are more succulent, 

tender, and crisp. Sandy soil is more porous as- 

the particles or grains are coarser; therefore it 

becomes warm earlier in the spring, seeds germinate 

more quickly, and plants grow faster. The heavy 

clay or loam soils retain more water, and longer; 

and therefore carry a lower temperature. With 

sandy soil more fertilizers have to be used, both in 

the form of stable manure and chemicals, the 

former supplying humus, which retains and gives 

out moisture over a longer period, while 

the latter balances the plant food, in 

which stable manures are more or less 

deficient. 

Tree fruits are not so well suited to 
sandy soil as to the clay or loam. Trees, 
unlike vegetables, should make a slow 
growth, that the wood and fruit buds may thoroughly ripen 
and mature, to withstand low winter temperatures. Highly 
fertilized sandy soil stimulates a too luxuriant growth of wood 
in fruit trees. 

There are a few varieties of tree fruits that do very well 
on a sandy soil that is naturally fertile. The peach leads, 
and the most extensive orchards are growing on such soil and 
on sandy loam. Try the varieties Carman and Champion. 

The apricot is also well 
adapted to sandy soil; Harris 
and Moor Park are excellent. 
For early maturity of tree, 
and for early markets, the 
Red Astrachan, Red June 
and Yellow Transparent 
apples will give satisfactory 
results. Winter varieties 
grown on sandy soil have poor keep- 
ing quality, and are deficient in flavor.. 
Mcintosh might also be grown. 

While the plum does better in a 
clay, yet the Abundance, Red June, 
and Lombard varieties produce excel- 
lent fruit when grown on a sandy soil. 
The small fruits universally do well 
on sandy soil. The strawberry, rasp- 
berry, and blackberry, thrive and are 
highly productive. 

Pears require the heavier type of soil;, 
try Clapp's Favorite and Bartlett. The: 
Kieffer, however, produces most pro- 
digious yields on sandy land and has a. 
higher flavor than when grown upon* 
Plant cuttings about edge of clay soil. 

pot to gain space New York. GeORCE T. Powell. 




■-.".:-..-? ."ii.'.u.-vffja 



Si3*£*> 



ODDS AND ENDS 

FROM EVERYWHERE 




Fall Planted Sweet Peas in the South 

I HAVE often read that practical gardeners do 
not advise planting sweet peas twice in succession 
in the same place, but my experience teaches me 
that it makes no difference. For the past four years 
I have planted my seeds in the same place, with 
gratifying results. If the soil is properly prepared 
and the seeds planted in the fall, the results will be 
just as satisfactory as if the position were changed 
every year. 

My method is to dig a trench about twenty inches 
deep, fill in with manure, earth, bone meal and a 
little lime to within about five inches of the surface; 
then sow the seeds in double rows about six inches 
apart, two seeds in a place six inches apart. Of 
•course, the seeds must be of the best quality; cheap 
seeds are not worth planting. After dropping the 
seeds fill in until the ground is level. The settling 
of the soil will leave a depression along the row. 
In dry weather keep the roots well supplied with 
water, but do not wet the plants. Once a week 
give a liberal supply of liquid manure, and occa- 
sionally a little nitrate of soda. 

The first of the four years I planted my seeds on 
December 21; the first blooms appeared May 16, 
and for two months afterward I had an abundance 
of flowers. The second year I planted on November 
27. The plants commenced to bloom May 9, and 
continued for eleven weeks, giving large blooms, two 
to four on long stems. The third year, because of a 
wet fall, I did not plant until January 28. The 
result was not satisfactory. The fourth year seed 
was planted on November 1 7 ; it commenced coming 
up about the middle of February, and bloomed on 
May 12. In spite of the fact that the past summer 
was the hottest and dryest I ever experienced, I 
had an abundance of fine blooms, with long stems, 
until August 9, and for two weeks later there were 
many blooms, but the stems were too short for 
cutting. 

I always make a second planting in January, 
February or early in March, according to the con- 
dition of the soil, but have never had spring-planted 
seed bloom as well as that planted in the fall. Last 
spring I made my second planting the 1 7th of Feb- 
ruary. The result was a complete failure, although 
the planting was on new ground. 

Nashville, Term. J. G. Cisco. 

One Amateur's Views of "Odds and Ends" 

I HAVE often thought that if we amateur garden 
"fussers" would only swap stories of our suc- 
cesses and failures we might possibly get more 
satisfactory results, as professional ideas are often 
beyond us. We all know that, if we have sweet 
peas or pansies growing, the more we pick the 
flowers the more we will have to pick, and the longer 
they last. This same rule applies to other gardening 
efforts; we should not let things get the best of us 
and go to weeds. 

I have known persons who would (in anticipation 
of great results) pay a fancy price for special shrubs 
or plants and then, through ignorance or indiffer- 
ence in planting, would unwittingly kill them and 
then blame the nurseryman for having sold poor 
stock. My advice to such amateurs is to put less 
into the cost of the plant and more into the hole in 
the ground. By this I suggest the digging out to a 
good depth the gravel and clay and substituting a 
rich, sweet soil. 

Do not be overkind by burying the roots in man- 
ure, as this will only burn them up. In planting 
spread the roots naturally and then stamp the earth 
well about them after watering thoroughly, and 
then prune them back sufficiently. 

By planting tulip bulbs in the fall we can have 
as early flowers as are necessary. These bulbs can 
be planted deep enough so as to leave them in the 
ground undisturbed for at least three years. Lily- 
of-the-valley, planted in the autumn, will increase 



from year to year until a nice bed is made. The 
iris is one of the best hardy flowers, and there are 
many handsome varieties in both the German and 
Japanese fleur-de-lis. The lemon lily is showy and 
easily grown. Peonies, both single and double, 
should not be overlooked. 

Roses are most satisfactory planted in fall and 
partially protected the first year. I warn you not 
to foster a sucker grown from a rose root after the 
budded part has died, and then wonder why so 
healthy a looking plant does not flower. A sucker 
starts from the ground or below the knot where the 
rose bush was budded; watch for it and cut it out. 
Prune rose bushes every spring to within a foot of 
the ground. 

Delphinium or larkspur deserves a place in the 
garden, and after its first bloom, cut the plant back 
to about ten inches and you will get fall flowers . 
also. The hardy phlox is exceptionally beautiful 
and should be in every garden, but be careful when 
planting so that conflicting colors will not spoil the 
effect. At the end of three years the roots become 
knotty and the flowers naturally dwindle; then in 
spring or fall take up the plants, break off the fresher 
shoots for new plants, and throw away the old roots. 

The hardy double yellow sunflower which grows 
about four feet high, is a very satisfactory plant for 
late bloom. The old fashioned hollyhock, planted 
along a fence or bare wall, is always picturesque. 

As for shrubs I would suggest, for the beginner, 
forsythia, magnolia, weigela, lilac, spirea, flowering 
almond, golden syringa and deutzia; and for fall 
flowering there is nothing nicer than hydrangea. 
The only vines I will name are the Clematis pan- 
iculata (which should be cut back to the ground 
every fall), the Crimson Rambler rose, and the Jap- 
anese honeysuckle. . 

I hope to read in this department opinions of 
other amateurs, and criticisms, too. 

Rochester, N. Y. W. G. W. 

Keeping Rose Plants over Winter 

IN WINTERING roses outdoors the first re- 
quisite is that the wood of the past season's 
growth be well ripened. This is a matter that is 
little understood and one that is given too little 
attention. 

The natural ripening of plants grown outdoors 
varies greatly in different seasons and with different 
varieties. Tea roses are tender (at least to a great 
extent), because their natural habit of growth is 
continuous and they do not make provision for a 
period of rest during winter, growth continuing 
during fall and up to freezing weather. Naturally, 
under such conditions, the plant is filled with sap 
and is in no condition to stand severe weather. 
Any late growth is likely to be made during cloudy, 
damp weather and is not so hard as growth made 
during sunny weather. To this fact is due much of 
the disappointment with plants imported from 
Holland, the cloudy, moist climate producing a 
plant that is soft. In some cases this growth can- 
not be hardened and will shrivel when exposed 
to frost or a comparatively dry air. Plants kept 
in a frost-proof, dark root cellar will frequently 
take up moisture during the winter, even though 
they make no growth during that time; such plants 
have a fine, plump appearance when taken out, 
but will often shrivel when exposed. 

Roses delight in a moist soil and for the best 
results should not be at all dry at any time during 
summer; but if they are in a situation where 
water can be withheld as fall weather comes on, 
they will ripen much better and be in condition to 
withstand severe weather, often without protection, 
in the coldest climate. 

My method of wintering roses outdoors is de- 
signed for the purpose of having them in proper 
condition for shipment at planting time in spring. 
In some cases, and with specially tender varieties, 
this method may be used to advantage by amateur 

133 



growers, though as a rule I do not advocate dis- 
turbing plants that do not have to be removed. 
Do not get the idea that our climate here in Virginia 
is particularly mild; we frequently have zero 
weather and sometimes considerably below. 

The plants are taken up as early in the fall as 
may be safe. If they have begun to ripen and are 
dropping their foliage, it may be safe to take them 
up before frost; but if they are still growing and 
entirely green it will be necessary to wait till one 
or two frosts have at least partially stopped growth. 
As soon as taken up they are potted, in pots not 
necessarily as large as would be required if they 
were to make a growth in them, but large enough 
to get in the roots with a little soil. They are cut 
back, watered once and allowed to dry for about 
a week or ten days they are then placed in a 
coldframe, which is merely a pit some two feet 
deep, with a level, well-drained soil bottom. The 
pots are placed directly on the bottom, close to- 
gether, all spaces between the pots being filled with 
some material that will hold moisture, sifted coal 
ashes being the best that I have found. 

As cold weather comes on a covering of boards is 
put on rather loosely, with plenty of cracks for air 
and fight. If weather becomes severe a covering 
of straw is placed over the boards, but this should 
be removed at once on the return of mild weather. 

Virginia. W. R. Gray. 

A Hanging Basket for Indoors 

LAST year, when getting house plants ready for 
Winter, the hanging wire basket required a new 
fining of- moss, and being in a large city, we did not 
know where to obtain any. Instead of moss, there- 
fore, the basket was first lined with a handsome, 
heavy, felt wallpaper in dark green, a piece from a 
book of samples. This was sewed into place, the 
right side showing plainly through the wires. A 
hole was cut through the paper in the bottom and a 
greased cork fitted into the draining hole. Then 
enough plaster of paris was mixed with water to 
make a cream and a coat of it laid as lining over the 
inside of the basket. When dry we had a basket 
that would hold earth and plants as well or rather 
better than when fined with moss. For watering 
it we buried in the soil a wide mouthed bottle, the 
neck just hidden by the foliage. This we kept 
filled with water with two strips of cloth extending 
from the mouth of the bottle along the surface of the 
basket among the leaves. Thus the soil was never 
allowed to dry out. 
New Jersey. A. H. B. 

Quinces for the Home Garden 

THERE is no reason why quinces will not do 
well in home gardens, the common idea to 
the contrary notwithstanding, if ordinary good care 
is given the trees. They require to be sprayed 
regularly with the same material as used on apple 
and peach trees. They thrive best in heavy clay 
that is moist all summer, but they will do well in 
almost any soil. I have seen quince trees that are 
producing crops every year in the light soil of hill- 
sides where the ground gets very dry sometimes. 
Proper cultivation, feeding, pruning and spraying 
will make quinces thrive and bear in almost every 
garden, yet I doubt if more than a dozen commer- 
cial orchards of more than ten acres can be found 
in this country. 

The varieties I have seen succeeding are Orange, 
Champion and Van Deman. Champion is the one 
most largely planted. Van Deman probably is the 
most attractive looking, and the best bearer. All 
three sorts are large, golden yellow, fine-textured. 
The trees begin to bear when two years old, and 
yield regularly under right treatment. Set them 
ten feet apart. In the South plant one tree. In 
Middle and Northern states plant two trees in 



134 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



November, 1914 



small gardens, four trees in gardens of a half 
acre, and about ten trees in gardens of an acre or 
larger. 

Quince flavor is so penetrating and individual 
that it lends its own taste to other fruit when only a 
small proportion of quince is included. Quinces 
are highly scented and perfumed. For flavoring 
preserves, butters, canned fruit, jellies, pastries 
and many prepared dishes nothing else will take 
their place. 

Pennsylvania. J. R. Mattern. 

Wood Ashes for Potash 

IF THE European war should cause our large 
annual imports of potash to dwindle, many 
will look to wood ashes among other substances to 
replenish the potash supply. If they are carefully 
stored and not permitted to leach, wood ashes may 
be of considerable value applied as a top dressing to 
grass land and to pastures where they will encour- 
age the growth of clover and better kinds of grasses 
which will then crowd out inferior kinds and weeds. 
Wood ashes may be also used for corn and roots. 
Because of their lime content they are not so good 
for potatoes. 

Ashes indirectly increase the available nitrogen 
of the organic matter in the soil, and have been 
known to do excellent service (in Europe) on drained 
moorland. 

Besides the potash, ashes contain other ingredi- 
ents which are of value to plants; namely about i or 
2 per cent, of phosphoric acid, a little magnesia, 
and a great deal of lime. 

Ashes from hard woods (deciduous trees) are 
richer in both phosphorus and potash than those 
from pines and other soft woods (conifers). Ashes 
from oak, elm, maple, and hickory have more pot- 
ash than those from pine. The ashes of twigs 
are worth more than the ashes of heart-wood taken 
from the middle of an old tree. In general, 
the smaller and younger the wood burned, the 
better the ashes. The ashes of coal do not contain 
enough potash to make them valuable in this con- 
nection. 

Ordinary house ashes contain on the average 
about 8 or g per cent, of potash and 2 per cent, of 
phosphoric acid. Investigators have considered 
that there is enough potash and phosphoric acid in 
a bushel of ashes to make it worth 20 or 25 cents. 
Besides that, some 10 or 15 cents additional might 
be allowed for the "alkali power" of the ashes. 
This power is that which enables ashes to rot weeds 
and to ferment peat. — Office of Information: U. S 
Deft- of Agriculture. 

A Hardier Barberry Hybrid 

I FANCY I have in my garden a hybrid barberry 
of considerable worth, as it is most attractive in 
appearance, is strong and bushy in growth, and is 
absolutely hardy. The winter of 191 2 was probably 
the coldest remembered in this part of the country, 
and although there was a great deal of snow, Thun- 
berg's barberry was in every case greatly damaged. 
I found it necessary to cut out most of my specimen 
shrubs, and found it advisable to entirely cut down 
a hedge. The common barberry and my hybrid 
were entirely unharmed. This hybrid is a seedling 
from Berberis Thuribergi and resembles the com- 
mon barberry in blossom and fruit; also somewhat 
in its growth, although it is thicker and more com- 
pact. The leaf is almost as small as that of the 
Japanese barberry, but of less substance. I won't 
say that it equals the Thunbergi in beauty, but it 
grows more rapidly and with great strength and is 
very beautiful in late autumn and winter, retaining 
its scarlet fruit even through January. 

Wisconsin. William P. Gundry. 

[Berberis species hybridize very freely — too 
much so in fact, so that it is difficult to keep 
the species true from seed. It is quite possible that 
this is a hybrid between Thunbergi and vulgaris. 
Several instances of such crosses have been recorded 
where the two plants have been grown together. 
One of these has been named and is on the market 
as B. Thunbergi, var. pluriflora. It carries three to 
ten flowers in a short umbel-like raceme, the branches 
being much more gray than in Thunbergi. We ad- 



vise you to continue growing your plants for a little 
while longer and endeavor to increase the stock, as 
you may have something which will prove to be a dis- 
tinct acquisition to your region, which can be prop- 
agated by soft wood cuttings taken in early spring 
and put into heat, or by layers. But the layers 
will take two years. Of course, you cannot re- 
produce the hybrid from seed and get it true to 
type— L. B.] 

More Uses for Lime-sulphur Wash 

I WAS much interested in reading the article 
on lime-sulphur wash in the November, 1913, 
issue of The Garden Magazine. I know of two 
more uses for it. 

A friend of mine last spring found it a valuable 
remedy for "scratches" on his horses. This skin 
disease is most prevalent during the winter and 
spring when the roads are muddy. One horse 
had an aggravated case of it and the owner washed 
the sore parts once with the concentrated solution. 
He cured it. This is a simple remedy and cheap; 
and, unlike some of the remedies applied to such 
infections, such as salt water, which is very irritating 
for awhile, the animal does not mind the application 
of it in the least. 

Nearly every summer new methods of treating 
poison ivy patients are published. The simplest 
remedy that I have seen applied is lime-sulphur 
wash. Several acquaintances of. mine have used 
it and they received immediate relief. The itching 
was soon relieved and the inflammation disappeared 
in a short time. 

Because of the caustic properties of the lime- 
sulphur wash it is not wise to make repeated appli- 
cations at short intervals. One or two at intervals 
of a day have been found, by those who have used 
it, to be sufficient. 

Pennsylvania. Harold Clarke. 

The Mistletoe Fig 

TpiCUS LUTESCENS, or the mistletoe fig, as 
X it has been appropriately called on account 
of the whole plant when in fruit (in which condition 
it can be had the year round,) much resembling a 
branch of mistletoe. 

The plant in growth is of attractive appearance. 
The small fruit or figs are of the size of a large pea 
and are borne singly on short stems in the axil of 




The mistletoe fig (Ficus lutescens) is excellent for the 
window garden 

each leaf. They are at first green, changing to a 
pale yellow, occasionally with a reddish hue. 

The plant is a good subject for the window gar- 
den, succeeding well in the dry atmosphere of the 
house, and is not subject to insect pests. It was 
originally imported from Java, and was first offered 
here in the United States in the spring of 1904. 

New Jersey. J. D. Eisele. 



Coal Ashes and Their Uses 

OF ALL unsightly and apparently useless 
residues, a pile of coal ashes is undoubtedly 
the worst. Most men consider one of the first 
duties of early spring to be the immediate carting 
away of the ashes from stoves and furnaces. Yet, 
as is nearly always true, there is no waste in nature's 
great cycle of reproduction; for even coal ashes 
have their uses. When properly understood and 
handled they are not only worth while but highly 
valuable. 

In an unsifted condition, they may with advan- 
tage be put in a long low row against the sheltered, 
sunny fence of the chickenyard. The fowls will 
delight to dust in the finer parts, while the heavier 
portions will keep the dust from being blown away. 
The chickens obtain from the ashes a certain amount 
of wholesome grit; and, in bad weather, ashes will 
keep that part of the yard in which they are placed 
well drained. 

But for the most important uses, the ashes should 
by all means be sifted. If they are lying dry under 
some shelter, they must, of course, be wetted, and 
then permitted to dry until they are mealy, before 
they can be properly handled. The best labor- 
saving sifter is one like that which is employed for 
sifting sand to be used in concrete work. A quarter- 
inch wire mesh — and the wire should be stout — 
is best for all purposes. With such a sifter, a 
winter's accumulation of ashes can be separated 
in a very short time. 

Having separated the ashes, several important 
uses will be found for both the rough and the fine 
parts. First, the rough may be used in paths and 
on roads. Before long, the rougher portions will 
work down to a clean, firm, springy surface. Such 
paths are especially advantageous in the garden, for 
weeds will not readily spring in them; moreover, 
they dry off quickly, enabling one to get about more 
comfortably and quickly after a rain than would a 
dirt path. 

Secondly, as a summer mulch for fruit trees, or 
for any growths whichjrequire such attention and to 
which coal ashes can conveniently be applied, this 
waste product is very valuable. For such work 
the large clinkers should be taken from the rougher 
portion already separated from the fine. Such 
coarse parts as would pass through an inch mesh 
can be used to great advantage. So employed 
ashes conserve moisture at the roots, at a time when 
moisture means life for the plant and money for its 
owner. 

This same principle, we have found, may be 
applied in another way, and with excellent results. 
About a pyramid of coarse ashes, plant melons, 
cucumbers, tomatoes, or any plants requiring a 
great deal of water. The roots of the plants will 
pass under the ashes, and there will find cool soil, 
moisture, nourishment. In a very dry time the 
plants about such a heap may readily be relieved 
from the effects of drought by pouring water on the 
ashes. Thus the moisture is slowly and judiciously 
distributed to the roots of all the plants, no one 
planted receiving an undue amount. 

The chief use of the fine sifted ashes is in condi- 
tioning the soil. They are admirable to render 
friable the tougher soils; but they cannot, like 
lime, sweeten sour land. Their virtue is in lighten- 
ing the soil. Also, though not at all to be com- 
pared to wood ashes as a fertilizer, they undoubt- 
edly have a fertilizing effect of a certain mild and 
wholesome degree. Soil to which sifted coal ashes 
have been added will grow plants of darker, richer 
foliage, and of larger fruit than soil not so treated. 
But the ashes must be thoroughly incorporated 
with the soil. 

For experiment a few years ago, a soil was. 
prepared, consisting of the following ingredients: 
j stable manure, 5 woods earth, j garden soil, J 
sifted coal ashes. In this soil, potatoes were 
planted; and the yield, in size, appearance, and 
flavor, far surpassed the crop grown in the adjacent 
garden soil. 

The man who tries to make everything on his 
place count for something, and who never loses an 
opportunity to improve his garden walks and his 
garden soil, will never throw away coal ashes. He 
will sift them and use them to all the advantage 
that they are capable of affording. 

Pennsylvania. Archibald Rutledge. 



I 



November, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



135 




IT'S safe because there is absolutely no 
danger of the heat ducts causing fire, 
because the Kelsey does not deliver heat 
at a high scorching temperature; but large 
volumes of fresh airjat a moderate temperature. 

It's a safer heat even than steam or hot water, as the 
temperature of the smoke and gases going up the 
smoke pipe is never as high and averages much lower. 
Because of so little heat going up chimney, more goes into 
your rooms. That's the one main reason why it's so 
economical. 

Don't, however, confuse the Kelsey Warm Air Gen- 
erators with the uncertain coal devouring hot air fur- 
naces. The Kelsey is entirely different in every way. 
It is positive. It is dependable in all kinds of winds and 
weather. 

Send for catalog. Let us give you some interesting 
facts and figures. 



The JCllseal, 

• ln I WARM AIR GENERATOR \pIIua 



Chicaeo 
2707" 
Llneo 
Ave. 




James Street, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Dealers In all Principal Cities 



gg ag s pgR j;t f 

JS St =53, 

tea tea Lea 





We have issued a Very Interesting Catalogue on 

"PERGOLAS" 

AND GARDEN ACCESSORIES 

showing a series f new designs- can De na( j f ree on request . 
Catalogue _H 28 for Pergolas and Columns for Pergolas. 
Catalogue H 40 for Exterior and Interior Wood Columns. 

Hartmann-Sanders Co. 

Exclusive Manufacturers of 
KOLL'S PATENT LOCK JOINT STAVE COLUMN 

Suitable for Pergolas, Porches or 

Interior Use 

Main Office and Factory: 

ELSTON and WEBSTER AVES. 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

Eastern Office: 
6 East 39th St., New York City 

Pacific Coast Factory 
A. J. Koll Pig. Mill Co., Los Angeles, Cal. 




Teaching 

" Young America 

To Shoot! 




ni 




— yes, teaching him the lov< 
home, fair sport and clean companions: 

— tempering his boyish arms with 
manly confidence to hit the mark in *. 

the business of life: 

— breaking up the corner "gang." 

Thus, in the homes of thousands now, real 
Carom and Pocket Billiards played on scientific 
Brunswick Tables are helping "Young America" 
grow big and "Grown America" keep strong. 

Give your boy this rapturous training through the long winter evenings at home. 
Brighten your own leisure hours with merry rivalry at Billiards among the whole family. 

"BABY GRAND" 

Home Carom or Pocket Billiard Tables 



!A 



The famous Brunswick "Baby Grand" Home 
Table is made of mahogany with genuine Ver- 
mont slate bed. It should not be confused with 
inferior wood-bed tables or toys. 

Gives the perfect playing qualities of Bruns- 
wick Regulation Tables — fast imported billiard 
cloth and Monarch Cushions famed for quick 
action. Its speed and accuracy are the marvel 
of Billiard experts. 

For Homes of All Sizes 

"Baby Grand" Tables made 3 ft. by 6 ft., 
3§ by 7 and 4 by 8. All have disappearing 
cue rack and accessory drawer that conceals 
playing outfit when not in use. 

For large suburban homes with a special bil- 
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Brunswick "Grand," a regulation size table, \\ 
by 9 — the richest and finest home billiard table 
in the world. 




30 Days' Trial— A Year to Pay 
Playing Outfit FREE 

With every Brunswick Table we give all neces- 
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cover, brush, book "How to Play," etc. — a com- 
plete high-class playing outfit free. 

Our popular purchase plan offers factory 
prices and lets you try any style table jo days 
in your own home. Payments spread over a 
year if you like, as low as 20 cents a day. 

New edition of our de luxe Billiard book, illustrated in 
colors, shows all Brunswick Home tables, gives prices and 
full details. Send the coupon below for a copy by return 
mail free. 



Mail For Billiard BookFREE 



I 



The Brunswick-Balke-Collender Co. 

Dept. 5-Z, 623-633 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago 

Send me your free book illustrated in colors — 

"Billiards- The Home Magnet" 

and details of your 30-day trial offer. 



Name. 



Address 



(346) 



FREE 



HOW TO WIN BIRDS 

If everybody only knew how many thousands of native 
birds die of starvation every winter no one who has a home 
would fail to set out a feeding house or shelter for birds. 
Now is the best time to put out bird houses as well as feed- 
ing and shelter houses. You can keep many beautiful birds 
with you all winter and they will attract more birds to your 
place by telling them how well you care for birds. To save 
birds and to win birds put out 

Dodson Sheltered Food Houses 

particularly designed for American Native Birds. Used successfully for 
many years. Dodson Bird Houses give a lifetime of service and add 
beauty and happiness to your life. 

Let me send you my Free Book telling how to win birds — based on 18 
years' work for Native Birds. Write to 

Joseph H. Dodson, 709 Security Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

Mr. Dodson is a Director of the Illinois Audubon Society 





Dodson Sheltered Food House 

Built of clear white pine — 24 x 24 x 18 
inches. Price with 8-ft. pole, $8 f.o.b. 
Chicago — with copper roof, $10. A 
Feeding Table— with 8-ft. pole, $6 
— with copper roof, $7.50. Feeding 
Car, $5. Feeding Shelf, $1.50. 



Famous Dodson 
Sparrow Trap 

Get rid of sparrows and native 
birds will return. This trap catches 
as many as 75 to 100 sparrows a 
day. Works automatically. You 
remove sparrows once a day. 
Built of strong, tinned wire, elec- 
trically welded. Very strong, 
practical, durable ; size 36x18x12 
inches. Price, $5 f. o. b. Chicago. 



What is a fair rental for a given property? Ask the Readers' Service 



136 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



November, 1914 







J*. 




Waterer's 


(^i/h^Lfi 


PRIZE-WINNING 


^M^ 


Bulbs 


^^^^^^ 


Always the 


>v/ i^ 


leaders in the 


^^Si/^iOjL 


prize winning 


tTf Lc^^\\ 


exhibits at the 


^L I il ^"^^^ \\ 


flower shows. 


»i\\l 1 \\ 


With Waterer 


.-/ft i il 


it is not how 


r^3 \LJ / 


cheap but 


^iMlnl 11 


how good. 


jr\ |W / 


Unique As- 


<^^ls| J 


sortment 


il^^fT^ 


of the new Dar- 


win, and May- 


t rs^l r^^S) A^<21r 


Flowering Tu- 


*^c II 1 ^23u\ /^ Jrl^. 


lips, Rare and 


iLiK^) /^v i/lr*' 


Choice Daffodils, 


fiVvCo /kS^^l 


Hyacinths ; and 


O'aJ^W^^ \ J^^^ 


all the fine things 


%&~2 lfl \ \{ 


for fall planting 


V* 5 // <J-* 


that are worthy 


' 'Sweet Hyacinths their bells 


of the highest 
taste and best 


did ring, 
To swell the music of the 


culture. 


spring. " 


(ISP* Send for oar new 




ill ujtrated catalog. Free 






Hosea Waterer, 


SEEDSMAN 

Philadelphia 


7th below Chestnut St. 



THREAD 

AND 

THRUM 
RUGS 



Made to ordet — to exactly match 
the color scheme of any room 

HAVE your fine rugs made to order, not 
cheap stereotyped fabrics, made in unlimited 
quantities; but rugs that are different and sold 
only through exclusive shops. We are only too 
glad to submit sketch in color to harmonize with 
surroundings of the room. Woven in selected 
camel's hair in undyed effects or pure wool in 
any color tone. Any length, any width — seam- 
less up to 1 6 ft. Order through your furnisher. 
Write us for color card — today. 
Thread fif Thrum Workshop 
Auburn, New York 



Baltimore Nurseries 



California Privet 

Any quantity, size and age. No better grown. 
Shade and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs and Vines. 
Full line of Fruit Trees and plants. 

Get our prices and catalog 



Franklin Davis Nursery Co. 

BALTIMORE, MD. 



\ears to Replace 
!A few Hours to Save 



Every lost tree means a bare spot 
for years. Stop this useless sacrifice 
of your finest trees. Davey Tree Ex- 
perts can save them by effective, 
scientific treatment. 
Write today for beautiful book 
giving details of the work of genuine 
Davey Tree Surgeons, the 
only kind good enough for 
the U. S. Government. Go 
direct to headquarters. 
The Davey Tree Expert Co., Inc. 
^ 1122 Elm St., Kent. Ohio 




Winter Vegetables in Alabama 

WHEN the time came last fall for me to put in 
my hardy vegetables I decided that the 
smaller the space used for them the better, so that 
I might have an opportunity to plow up my garden 
plot, which is 40 x 180 ft., and allow it to be bene- 
fited through the winter months by the heavy 
dressing of stable manure which we put on it before 
the frosts set in. 

Before this was done I reserved a 20-foot space 
across the west end of the garden. Here I made 
three beds, each 5 x 16 ft. They were then fer- 
tilized and each was boarded up, on three sides, to 
the height of eight inches. On the north side two 
8-inch boards were used, making a 16-inch wall, 
which was a protection from the north winds and 
which made the plants mature earlier. On the 
first of November the three beds were planted. 
One bed was covered with cheese-cloth and across 
half of it I sowed one ten-cent package of Iceberg 
lettuce, sowing it broadcast. The bed was kept 
well watered and was uncovered on sunny days and, 
as the plants grew large enough, they were trans- 
planted to the other half of the bed in check rows, 
8 x 8 in. I had splendid results from this method 
and we were supplied with lettuce for many weeks 
during the cold weather. 

In the other two beds were sown respectively one 
ounce of Eclipse beet seed and two packages of 
Scarlet Horn carrot seed. These seeds were sown 
across the beds in drills ten inches apart and with 
the narrowness of the bed, five feet. Cultivation 
was made an easy matter, thus giving us a fine, large 
yield of vegetables from a comparatively small piece 
of ground. We also found that the beets were 
sweeter in flavor than any that we had grown 
before. 

Alabama. Evelyn Vose Peck. 

Last Duties of Fall 

THE last fall month is a busy one for trans- 
planting perennials, dividing and transplant- 
ing shrubs. Have your beds worked up well with 
a spading fork, set out perennials and shrubs 
and cover with several inches of well-rotted 
manure. 

The bulb beds must be well worked, the bulbs 
planted four inches deep, and then covered 
very lightly with well rotted manure. Too heavy a 
covering forces them to bloom much too early, and 
if the winter is mild a number of them will bloom 
throughout the winter. This irregularity of bloom 
makes a ragged looking bed in the spring. Save 
all the soot from the fall cleaning of fireplaces, 
chimneys and kitchen stovepipes, and all through 
the winter keep the wood ashes. Both are valuable 
to put around the roots of roses and violets; the 
potash in the ashes is an excellent fertilizer and 
the soot destroys insects. 

Darwin tulips, planted in groups of a dozen 
among the perennials, make a very beautiful effect. 
After planting the hyacinth bulbs, sow on the sur- 
face forget-me-nots. This makes a beautiful effect 
if the hyacinths are buff or pale pink, and the forget- 
me-nots bloom before and after the hyacinths 
are gone. 

On cool nights protect the roses, dahlias, and 
chrysanthemums from frost; plant-cloth or cheese- 
cloth is an admirable thing to lay over them. 
When the frost has killed the dahlias, cannas, and 
caladiums remove the roots carefully from the 
ground, digging all around, pressing the spade 
handle down and pushing gently under the roots. 
The dahlias are liable to break off if roughly handled. 
Let them lie on the ground in the sun, taking them 
in at night and shaking off the dirt; they should be 
put in a loft to dry out thoroughly, and then packed 
in a box of dry sand and put in a cool cellar. An- 




4- 



Fine Big 

Clumps of 

Hardy Flowers 

For Planting Now 

ONE of the secret* of 
surely having profuse, 
early blooms from your 
hardy garden next Spring is 
to plant the plants this Fall. 
We have the finest kind of 
vigorous, field grown, gener- 
ous sized clumps which if 
planted now will bloom as 
freely as if they had been 
grown for a year right in 
your own garden. 

And after you have picked 
out from our Hardy Flower 
Booklet the kinds you want, 
just glance through our ever- 
green catalog which we will 
also send you. November, 
you know, is the time to plant 
evergreens if you want quick 
growing, vigorous results next 
Spring. You can't find bet- 
ter trees anywhere than these 
fine root pruned ones of ours 
with their bushy tops. 

White Pines 4 feet high at 
$20 for to, reduced to $14. 

White Pines 5 feet high at 
$30 for 10, reduced to $20. 

Every tree no matter 
whether big or little is guar- 
anteed to live and satisfy 
you. If not, we 
will send you new 
ones without 
charge. 




cks jre^5 

Isaac Hicks &>Son 

"Weslburu . Lontf Island 

IlLETT'S 

Hardy Ferns and Flowers 
For Dark, Shady Places 

Buy your Fall Bulbs now. We have Lilies, Trilliums, 
Erythroniums, Claytonias and many others. 
Send for our descriptive catalogue of over 80 pages, which 
tells all about our Plants and Bulbs. It's FREE. 

EDWARD GILLETT. 3 Main Street, Southwick, Mass. 




Horsford's 

Hardy 
Perennials 



DON'T fail to send for Horsford's cat- 
alogue before placing your order. 
You can find in it all the hardiest kinds 
for cold climates. Old Fashioned 
Flower, Wild Flowers, Orchids, Fall 
Bulbs, Trees, Shrubs, Vines. My bargain 
list offers a good chance to get stock at rea- 
sonable rates to those who have room to 
plant liberally. Ask for catalogue. 

F. H. HORS FORD, Charlotte, Vt. 




1 Fly, etc., by spraying your trees with 

GOOD'SSKFISH OIL 

SOAP N93 

Contains nothing injurious to 
Used and endorsed by U. S. 



^sure death to tree pests, 
trees — fertilizes the soil. 
Dept. of Agriculture. 



rnrr Our valuable book on Tree and 

rKLL 



Plant Diseases. Write for it today. 
JAMES GOOD, Original Maker, 931 N. Front Street, Philadelphia 




1915 &ttti Catalog: 

will be quite a wonder, and will con- 
tain some novel suggestions and 
real helps. 

The Thorburn advertising will tell 
you all about it in this and many 
other publications next month. 
53 B Barclay Street New York 



November, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



137 



Now or Never!! 

All spring- flowering bulbs 
should be planted before 
the close of November. 

Don't delay if you want 
your garden gay next 
spring. We have the best 
of everything in spring- 
flowering bulbs: 

Hyacinths, Tulips, Narcissus, Jonquils, 
Snowdrops, Crocus, Lily-of-the-Valley, 
Squills, Lilies, Iris, etc. Also the best and 
most complete line of Old-fashioned 
Hardy Plants — Hardy Climbers, Hardy 
Shrubs and other plants that should be 
planted in the Autumn. All are fully 
described in our Autumn Catalogue. 
Sent free on application. 

HENRY A. DREER 

PHILADELPHIA 



Successful growers use Brandywine 
Spawn. Send $i for enough to cover 30 sq. ft. 




L 1U1 CUUUgU IU LUVC1 jW 31^. 11. 

instructions anyone can follow 




T REES and SHRUB C 
PORTER'S HIGH QUALITY STOCK ^J 

Illustrated Price List free. Write for copy today 

PORTER'S NURSERIES 

Box 201 Evanston, 111. 

NOTE — Big Stock of Large Specimen Norway Maples at Low Prices 



<< 



V3 More Water 

raised and delivered by the 

American" Centrifugal Pump 



than by others because the 
impeller is accurately ma- 
chined to the casing, prevent- 
ing any sudden change in di- 
rection of the water. Not an 
ounce of power is wasted. 
Every "American" Centrifu- 
gal absolutely guaranteed. 
Write for new catalog 120. 

THE AMERICAN WELL WORKS 
Office and Works, Aurora, 111. 

First National Bant Building, Chicago 




PO^ERV 

IS THE SETTING EXQUISITE THAT ENHANCES 
THE BEAUTYOF FLOWERS 

Send for our illustrated-—' 
'catalogue of Rower Pots. 
Boxes,Vases,Benclxes, Sundials. 
Gazing Globes, Bird Fonts and 
other Artistic Pieces for Gaidenj 
and Interior Decoration. 

Gadoway Terra CoTta Co. 

3214 WALNUTST. PHILADELPHIA, PA. 




One Barrel ojf'ScaJecide 

Will Spray as many Trees a.& Three Barrels 

T ^l~~iMij-- ' ' , •.•--.* > Lime Sulfur j'-vsrtl 




"Scalecide" has 
greater invigorating effect 
on your orchard — kills more scale, eggs 
and larvae of insects with half the labor to 
apply. We caD back up this statement with facts 
concerning the Good Results from Using 

"SCALECIDE" 

Send for our illustrated booklet— "Proof of The Pudding". Tells how "Scalecide" will positively destroy San Jose and Cottony 
Maple Scale, Pear Psylla, Leaf Roller, etc., without injury to the trees. Write today for this FREE book and also our booklet 
■ — "Spraying Simplified". 

Our Service Department can furnish everything you need for the orchard at prices which save you money. Tell us your needs. 
We are World Distributors for VREELAND'S "ELECTRO" SPRAY CHEMICALS and Arsenate 
of Lead Powder (33 per cent), which, used wet or dry, has no equal in strength or texture. Avoid imitations. 

B. G. PRATT CO. M'f'g Chemists Dept. I 50 Church Street, New York City 





Country Club, St. Joseph, Mo. 

Stained with Cabot's Stains. 

Roof Red (Mottled Tile Effect), Trimmings Dark Brown. 

Walter Boschen, Architect, St. Joseph 



Country Club Houses 

should fit into their picturesque surroundings as harmoni- 
ously as possible, and suitable coloring does more than any- 
thing else in accomplishing this. The soft natural tones of 

Cabot's Creosote Stains 

in browns and grays to match the bark and rocks and 
weatherbeaten wood, greens to match the moss and foliage, 
dull reds for autumn effects, etc., make the buildings blend 
with the landscape and look like a part of it. Low cost, 
easy to apply, lasting, and the Creosote preserves the wood. 

You can gel Cabot's Stains all over the country. Send 
for stained wood samples and name of nearest agent. 

SAMUEL CABOT, Inc., Manfg. Chemists, 1 Oliver Street, Boston, Mau. 

Cabot's Stucco Stains — for cement work. 




WT£ grow a general line of good sturdy nursery stock. Our soil and 
climate here are peculiarly adapted to it. All our trees are several 
times transplanted, which insures a fine root system. We give more 
than usual attention to care in packing for shipment. There's a good bit 
of frank sincerity of the Puritan ancestors in our business methods which 
our customers have said is reflected in the kind of stock we grow and sell. 
Send for catalog and price list. 

Bav State Nurseries 

NorirH .Akington Mass. 




Our SPECIAL COLLECTION OFFERS 

assure you the most practical proven varieties at prices remarkably 
low. Found only in 

Collins' Garden and Orchard Guide — Free on request 

— the book which lists and describes all the best varieties of fruits, 

small fruits, berries, shrubs and decorative plants. Write for it today. 

ARTHUR J. COLLINS, Box 23, Moorestown, N. J. 





A Folio of Bungalows 

We will send you a 32 page 
book containing plans for 25 
Bungalows "and other inter- 
esting information on receipt 
of ten cents. 

W. J. KEITH, Architect 

SHORT STORIES PUBLISHING CO. 
11 West 32nd Street New York 



"BONORA" 



(THE GREATEST DISCOVSW 
OF MODERN TIMES 

pruRESPMFOfjrj 




THE GREAT MAGICAL 
PLANT FERTILIZER 



Use it now on flowering plants of all 
kinds; chrysanthemums, etc.. and it will 
bring" about most marvellous results. An 
application now will keep your plants in 
fine, healthy condition throughout the 
Fall and Winter, and enable them to with- 
stand the severe weather. The life-giving 
properties diffused by "BONORA, " es- 
pecially at this time of the year, has a 
lasting and permanent effect. Order 
through your seedsman or direct. 
Put up in dry form in all size packages 
as follows: 

12 oz. enough to make 21 gal. postpaid 50c 
1 lb. " " " 28 " " 75c 

5 lbs. " " " 140 " " 3-°° 

10 lbs. " " " 280 " " 5.50 

50 lbs. by freight 02.50 

100 lbs. by freight 40.00 

Bonora Chemical Company 
518-51? Broadway, New York 



Songs from Books 

BY 

Rudyard Kipling 

FASCINATING were the snatches of song 
that lent imaginative charm to many of 
Kipling's books. This volume then, is doubly 
delightful. For it gives in full, verses that 
were scattered through all the stories and 
novels with the exception of children's stories. 
It is surprising with how fresh an appeal these 
verses come in their rounded-out, collected 
form. Many of them have become famous 
since their first appearance in the stories. For 
that reason, the book is of exceptional interest 
to Kipling enthusiasts. 

Among the more familiar titles are " If — D , the well- 
known verses from " Rewards and Fairies n which have 
made such a wide appeal : n Cold Iron n , from the same 
volume ; " Mother O" Mine " from " The Light that 
Failed n , " The City of Sleep " from " The Brushwood 
Boy ■ ; "A Juggler's Song ■ from ■ The Naulahka ■ : 
" The Prairie " from n Letters to the Family ". and 
many others. 

Decorated. Cloth. Net $1.40 

PUBLISHED BY 

DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY 

GARDEN CITY, NEW YORK 



138 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



No VEMBEl 



1914 



How and When 
To Spray / 



This Book Mailed Free 

40 pages of practical informa- 
tion, written in a way you can 
understand and use. Gives spray 
calendar, spray formulas. Describes which 
mixtures to use to fight any certain pests on apple and 
other fruit trees, bush fruits, grapes, vegetable crops, etc. 
Tells how to prepare stock solutions, how to apply, 
which type of sprayer to use. Shows most practical 
sprayers, both hand and power. Get this valuable 
Free Book today. 




are made of chemical-proof materials. Designed to furnish best 
service withrgreat saving of solution. Easy to operate and to clean. 
More efficient and more economical than 
cheap outfits which last but a season 
or two. Jn use by over 400.000 fruit- 
growers and gardeners. Sold under 
a binding guarantee of satisfaction. Send 
for the book and post yourself at once. (22) 

THE GOULDS MFG. CO. 

Largest Makers of Pumps 
for Every Purpose 

82 W. Fall Street 
SENECA FALLS - - N. Y. 




The Morrill & Morley Way 

Use an Eclipse Spray Pump. Used by 
the U. S Department of Agriculture. Its 
construction is perfect. Illustrated cat- 
alogue free. 

Morrill & Morley Mfe. te- 
station 14, Benton Harbor, Mich. 



Eclipse Spray Pump 




LOOK OUT 
FOR SPARKS 

No more danger or damage from flying 
sparks. No more poorly fitted, flimsy fire- 
place screens. Send for free booklet 
"Sparks from the Fire-side." It tells about 
the best kind of a spark guard for your in- 
dividual fireplace. Write to-day for free 
booklet and make your plans early. 

The Syracuse Wire Works 
107 CniTersity Avenue, - Syracuse, N. V. 



GROWING BULBS 

by Maurice Fuld 

is the name of a book just published that is 

needed by every reader of the Garden Mag- 

— . azine. It shows you how to use 20th Century 

Price Methods in planting and caring for bulbs, 

<t 1 OO and is written so as to help the Amateur Gar- 

tpl dener to get the best results. Describes 

■ j Original Cultures in complete detail, by an 
p eminent Bulb Specialist. A necessity to 

every one who has a garden and wants to 
enjoy the beauty of bulbs next Spring. 

Send for your copy to-day 

KNIGHT & STRUCK COMPANY 

1 Madison Avenue, New York 





Junior Leader Orchard Sprayer with 2 H. P. 
engine, 3-plunger pump. 

High pressure. Automatic 
agitation of liquid, suction 
strainer is brush cleaned. We 
also make Bucket, Barrel, 
Mounted Potato Spray- 
ers, etc. 



A Sprayer 
For Every Need 



Free catalog. Spraying formulas 

Junior Leader Sprayer and spraying directions. Address 

Field Force Pump Co., Dept. H, Elmira. N.Y. 



other way to keep them over winter is to make a 
kiln in the garden. Place some straw or pine tags 
on the ground and put the roots on this upside 
down and in the form of a pyramid; cover well 
with pine tags and set on top a small tile pipe like 
a chimney. Pack down with earth, leaving the 
tile sticking out of top, and over all lay some 
planks against the pyramid to keep the dirt from 
washing off, and around the kiln dig a trench one 
foot deep for drainage. This is an excellent way 
to keep all root crops throughout the winter and is 
one of the best plans for keeping sweet and Irish 
potatoes after they have undergone the sweating 
process. 

Remove all dead branches from the rose bushes 
and place well rotted manure around them. Work 
with a spading fork between the plants in the flower 
garden and leave rough and cover with manure 
for the winter. If the weather has been open it 
is not too late to get a few plants from the garden 
and put in pots for the window garden or the 
conservatory. 

This is the ideal month for planting sweet peas. 
They should be planted in a long row on the edge 
of the vegetable garden and convenient of access. 
Dig a trench eighteen inches deep and the width of 
a spade, fill in six inches with well-rotted manure 
and over that three inches of good garden soil, 
sow the peas and fill in only two inches of soil. 
This will sink and leave a slight depression. In 
the spring, when the peas are about four inches high, 
fill in the soil around them a little at a time, and add 
then a little commercial fertilizer, one part each of 
muriate of potash and acid phosphate. As the 
peas grow keep filling in until the trench is level. 
Keep free from weeds and well cultivated, and later 
stretch a six-foot coarse wire net along the row. held 
in place every ten feet by a pole driven in the ground, 
the wire net being attached to it by staples. 

Quite late in the month wrap the fig bushes in 
straw. They do best against a north wall. No 
protection is necessary in the Tidewater section, 
only near the mountains where the winters are 
more severe. 

Peanuts are dug and stacked up to dry after 
the vines are destroyed by frost. 

Chestnuts and chinquapins are gathered now. 
The native persimmon is quite good after several 
frosts, and makes a toothsome conserve if packed 
in glass jars with sugar sprinkled between. 

Go over the orchard and scrape off the loose 
bark of the apple trees as it is a harboring place for 
insects. If any scale is discovered spray the trees 
with lime-sulphur. All dead limbs should be cut 
off with a slanting cut. Make a thorough inspec- 
tion of peach trees for borers, and protect young 
trees from rabbits by a screen of fine wire netting 
at the base and close to the tree. 

Give the vegetable garden a coating of agricul- 
tural lime if the soil is sour. Test different parts 
of the garden by mixing thoroughly a handful of 
soil with a pint or more of water and placing one 
end of a piece of blue litmus paper in the thin mud. 
If, in a short time, it turns red, the soil is sour. 
Ground that is constantly used for garden truck 
nearly always needs lime every five years. A 
rotation of crops is very necessary in a garden, and 
one should not plant the same vegetable in the 
same part of the garden two years in succession. 
For this reason, and also for mapping out one's 
plans, it is well to keep a plan of the garden with 
its changes every month. 

It is not too late to plant crimson clover in that 
part that is not to be used early in the spring, pro- 
viding a mixture of wheat, oats, and vetch are sowed 
with it as a protection against the severity of the 
winter. 

Don't forget the celery. Keep banking it up 
with earth, and late in the winter cover over the 
top with pine tags and lay old bean poles or planks 
on top to hold them down. 

At the end of the month put manure between the 
rows of spinach and onions. If placed on top it 
will rot them. A very light covering of pine tags 
could be put on the spinach that is sown broadcast. 

The early part of the month is not too late for 
setting out raspberry canes and strawberry plants. 
Plant as suggested in October, 1914, issue of The 
Garden Magazine. Deciduous trees and shrubs 
can be planted at any time now, and until the ground 
freezes. 

Virginia. J. M. Patterson. 



Two Fine Garden Tools 

This fine trowel is almost everlasting. It is 
1/16 qf_ an inch thick — made from crucible steel 
I of highest grade. Steel rivet holds maple 
handle so it can't work loose. Blade, 
neck and socket all one piece. 
Will last a lifetime. 

K££N 

mm 

Garden Tools 

are all first quality. This Keen Kuttei 
nursery spade has double straps full 
length of handle. No bettei 
at any price. Fine for trans- 
planting shrubs, bushes, small 
trees. Ask your dealer to show 
you. Send forour Garden Tool 
Booklet No. 1646. 
If not at your dealer's, write us. 

SIMMONS HARDWARE CO. 
St. Louis, U. S. A. 



Garden X rowels 

K05 with 

Straight Neck 

Price $0 75 

K04 with 

Bent Neck 

Price $0.75 




otuS Mushrooms 



40 cts. 



at all Seasons 
Growing In your Cellar 

in postage stamps together with the name of your 
dealer will bring you, postpaid, direct from the 
- manufacturer, a fresh sample brick of 

Lambert's Pure Culture MUSHROOM SPAWN 

the best high-grade spawn in the market, together with large illustrated book 
on Mushroom Culture, containing simple and practical methods of raising, 
preserving and cooking mushrooms. Not more than one sample brick will 
be sent to the same party. Further orders must come through your dealer. 

Address: American Spawn Co., Dept. 2, St. Paul, Minn. 



DWARF APPLE TREES 

DWARF PEAR TREES 

DWARF PLUM TREES 

DWARF CHERRY TREES 

DWARF PEACH TREES 

Also a Full Line of Standard Fruit Trees 

fall Planting Bulletin Free 

THE VAN DUSEN NURSERIES 

W. L. McKAY, Prop., Box G, Geneva, N. Y. 



PARTNER WANTED 

for an established wholesale market garden business 
near large western Canadian city. Must be a prac- 
tical gardener, able to handle men and have at least 
$3000.00 to invest. This is an exceptional opportun- 
ity for the right man. For full particulars, address 
Western Gardener, Box 4, Care of The Garden Magazine 
Garden City, N. Y.' 



Artistic Country Grounds 

Free expert criticism of plans. 
Suggestions on specific points. 

THE READERS' SERVICE 



RHODES DOUBLE CUT 

PRUNING SHEAR 




RHODES MFG. CO 



Cuts from both 
sides of limb and 
does not bruise the 
bark. 

We pay express 
charges on all orders. 

Write for cir- 
cular and prices. 



527 S. Division Ave., Grand Rapids, Mich. 



For a Gorgeous Spring Display 
PLANT NOW 

KRELAGE'S WORLD-RENOWNED 

Darwin Tulips 

A collection of 250 choice bulbs in 1 
standard varieties, including Clara Butt, Rev. 
Ewbank, Farncombe Sanders, Pride of Haarlem, 
Princess Juliana, etc., will be sent promptly for 
$5.00 (or half the Collection for $2.75) by 

J. A. DE VEER, 100 William St., New York 

Sole Agent for United States for E. H. Krelage & Son. 
established 1811. Haarlem (Holland.) 




Write to the Readers' Service for information about live stock 






November, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



139 




Send for this FREE 
Book "About Dogs" 

and free sample of Austin's 
Dog Bread. Learn the 
right way to care for and 
feed your pet. 

DREAD 

Austin's Dog Bread, aided by this dog encyclopedia, 
will result in a glossy coat, clear eyes, and sound 
muscle. His dogship will be kind 
and gentle at all seasons, and 
may even owe his life to the 
information contained in the chap- 
ter on "DOG'S DISEASES." 

WRITE TODA Y for FREE SAMPLE 
— please give your dealer's name 




AUSTIN DOG BREAD AND 
ANIMAL FOOD CO. 

241 Marginal St. Boston, Mass. 




— <^<My.\ 



^*^rT- 



Bob White Quail 
Partridges and Pheasants 

Capercailzies, Black Game, Wild Turkeys, Quails, 
Rabbits, Deer, etc., for stocking: purposes. Fancy 
Pheasants, Peafowl, Swans, Cranes, Storks, 
Ornamental Geese and Ducks, Foxes, Squirrels,' 
Ferrets, etc.. and all kinds of birds and animals. 

WILLIAM J. MACKENSEN, Naturalist 

Dept. 55, Pbeasantry and Game Park YARDLEY, PA. 




PONIES 



A lovable, gentle pet for your bov and girl. 

Riding and driving develops self-reliance, and 
makes happy, rosy-cheeked chil 
dren. Price 875— up. Guaran- 
teed^ Write for catalogue — full 
description of ponies. 

BELLE MEADE FARM 
Box 15 Markham, Va. 






will reduce inflamed, swollen Joints, Sprains, 
Bruises, Soft Bunches; Heals Boils, Poll 
Evil, Quittor, Fistula, or any un- 
healthy sore quickly as it is a positive 
antiseptic and germicide. Pleasant to 
use; does not blister under bandage 
or remove the hair, and you can work 
the horse. $2.00 per bottle, delivered. 
Book 7 K free. 
W. F.YOUNG, P.D.F., 152 Temple Street, Springfield, Mass. 




Poultry, Kennel and Live Stock Directory In l forma,ion about the £ 

• / * J selection or care or 

dogs, poultry and live stock will be gladly given. Address INFORMATION DEPARTMENT, 
The Garden Magazine, 11-13 West 32d Street, New York. 



5&B»OARDlU G 



w 



I 

It 



te»l 



# 



Egg Insurance 

Insure Winter Eggs by using 

Purina Chicken Chowder 
<ot</PurinaScratch Feed 

Sold under iron-bound guarantee 
of more eggs or money back. 



I MO«C R 

iMOHEVBACHg 



!«• CV~~f" 

1KB 



PURINA D£R |! 

! Scratch re 

% SOt iS2«p M -BACS. 

check^oaRO 



Purina Chicken Chowder contains corn- 
meal, bran, middlings, linseed meal, granu- 
lated meat, alfalfa meal, and charcoal. 
The leading dealers sell it in Checker- 
board Bags only, on an absolute guarantee 
of more eggs or money back when used 
with Purina Scratch Feed. 

48 Page Poultry Book Freefnew editionleon- 
taining breeding and feeding charts, plans 
of houses, cures of diseases, space for daily 
egg records, etc. Also information about 
Boys' and Girls' Poultry Club and prizes. 
Write today. 

Ralston Purina Company 
829 So. Eighth St. St. Louis, Mo. 



PURINAl 

ICHICKENI 
ICHOWDERI 

IN 

[CHECKERBOARD! 

BAGS 



"If CHICKEN 
CHOWDER won t 
make your hens 



BAGS 



t\ roosters' 



*PJ 



*V_ i> 



■*-/ 



Hodgson Portable Poultry Houses 

Five-Section Poultry House — 
10x50 ft. 



Sanitary, durable, up-to-date — made of red cedar, clap- 
boarded outside, interior sheathed. Made in 10-ft sections, 
each fitted with roosts, nests and fountain. Open fronts, 
with canvas-covered frames. You can add sections at any 
time. Easily erected. 

First Section 

$75.00 

Additional 

Sections 

1 $60.00 Each 




No. Colony Laying House 



f 11 none Fitted complete with nests, fountain 
IOr \.L IlcUS anc j feed trough. Sanitary — easily clean- 
ed. One man can easily care for several hundred birds. 
Nicely painted — set up in fifteen minutes. A comfortable 
year-round house. In stormy weath- 
er the run may be covered, giving a 
protected scratching room. Size, lOx 
4ft., 5ft. high. 



$20^2 



Send for catalogue. 

( ROOM 311. 110 WASHINGTON ST., BOSTON, MASS. ( 
i I CRAFTSMAN BLDG., 6 EAST 39TU ST., NEW YORK j 




Address all 

correspondence 

to Boston 



// you wish information about dogs apply to the Readers' Service 



140 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



November, 1914 



SUGGESTIONS FOK 




EFFIE M . ROBINSON 




ARE not we housekeepers busy this month? The 
cold weather has started in earnest and the easy 
breakfast of ready-to-serve foods is satisfactory no 
longer. Hot and filling foods are needed to enable the 
out-of-doors members of the family to go off comfort- 
ably* warmed in the morning. A good start helps to 
keep them in good health. Oatmeal is an ideal food 
for children. This used to take many hours to properly 
cook, when we had to use the coarse grains of oatmeal, 
called pin oats; but now the crushed or flaked grains, 
though the same thing, require less time. On the 
other hand I think those steam cooked foods require 
longer cooking than most people give to make them 
thoroughly digestible. Give an hour if possible. If a 
double boiler is used, you need not be afraid to leave 
it and it is not necessary to continually stir it to prevent 
burning. The food will be much more palatable if 
cooked a long time. Change, sometimes, from oatmeal, 
as a continued use of it is too heating to the blood. 

Wheat is a very nutritious food also, as it contains 
gluten, a form of albumen, and may be more suitable 
to some people than oatmeal. There are several wheat 
preparations sold in packages that are to be highly 
recommended. In preparing these foods, follow 
the directions on the packages for quantity, but 
try cooking in half milk and half water, adding 
just a little sugar. We find this greatly im- 
proves the flavor. 

Rice can also be used, if it is liked. Some 
times I do not have cereal at all, but have 
wheat cakes or pancakes made with prepared 
pancake flour. Cakes, with hot corn cake and 
hot coffee or cocoa, make a fine breakfast. 

How to Make Good Coffee 

I certainly recommend every one who wants 
good coffee to get a percolator. I never would 
be without one. Mine is made like an ordinary 
coffee pot with top strainer. A stand comes 
with it which may be put right on the gas stove, 
and since I have had it I would never try to 
make coffee in the ordinary way. Only one 
thing you must remember — cook it for a long 
time. You see, in a percolator the water runs 
through the grains and unless this is done many 
times you will find the coffee is weak. A good 



plan is to put the 
household is stirring, 
breakfast is served, 
strong enough. Have 
double boiler but not 



coffee on directly the 
and then by the time 
the coffee will be 
the milk heated in a 
boiled, and by using 




A graceful arrangement of fruit and asparagus fern 




A chrysanthemum centre piece is made doubly attractive by the use 
candles. For Thanksgiving, use yellow and bronze chrysanthemums 



equal parts of milk and coffee you will have an ideal 
drink. There is a splendidly flavored, ready to serve, 
coffee which only requires the addition of boiling water. 
This is excellent in case of an emergency. Of course, 
there are ever so many brands of coffee to choose from. 

Why the Housewife Has to Get Busy 

Leaving the matter of breakfasts, with the very 
start of November the housewife begins to think of the 
important event of the month, Thanksgiving Day. 
Such preparations are made for this great feast! The 
house is dressed in its best winter garb. Curtains and 
portieres are to be hung, and everything all through the 
house made as spick and span as possible. Then a 
little later comes the thought and preparation for the 
dinner. Of course it is a festival, but it seems to me 
that people put too much on the table at this time. 
For instance, a turkey for a real small family is ridicu- 
lous; it lasts so long afterward that every one gets 
tired of it. Why not a chicken instead, with cranberry 
sauce or jelly, as desired, two vegetables and, to follow, 
one dessert and fruit? 

Put on your pretty table accessories, have clean linen 
and manage to have some flowers for decor- 
ation. A lovely idea I once saw was an oblong 
centrepiece of pale yellow velvet, which was 
stenciled in Virginia creeper leaves in the na- 
tural reds and browns of fall color. The flowers, 
in four tall vases, were brown and yellow chry- 
santhemums, with creeper leaves. These were 
placed at the four corners of the table, and one 
tall branched candlestick was in the centre with 
brown and yellow shades to match the centre- 
piece. Unless for children's parties, where they 
make some fun, I do not like the ugly pumpkin 
faces and figures that are so often used. Thanks- 
giving time is really the "harvest home" fest- 
ival when the crops are all gathered in, and I 
believe that the harvest idea should be carried 
out in prettier fashion than by using the pumpkin . 
Another very attractive table decoration is 
one composed of fruit — a pineapple, with apples, 
grapes, pears, oranges, etc. arranged around it — 
and asparagus fern. Chrysanthemums are the 
most appropriate flower for this season; they 
should also be combined with asparagus fern. 




Still 1 Cents 

The five-cent loaf of bread weighs 

ess than it used to and the 

roast that was fifty cents 

is a dollar now, but the 




dessert has 
not gone 
up in price 

and is as big and good as ever. 10 cents 

at any grocer's. 

THE GENESEE PURE FOOD CO. 

Le Roy, New York 



Makes delicious hot biscuit, 
griddle cakes, rolls and muffins. 

An absolutely pure, cream of tartar powder* 

Contains no Alum 



All foods advertised in this department have been tested and approved by Effie M. Robinson. They are also sold and recommended by the Doubleday, Page fir Co. Cooperative Store 



November, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



141 



SUCCESTIONS FOK 




(?o«9ucfcc 

EFF1E M. 



R.OBINSON 






The Westfield Board of Health 
says — "Absolutely Pure and 
Wholesome." 



A Big Summer Hotel writes: 

"We greatly appreciate the fine care you have 
taken of our orders during the summer. The 
quality of your Hams and Bacon has at all 
times been fully up to your own distinct standard 
and we have, as for a number of seasons past, 
received frequent compliments for these partic- 
ular items of Ferris Production." 

Insist on FERRIS 

A LITTLE HIGHER IN PRICE— BUT! 



'The Greatest of All Cook Books"— n. y. Evening Telegram 

THE INTERNATIONAL 
COOK BOOK 

By ALEXANDER FIL1PPINI 

A collection of the world's best recipes arranged 
in diary form with a complete menu for every 
meal in the year. A cook book for moderate 
purses and the average housewife. 

3,300 Recipes Net $1.00 Complete Index 

Garden City DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY New York 




Graduate oftfe l^ationaP^iTaimng Sc€doP 
ofCootiexy, I^opdon. , GnyfatuT? 





Rejj. U.S.Pat. 



It is delicious 

A well made cup of good cocoa best ful- 
fils the requirements of those who wish a 
delicious and nourishing hot beverage, and 

Baker's Cocoa tr d " 

in every sense of the word, absolutely 
pure and of high grade. 

Walter Baker & Co., Ltd. 

Established 1780 
Dorchester, Mass. 



The New Housekeeping 



Some of the Subjects : 

IT A solution of the servant 
problem. 

If Efficiency in the kitchen. 

If Business and the house- 
keeper. 

H Household economies. 

^f Men and the household 
efficiency movement. 



By Christine Frederick 

Consulting Household Editor of the Ladies' 

Home Journal, and the National Secretary of 

the Associated Clubs of Domestic Science. 

Says the New Orleans Times- Democrat : 
It is the most practical book ever written for solv- 
ing the problems every housekeeper has to meet — 
the reduction of the cost of living — the elimination of 
drudgifying work. 

Illustrated. Net $1.00 



Garden City 



DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & CO. 



New York 



Free Cook Books Every Reader Ought to Have 

MANUFACTURERS of standard food products are much interested in the proper cooking and the 
serving of dishes in which their products are used. Many of them publish cook books of great use- 
fulness. We have requested a few of these manufacturers to allow us to distribute their books of 
recipes to readers of The Garden Magazine without charge. 

Just write us a letter giving your name and address and we will have the books as listed below for- 
warded to you promptly. If you do not care for all please indicate by number those you do want. This list 
contains additional names to the list issued last month. Those who have written already for the list as 
published, will receive also these later listings. 



No. Manufacturer 



Product 



i Royal Baking Powder Co. 

2 F. A. Ferris & Co. 

3 Walter Baker Co. 

4 Genesee Pure Food Co. 

5 Diamond Crystal Salt Co. 

6 * Burnham & Morrill Co. 

7 A. Colburn Co. 

8 JCresca Company 

9 The Fleischmann Co. 
io Gorton Pew Fisheries 

1 1 Hawaiian Pineapple Packers Canned Pineapple 

12 Hills Bros. Co. [Ass'n. Dates, etc. 

* Sample of product on request. % Enclose 2 cent 



Baking Powder 

Hams & Bacon 

Chocolate & Cocoa 

Jell-O 

Salt 

Fish-Flakes 

Mustard & Spices 

Preserves, etc. 

Yeast 

Cod Fish Flakes 



Name of Book 

Royal Baker 
Table Hints 
Choice Recipes 
Desserts of the World 
i oi Uses for Salt 
Good Eating & Sample 
Recipes 

Cresca Delicacies - 2c 
Good Things to Eat 
True Food Economy 
ioo Recipes 
Dromedary Cook Book 
stamp for this book. 



No. 



Manufacturer 



13 Geo. A. Hormel Co. 

14 Knox Gelatine Co. 

15 Francis H. Leggett & Co. 

16 Minute Tapioca Co. 

17 Proctor & Gamble Co. 

18 Sea Beach Packing Works 

19 Southern Cotton Oil Co. 

20 Stephen F. Whitman & Son 

21 Worcester Salt Co. 

22 G.Washington Coffee Sales Co. 

23 |Stickney & Poor Co. 

24 McMonagle & Rogers 

25 Landers, Frary & Clark 



Product 

Hams & Bacon 
Gelatine 
Premier Foods 
Tapioca & Gelatine 
Crisco 

Minced Sea Clams 
Salad Oil & Snow- 
Chocolate, etc. [drift 
Salt 

Instant Coffee 
Spices, Mustard, etc. 
Fruit Flavors 
Percolators, etc. 



Name of Book 

Dainty Ways of Serving 
Dainty Desserts 
Pure Foods 

Minute Man Cook Book 
Story of Crisco 
Secret of Many Delight- 
Recipes [ful Dishes 
Marshmellow Whip 
Worcester Cook Book 
Booklet 

Fifth Generation Cook 
Recipe Book [Book — 2c. 
The Chafing Dish 



Address Miss Effie M. Robinson, Home Table Dept., Garden Magazine, Garden City, N. Y. 



All foods advertised in this department have been tested and approved by Effie M. Robinson. They are also sold and recommended by the Doubleday, Page &• Co. Cooperative Store 



142 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



November, 191* 



Monster 
Daffodil 




A flower so beautiful 
that $15.00 apiece was gladly paid in 
Europe when it made its appearance. 

The flower is immense, with long fluted trum- 
pet — brilliant golden sunset tint. Planted indoors 
now (especially in our prepared Moss fiber) the 
beautiful flowers will gladden your Eastertide. 
Planted outdoors any time during November it 
will blossom in Spring. We have received a 
limited stock from Europe to dispose at very low 
figure — (within the reach of all.) 

Immense Bulbs — delivery free : 

1 3 6 12 

$.35 $1.00 $1.75 $3.00 

Lily of Valley 

,Jk Could anything be sweeter ? 

&p Bloom 18-20 days from time 

of planting in our prepared 

Moss fiber. An ideal gift for 

Thanksgiving. 

6 $ .40 

12 $ .65 

25 $1.10 

50 $2.00 

Price includes delivery, and suf- 
ficient prepared Moss fiber, also full 
directions for successful flowering. 

Byzantine Wonder Lily 

The ideal table decoration 
for Thanksgiving. Give sun- 
shine and a warm spot — no 
soil, no water. The 
wealth of rosy, lily 
like flowers appears 
shortly last- 
ing 3-4 weeks. 
10-20 flowers 
according 
size of Bulb. 





Delivery included. 

1 3 12 

Large Bulbs $.20 $.50 $1.75 

Monster .30 .80 2.75 

Jumbo, scarce .40 1.10 

Both Lily of Valleys 
and Byzantine Wonder 
Bulbs are Love's own 
gift to Invalids or 
"Shut-in's"who delight 
in watching the magic unfolding of the flowers. 

Send for our Interesting FALL BULB BOOK 
Something new and odd 



H.H.BERGER&C0.,£ 



70 Warren Street 
ew York, N. Y. 




Meetings and Exhibitions in November 



1, 2, 3. 



2- 
3, 


8. 
4, 


5. 


3-6. 




4- 


6. 




4, 


5, 


6. 


5, 


6. 




5, 


6, 


7. 


5, 


6, 


7, 8 


6, 


7, 


8. 


9. 
9, 


10 


. 



Horticultural Society of New York, American Mu- 
seum of Natural History, New York City: ex- 
hibition. 

Florists' Club of Washington: fall flower show. 

Elberon Horticultural Society, Asbury Park, N. J.: 
fall show. 

Pennsylvania Horticultural Society; Philadelphia, Pa.: 
annual exhibition and chrysanthemum show. 

American Institute, New York City: chrysanthemum 
show. 

Tarrytown, N. Y., Horticu.tural Society: i6th 
annual exhibition. 

Worcester County Horticultural Society, Worcester, 
Mass.; chrysanthemum exhibition. 

Lancaster County Florists' Club, Lancaster, Pa.: 
fall show. 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society, Horticultural 
Hall, Boston, Mass.: chrysanthemum show. 

State Florists' Association of Indiana, Indianapolis: 
chrysanthemum exhibition in conjunction with 
Chrysanthemum Society of Am rica. 

Rochester, N. Y. Florists' association: regular meeting. 

Horticultural Society of Chicago, Art Institute, 
Chicago, 111.: chrysanthemum show. 



11. 




11, 


12 


11- 


13 


12, 


14 


13. 




14. 
16. 
17- 


21. 


18. 




18, 


19, 


26. 
27. 





28. 



Nassau County Horticu tural Society, Glen Cove,. 

N. Y.: meeting. 
Ontario Horticultural Association. Toronto, Canada: 

annual convention. 
Reading, Pa. Florists' Association: chrysanthemum 

show. 
Texas State Florists' Asso iation, Houston, Texas: 

chrysanthemum and flower show. 
Connecticut Horticultural Socie.y, Hartford, Conn.: 

regular meeting. 
Dobbs Ferry, N. Y., Horticultural Society: meeting. 
Staten Island Garden Club, New Dorp, S. I.: meeting- 
Maryland State Horticultural Society, 5th Regiment 

Armory, Baltimore, Md.: annual meeting and ex- 
hibition. 
Tarrytown, N. Y., Horticultural Society: regular 

meeting. 
Vermont Horticultural Society, Rutland, Vt.: annual 

meeting and exhibition. 
Tacoma Rose Society, Tacoma, Wash.: rose show. 
Connecticut Horticultural Society, Hartford, Conn.:. 

regular mee ing. 
Dobbs Ferry, N. Y., Horticultural Society: meeting. 



Note: The Editors will be grateful for information about the doings of horticultural societies, 
garden clubs, etc., and especially as regards notices of coming events to be announced in this de- 
partment. In order to ensure timely publication, the information must reach the Editors not later 
than the twelfth day of the month preceding the date of issue in which the notice should appear. 



New Chrysanthemums 

THE committees of the society for examining new 
chrysanthemums will meet each Saturday during 
November in Chicago, Cincinnati, Boston, New York, 
and Philadelphia. Any one having a new seedling or 
sport which has already been given two years' trial, 
may submit blooms to the nearest committee on pay- 
ment of an entry fee of two dollars to be forwarded to 
the secretary in advance of the date of the meeting. 

Chrysanthemum Society Meeting 

THE twenty-fourth annual convention and exhibition 
of the Chrysanthemum Society of America will be 
held in Indianapolis, in connection with the State 
Florists' Association of Indiana, on November 6, 7, 8. 
The officers of the Chrysanthemum Society are as 
follows: President, William Kleinheinz; Vice-Presi- 
dent, A. F. J. Baur; Treasurer, John N. May; Secre- 
tary, Charles W. Johnson, Morgan Park, Ills. In order 
to have the exhibition well patronized, the public will 
be admitted free of charge. 

Tacoma Rose Society 

TACOMA has had two rose shows this year and, be- 
fore 1914 has closed, it will have held two more. 
The annual rose show, under the auspices of the Tacoma 
Rose Society, was held in June. Nearly 400 varieties 
of roses were exhibited and more than 40,000 roses were 
used in the decorations of the State Armory in which 
the exhibition was given. Among the 40 cups awarded 
was one from Hugh Dickson, the Irish rose grower. 
The Hugh Dickson is the Tacoma official rose, and 
the cup was offered for the best six. This cup must 
be won three times. Mrs. Talmadge Hamilton won 
it in 1913 and again this year. None but amateurs 
may exhibit. 

In July and August a "Seven-Mondays' Show" was 
conducted by the Society in the dining room of the 
Commercial Club, and the exhibits filled twenty large 
tables each of the seven Mondays. 

The next show will be given on Thanksgiving Day, 
and on Christmas Day a fourth exhibition will be held. 
It may seem strange that such shows are planned in a 
city lying so far north. Yet such exhibitions are 
altogether possible unless esceptional and wholly 
unexpected weather conditions nip the blossoms. Last 
Thanksgiving Day one of the Society's members ex- 
hibited in a downtown store window a bouquet of 
52 roses, all taken from his open garden. His Christ- 
mas dinner table was adorned with a centre piece of 
24 excellent roses from his garden. Nearly everybody 
with bushes has Thanksgiving Day blossoms, and there 
always is much good natured rivalry over exhibits of 
Christmas rose blooms. 

At the shows, blossoms six inches and even seven in 
diameter are not rare, and stems often run to two feet. 



One specimen shown at the Commercial Club was 32 
inches in length, this being a Mad. Caroline Testout, 
grown by Capt. T. H. Dobson. 

A winter-killed rose is very rare in this section. 
Once in a while the bushes are slightly frost bitten. 
None of the growers protects his bushes except in the 
case of a few of the tenderest varieties, when an ever- 
green bough or two may be thrown over them. Ex- 
periments have been made to some extent by Mr. Carl 
Morisse in transplanting Puget Sound roses to Minne- 
sota, Michigan, and Indiana, and the results have been 
gratifying. 

The Rose Society has done a great work in encourag- 
ing the beautification of public ground and private 
residences. At its request the Park Board planted a 
large rose garden in beautiful Point Defiance Park. 
The bushes are carefully labeled with the name and 
some facts about its habits. The Rose Society holds 
monthly meetings, at which everything pertaining to 
rose-growing is discussed, and, at one or two meetings 
in the late winter, demonstrations of pruning are given. 
Each spring the Society distributes a great number of 
rose slips, the most successful distribution resulting 
in more than 200,000 of these slips. This distribution, 
while under the Society's auspices, was conducted by 
the Evening News and Morning Ledger. 



N 



American Carnation Society 

EW carnation registered by Herman C. G. 
Schwarz, Central Park, N. H. — Siren; seedling 
cross on Enchantress. Color brilliant flesh pink. 
Size 3J to 4 inches. Ideal upright grower and easy 
rooter. Dark green foliage and no surplus grass. Pro- 
duces flowers freely and on long strong stems. 

A. F. J. Baur, Sec'y. 

An Award of Merit 

WALTHAM Scarlet, a new scarlet, single Hybrid 
Tea rose, has had conferred upon it, across 
the Atlantic, an Award of Merit. The flowers are 
about three inches in diameter, are of an intense 
rose red, against which the yellow stamens in the 
centre of the flower make a striking contrast. 

New York Florists' Club 

AT THE October meeting, Mr. C. H. Totty showed 
flowers of a new white sport from Mrs. George 
Shawyer rose. It bids fair to become a very popular 
variety for growing under glass, and is the counter- 
part, in every way except color, of its pink parent. 
Blooms of a new strain of dahlias were staged by W. 
A. Manda. This strain seems to have greater vigor, 
with the blooms borne in great profusion and on long 
stems. J. L. Childssent his "wool flower" celosia; and 
a magnificent new white chrysanthemum, flat, in- 
curved, white, very large, named Antigone, was also 
contributed by Mr. Totty. 



For information about live slock write to the Readers' Service 



November, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



143 



THE- TALK- OF - THE - OFFICE 



m 



CJ> 



mm 



"To buiinesa that we lore we rise betime 
And £0 to 't with delight." — Antony and Clffalra. 



REBUILDING 

UP TO the present time the rage of de- 
struction goes on unchecked, and there 
are few or no signs of anything else. 
Everywhere outside of the terrible war zone 
people are wondering how and when is to begin 
the process of rebuilding what has been so 
recklessly destroyed. After three numbers of 
the World's Work devoted to blood and 
carnage, it should be an inspiration to turn 
to a subject fundamentally constructive, and 
we again announce for December a number 
taking for its text"U. S. the Rebuilders," 
which is coming as near to a Christmas senti- 
ment as is possible in this degenerate year. 
If there is to be no "Peace on Earth" perhaps 
from our neutral viewpoint there may be at 
least some "Goodwill to Men." 

Here are the subjects which we hope to 
cover in this issue — subjects which we may well 
study at this time if we are to be the larger 
spirited country we hope to become: 

Where the Trade Waits. South America, the Near 
East, Africa, and the Far East. 

Our Treaty Ties. Our foreign relations, the Monroe 
Doctrine, the Wilson Doctrine, the Open Door. 

Where Foreign Tariffs Affect Us. How we are 
affected by the tariffs all over the world. 

The Open Door, the Open Sea, and Free Trade. 
A broad gauge policy for a big nation. 

An American Merchant Marine. 

American Popularity in Foreign Lands. Interviews 
obtained. 

Why I Am an American. By a German, a French- 
man, a Swede, an Italian, etc. 

The Ties of Blood. 

American Travel Abroad. See the Americas first. 

An American Merchant Marine and What It 
Can Do. 

How Best Can the U. S. Serve Civilization in 
This Crisis? 

Foreign Banking Outposts. American banks abroad 
and what they can do. 

American Loans. 

American Diplomacy. 

The Concession Business. 

What We Are Doing to Meet Our New Responsi- 
bilities. 

The Effect of Capital on Trade. 

A SPANISH EDITION 

It is a pleasure to learn of the demand in 
South America and other Spanish speaking 
countries for a Spanish edition of the World's 



Work. Some of the larger American firms 
and corporations have planned to join with 
us to get a wide circulation for the December 
magazine in these countries, and the Rebuild- 
ers Number will be issued, if our plan works 
out, in both languages about December i, 
1914. If you are interested in getting into 
these new fields, write us. 

BOOKS AND YET MORE BOOKS 

We hope we are not obsessed by the war. 
The making of Fewer and Better Books goes 
on, we are thankful to say, successfully. The 
publishers report that the book publishing 
and selling business is good. Here, in brief, 
is the fall list, details of which appear in other 
advertising pages in this issue: 

The Twenty-Fourth of June. By Grace S. Rich- 
mond, $1.25 net. 
Almayer's Folly. By Joseph Conrad, cloth, $1.25 

net; limp leather $1.50 net. 
The Place Beyond the Winds. By Harriet T. 

Comstock, $1.25 net. 
Change (Vol. VII of the Drama League Series). By 

J. O. Francis, 75 cents net. 
Joseph Conrad. By Richard Curie, $1.25 net. 
The Teeth of the Tiger. By Maurice Leblanc, 

$1.25 net. 
Astronomy (Threshold of Science series). By Camille 

Flammarion, 50 cents net. 
Bambi. By Marjorie Benton Cooke, $1.25 net. 
By aisid Large. By Franklin P. Adams, $1.00 net. 
The Wild Turkey and Its Hunting. By Edward 

A. Mcllhenny, $2.50 net. 
Scouting With Daniel Boone. By Everett T. 

Tomlinson, $1.20 net. 
Myths Every Child Should Know. Edited by 

Hamilton W. Mabie. Holiday Edition, illustrated 

by Mary Hamilton Frye, $2.00 net. 
Marta of the Lowlands (Vol VIII of the Drama 

League Series). By Angel Guimera, 75 cents net. 
The Sealed Valley. By Hulbert Footner, $1.25 net. 
The Best Stories in the World. Selected by 

Thomas L. Masson, of Life. New limp leather 

edition (boxed), $1.25 net. 
Bob, Son of Battle. By Alfred Ollivant. New 

pocket edition in flexible leather binding, Si. 50 net. 
Songs of Nature. Edited by John Burroughs. 

New limp leather edition (boxed), $1.50 net. 
A Journey to Nature. By J. P. Mowbray. New 

limp leather edition (boxed), $1.50 net. 
A Soldier of the Legion. By C. N. & A. M. Wil- 
liamson, $1.35 net. 
Fairy Tales from Hans Christian Andersen. 

Illustrated by Dugald Stewart Walker, $1.50 net. 
A Midsummer Night's Dream. Illustrated by Arthur 

Rackham. New popular edition, $1.50 net. 



The Art of the Low Countries. By Dr. Wilhelm R. 
Valentiner. Translated by Mrs. Schuyler Van 
Rensselaer, $2.50 net. 

Appearances. By G. Lowes Dickinson, $1.00 net. 

Early American Churches. By Aymar Embury II, 
$2.80 net. 

Country Houses. By Aymar Embury, II, $3.00 net. 

The Blossoming Rod. By Mary Stewart Cutting, 
50 cents net. 

A Handbook to the Poetry of Rudyard Kipling. 
By Ralph Durand, $2.00 net. 

The History of Architecture, Vol. III. By Pro- 
fessor A. L. Frothingham, cloth, $5.00 net; leather, 
$7.50 net. 

Freckles. By Gene Stratton-Porter. New Holiday 
Edition, illustrated by Thomas Fogarty, $1.50 net. 

The Pastor's Wife. By the Author of "Elizabeth 
and Her German Garden," $1.35 net. 

The Grand Assize. By Hugh Carton, $1.35 net. 

The American Whitaker Almanac and Encyclo- 
pedia. $1.00 net. 

The Seven Seas Edition of the Works of Rudyard 
Kipling. New volumes as ready. 

going well 

Penrod. By Booth Tarkington, $1.25 net. 

Chance. By Joseph Conrad, cloth, $1.35 net; pocket 

leather, $1.50 net. 
Laddie. By Gene Stratton-Porter, $1.35 net. 

TO OLD FRIENDS 

It has been a source of great gratification 
to us that our suggestion that old friends should 
send a short time subscription to the World's 
Work to their friends has been responded to 
by many thousands. May we still suggest 
that a three months' subscription for 50 cents 
would be an interesting and pleasant attention 
from one friend to another? Two for $1.00. 
Use this coupon if you will be so kind: they 
are coming down like a white shower in the 
mail room, and cheer us up wonderfully. 



The World's Work, Garden City, N. Y. 

Please send a 3 months' subscription (50c) 
to 



Find enclosed $_ 



from 



144 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



November, 1914 




Grass Under Beech Trees 

It seems to be impossible to make grass grow under 
beech trees. Would it be practical to break up the poor 
sod with some shrubbery which I could fertilize? — B. 
K. C, New Jersey. 

— It will be impossible for you to get shrubs to grow 
under the beech trees any more than grass. The reason 
being that the trees take all the moisture out of the 
ground, and, if you put fertilizers in the ground it will 
only make the trees grow more rapidly. The only 
thing to do is to plant the shrubs at some distance from 
the trees and in this way hide their bases. No one to 
our knowledge has ever yet succeeded in growing plants 
or grass close up under beech trees. 

Ammonia on Plants 

Is the use of ammonia beneficial in growing flowers 
and plants; and if so, kindly give me information as to 
its proper application, etc. — E. B., New Jersey. 
— Ammonia is valuable as a source of nitrogen, and it 
is the ammonia in stable manure that is immediately 
available as plant food. It is difficult to use ammonia 
as a fertilizer; on account of its highly volatile char- 
acter it becomes lost in the air and only a small propor- 
tion of it is made use of by the plant. It is better to 
use it in one of the fixed salts such as the muriate or 
sulphate or in nitrate of soda. If ammonia is used 
in the ordinary aqueous solution it might be applied 
at the rate of one teaspoonful to a gallon of water and 
used in the ordinary watering process, say once or 
twice a week. Such a fertilizer, however, is only to be 
used on plants in actually growing condition and not 
toward the end of the season when the plants are ripen- 
ing their growth. 

Where to Buy Burbank's Creations 

Does any nursery firm in the East handle most or all 
of Luther Burbank's plant creations? Also, where 
can I get the Gold plum, one of Burbank's productions? 
— H. P. S., Wash., D. C. 

— We do not know of any eastern nurseryman handling 
the Luther Burbank productions. With the exception 
of a few things which have passed into the general trade 
and can be obtained of any nurseryman, the purchaser 
has to deal with the Luther Burbank Co., San Francisco, 
and the Fancher Creek Nursery at Fresno, Cal. The 
greater number of the Burbank introductions are not 
seemingly well adapted to the conditions in the East. 
Of course, there are exceptions, such as certain plums, 
the Shasta daisy, etc. The Gold plum was purchased 
from Burbank by the Stark Brothers Nurseries & Or- 
chards Co., Louisiana, Missouri, and was catalogued 
and put on the market by them in 1894. 

Mice Destroying Bulbs 

Every winter and spring mice destroy my hyacinth 
and tulip bulbs. Is there not something I can use 
to prevent this, or to poison the mice? — W. G., Long 
Island. 

— No way has yet been discovered to prevent mice 
from eating hyacinth and tulip bulbs. If the bulbs 
are planted deeply enough in the ground the danger of 
the bulbs being destroyed by mice will be greatly les- 
sened. Of course, this is assuming that the bulbs will 
be planted out of doors in the garden. 

Improving an Old Lawn 

What is the best treatment for improving my lawn 
without tearing up and reseeding? Shall I scatter 
plenty of seed on the old sod, together with a liberal 
supply of the advertized Dried Horse Manure and 
either Calcium or Alphano Humus? — E. E. B., L. I. 
■ — You can improve your lawn without tearing up and 
reseeding it if it had sufficiently good soil to start with. 
Very frequently spring renewal is done in this way: 



The lawn is gone over with a sharp toothed iron rake 
and severely scratched, even though some of the grass 
is torn up by the roots. A top dressing of good soil is 
then scattered over the plot and grass seed scattered 
over this at the rate of about two bushels to the acre. 
After this the lawn must be rolled so as to bring the 
seed and the soil into close contact. The humus asked 
about is an excellent material and can be used as a top 
dressing over lawns at almost any time of the year. 
This might be mixed with the dried horse manure to 
advantage as a winter mulch. There would be no par- 
ticular gain in reseeding in November as the young grass 
would not grow much during the winter, and if it is done 
a little later the seed will remain dormant all winter and 
be ready to grow in the spring. Constant top dressing, 
plenty of humus, reseeding and plenty of rolling and 
water will keep any lawn in condition. 

Rhododendrons and Azaleas in Shade 

Will rhododendrons and azaleas grow under the 
branches of Norway spruce? — G. T. F., Mass. 
— We would not consideritwisetoplantrhododendrons 
or azaleas under the branches of Norway spruce. They 
will grow in company with spruce but the dense shade 
of an evergreen tree is fatal to any shrub under it. 
The plants you name will grow on the fringes of hem- 
lock plantations but only in places where they can get 
the sun for a part of each day. 

Fertilizing Iris 

For best results, how should Japanese and German 
iris be fertilized? — R. D. H., Mass. 
— We do not generally consider it advisable to use 
fertilizers on iris on any ordinarily good soil, plain 
water seemingly giving all that is required when ap- 
plied in abundance during the growing season up to 
and immediately following flowering. Some growers 
use cow manure water on Japan iris, but with ordinarily 
fertile soil to start with, extra doses of fertilizer are not 
necessary unless the plant fertility is being washed out 
through constantly flowing streams of water. If you 
want a richer soil use good garden loam fertilized with 
well rotted manure dug in. 

Wood Lice on Chrysanthemums 

My chrysanthemum plants, being in new soil, are 
infested at the roots with wood lice. I have failed to 
destroy them with lime water; is there anything else 
I might use that would not be injurious to the plants? — 
W. H. A., S. C. 

— We do not think the wood lice will injure your hardy 
chrysanthemums. You might flood them out with 
heavy waterings. However, if the plants are kept con- 
stantly growing, the wood lice will not seriously affect 
them. If you think it necessary you can lift the plants 
and place them in a new location. 

Scale on Peach Trees 

I have an Elberta peach tree which is maturing a 
large first crop, but the tree has scale, and on account 
of many small bits of gum on the tree I suspect the 
presence of borers. Is it possible for me to conquer 
these two troubles? There are also three varieties of 
lady bugs on the tree; would not this also indicate the 
presence of borers? What is the most comprehensive 
and compact book on fruit growing? — E. H. M., Mary- 
land. 

— The scale is attacked by numerous predaceous and 
parasitic enemies, which render important service in its 
control but practicaUy, the combined influences of these 
several agencies is not sufficient to make up for the 
enormous reproductive capacity of the pest and its 
control must be accomplished artificially by spraying. 
The lady beetles are beneficial insects as their larvae 
eat up the aphides. The lime-sulphur preparation, 
which you can buy in concentrated form at seed or 



garden supply stores is the best spray for your purpose. 
You might spray twice during the summer with a 
greatly diluted solution, and again during the dormant 
season — that is, between November and March — with 
the regular winter strength. The appearance of gum 
sometimes indicates the presence of borers but if these 
are present you will also be able to find the openings of 
their burrows under the masses of gum. Cut these 
away until the direction of the tunnel can be learned; 
then run a sharp wire into it until the borer is crushed. 
To prevent borers from entering the tree next year you 
might paint the lower half of the trunk early in June 
with a whale oil soap solution, a strong solution of lime- 
sulphur or a mixture of pure white lead and raw linseed 
oil. One of the handiest and most compact fruit- 
growing books that we have seen is "How to Grow and 
Market Fruit," published by Harrison's Nurseries, 
Berlin, Md., price fifty cents. A larger book, but one 
quite reliable, comprehensive and readable, is "How to 
Make a Fruit Garden," by S. W. Fletcher, price $2.20 
postpaid. 

Planting Distances for Dwarf Trees 

How far apart should dwarf pear and apple trees be 
planted in a small home garden? — E. M., Calif. 
— The usual distances for planting dwarf apple and 
pear trees range from ten to fifteen feet, but particular 
conditions dealing with the soil, the method of pruning, 
etc., may be sufficient to justify variations even from 
these. 

Legumes for Green Manure 

What is the best legume that can be planted now in 
Maryland, to plow under next spring for green manure? 
— H. B., New York. 

— Or course the length of the growing season in any 
particular year and in the particular section of Mary- 
land to which you refer will affect the amount of growth 
that the cover crop will make in the fall. However, 
we believe that the following, in the order named, will 
prove the best green manures for your section : Crimson 
clover, vetch, sweet clover, soy beans, cow peas. The 
last two are, of course, annuals and will probably die 
during the winter. The first three will resume growth 
next spring until plowed under. 

New Hybrid Iris 

Where can I obtain the new hybrid iris, Edouard 
Michell, mentioned in the September Garden Maga- 
zine?— C. S. P., Ohio. 

— To the best of our knowledge, this iris must be ob- 
tained from abroad, from such people as Barr & Son, 
London, and R. Wallace & Co., Colchester, England. 
However, any of the dealers in this country would 
import this iris for you on order, which would be the 
most satisfactory way for you, thus avoiding all custom 
house details, etc. 

Two Peonies Compared 

What are the respective merits of the peonies Eugene 
Verdier and Eugenie Verdier? — H. G. R., Penna. 
— Eugene Verdier is often spoken of as one of the few 
finest of all the varieties of peonies; Eugenie Verdier 
would, I think, scarcely ever be put so high as that, 
though it is also a fine sort. My personal preference 
would be for Eugene Verdier for all purposes. There 
is another variety sometimes sold for Eugene Verdier 
which the growers, represented in the American Peony 
Society, have now pretty well agreed to recognize under 
the name L'Indispensable, which is probably its correct 
name. This is a tall-growing kind with very large 
blooms which sometimes develop magnificently, but 
are often imperfect owing to a splitting of the bud. 
Some few growers place this variety very highly, but 
in my judgment it should not be placed as high as either 
of those mentioned above. — A. P. Saunders. 



I 




$1420 from 133 

J. H. Hale Peach Trees 

"From one measured acre of 133 J. H. Hale 
peach trees we picked 748 bu., or an average of 
55 bu. or 8 crates per tree, over 95% of this 
fruit being high-class, merchantable fruit, selling 
f. o. b. orchard at #2.00 to $2.50 per bushel." — 
(Signed) J. H. Hale. 

Never Before a Peach Like This 

The J. H Hale is truly a "wonder-peach." 
Averages I to I larger than Elberta; round, glob- 
ular shape; golden yellow, carmine blush; 
solid as a cling yet perfect freestone; smooth, 
tight skin like an apricot; firm, solid — stands 
shipment almost like apples; ripens 5 days ahead 
of Elberta; hangs longer on trees; late bloomer; 
hardier than Elberta and other hardy peaches; 
fruit brings nearly double Elberta prices. 

Grown Under Exclusive Contract 

We grow J. H. HALE Peach trees under an 
exclusive contract with Mr. Hale, and propagated from buds 
cut from his bearing orchards. Mr Hale has appointed us 
sole distributors. Be on your guard against irresponsible 
persons offering you so-called "J. H. Hale" peach trees. 
To get genuine J. H Hals trees, budded from Mr. Hale's 
bearing orchards, write direct to William P. Stark Nurseries, 
Stark City, Missouri. 

Write for 120 Page Catalog 

Our catalog is our only representative. Prices one-third 
to one-half less than what agents charge. Save monev and 
get trees doubly guaranteed true to name. Best varieties 
apples, peach, pear, plum, apricot, quince, grape, bush- 
fruits, roses, ornamentals, shrubs, shade trees, etc. Mailed 
free on request. Write for it today. 

William P. Stark Nurseries 

Box 16S Stark City. Mo. 



The Stephenson System 
of Underground Refuse Disposal 



Keeps your garbage out of sight in the 
ground, away from the cats, dogs and the 



typhoid fly. 



tlTlJ^JaHiJMibfaTgl 



Opens with foot 





Underground Garbage 
and Refuse Receivers 



A Fireproof receiver for oily waste 
and sweepings in house or garage. 
Our Underground Earth Closet 
means freedom from polluted water. 

Iti- ware of Imitations 

In use 10 yrs. It pays to look us up. 

Sold direct. Send for catalogue 

C. II. STEPHENSON, Mfr. 

40 Fnrrar !*t., Lynn, Mass. 



Light Is Life To 
Growing Plants 



But under 




or Hot-beds 
and Cold-frames 



they are never darkened 
by 



covers 



Consider This 

The old style single layer sash have but a 
single layer of glass which admits the sun, but 
cannot exclude the cold or retain the heat un- 
less covered with mats and shutters. These 
extra covers cost twice as much as an extra 
layer of glass and they must be put on and off 
daily. It takes two men or a man and wife to 
lift the soggy mats and heavy shutters. 

This is pure waste of labor and expense as 
well as light. 

Now Consider That 

The Sunlight Double Glass Sash have two 
layers of glass enclosing an air space %" thick, 
through which the sun's rays pass, but not the 
cold from without or the stored warmth from 
within. 

Put the Sash on your hot-bed or cold-frame 
and it is complete. All that remains to do is to 
prop up the sash on bright or warm days. 
A child can do this. 

Which would you rather have? 

The Sunlight Double Glass Sash, of course. 
Get our free catalog. It gives all details and 
also what users of the Sunlight Sash, who have 
bought second and third orders of them, have 
to say. You will discover that the old single 
layer sash are being rapidly eliminated from 
successful gardens. 




A small inexpensive greenhouse made of Sunlight 
Double Class Sash 



The Sunlight Greenhouse on which the sash are 
also used is inexpensive, attractive and a highly 
profitable addition to any garden. (See the catalog.) 

Every One Should Garden 

Even if you do not garden for a living, get an 
outfit of Sunlights and run a cold-frame or hot-bed 
as a side line either for pleasure or for income or 
both. We make a small sash, only 3ft. x 3ft. 25 
inches as well as the standard 3 ft. x 6 ft. size. 
These "Ponies" are cheap and light. See the catalog. 

By the way, what could be better for a Christ- 
mas Gift for wife, daughter, son or father, 
friend or sweetheart? 

Use Coupon 

Write today for the Free Catalog 
and enclose, if you wish it, 4c in 
stamps for Prof. Massey's help- , 
ful booklet on the use of cold- 
frames, hot-beds and small 
greenhouses. 



Sunlight 
Double Glass 
Sash Co. 



SUNLIGHT DOUBLE GLASS SASH CO. 

927 E. Broadway, Louisville, Ky. 




Gentlemen: — 
Please send me your 
free catalog. Enclosed 
find 4C for a copy of Prof. 
Massey's Book. 



Name 











Turn in Your Tree Troubles. Write us 
fully We may be able to make suggestions that 
would be of great value. Readers' Service. 






A Million Readers for War and Waste. 

" I want a million people to know that it costs as much 
to build a battleship as a university. Then maybe a lucid in- 
terval will interpose itself amidst our militarist mania." — 
Bouck White. War and Waste, by David Starr Jordan. Net. $1.25. 











i£-x 



Write for 
1914 Fall Floral Guide 

It presents one of the most interesting arrays of gorgeous and hardy 
flowers for fall planting, indoor blooming and growing under glass, ever 
offered. It's free. With especial pride do we display in this book our ex- 
quisite roses selected for winter bloom. They are strong and ready to 
bloom this winter and all next summer. Exceptional offers await you. 

"Beautify Your Yard" 

is another book you should have by all means. It gives expert advice in 
adorning the yard, suggesting groups of plants according to their decorative 
alue. hardihood, etc., and gives cultural methods. Well illustrated. 
Shows diagram of 50 x 125 lot properly planted. Not a mere catalog. 
This book costs 10 cents — which is refunded on first gi order if re- 
quested. The Fall Floral Guide is free. Get both. Write todav. 



•v 



CONARD & JONES 
Box 24, West Grove, Pa. 



CO. 




THE Entrance Hall bears the same relation to the home that the expression of the face bears to 
the whole personality — it indicates the spirit that dwells within — from it are obtained first 
impressions, and first impressions are said to be lasting. It is important then to see that the 
decorative scheme of your Entrance Hall strikes the key-note of the spirit of your home — a quiet, 
unostentatious richness that foreshadows the warmth of your hospitality. 

^ The Entrance Hall we picture above well illustrates our point and is perfectly possible of achieve- 
ment, all the decorations and furnishings used being made by four of the most reputable concerns in 
the United States. 

Cfl Nothing could excel in appropriateness for this purpose the Whittall Anglo-Persian Rug No. 337, 
Color No. 148, used as the basic note of this dignified hall. The texture peculiar to the Anglo-Persian 
fabric is of such soft resilience as to allow the foot to sink into the pile as into a bed of moss — the acme 
of luxury in floor-covering, the Oriental " Tree of Life " of rather indefinite design, covers the rug well 
— the prevailing tone being old rose — the paper, of the same shade is by Birge, the draperies of old rose 
Cheney Velour De Luxe 2818/629 an ^ tn e furniture of Early English period is by Berkey & Gay. 

<§ Should this particular decorative scheme prove not suited to your needs, a visit to your nearest 
Whittall dealer will help you to the choice of a rug about which to build your room. Our booklet 
" Oriental Art in Whittall Rugs " is also of great assistance and will be sent you free upon request. 

M. J. WHITTALL 

Dept. G 

JPF Worcester Massachusetts 




THE COUNTRY LIFE PRESS, GARDEN CITY, NEW YORK 



Vol. XX, No. 5 



DECEMBER, 1914 15 Cents a C([ 

■ . . ■-■ i, .iiiii i ni ■ i ' i it^^rrs r- ryr~-% zzzz±-* * < i Mm» -t una , '- 








. \cm 




FARMING 





THE NEW CHRYSANTHEMUMS 
Fresh Vegetables Miniature Gardens I 

Plants for Quick Effect 
Gardens of the Panama Pacific Exposition 



I ■ ■ 

♦ l 



'■C»G«Oi 







COUNTRY LIFE 
IN AMERICA 



DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & CO. 

Chicago GARDENC1TY. N. Y. New York 



THE WORLD'S 
WORK 




| Have Home -Grown Peaches 
| for 3 Months 

~) Y planting a succession of early, medium and late varieties 
I ^ you can enjoy luscious peaches from early summer until 
■*— ' frost. It is approximately ioo days from ripening of May- 
flower, the earliest peach, to Mammoth Heath, the latest; in 
between are many choice varieties that will give you ripe peaches 
all season. We have prepared a list showing these, and will gladly 
send it free if you write. Just ask for " Peach Ripening Guide." 

| J. H. Hale — " The Million Dollar Peach " 

This wonderful peach, originated by Mr. Hale, of South Glaston- 
bury, Conn., has created amazement among growers, experts and 
commission men alike. It is immense in size, brilliantly colored, 
perfect freestone, fuzzless as an apricot, firm and meaty, better 
keeper and shipper than Elberta. Read full account in 
catalog. Sent free. 



Size: 5 to f larger than Elberta. More 

uniform. 

Color: Golden yellow, carmine blush. 

splashed with red. 

Flesh: Solid and meaty as a cling, yet 

perfect freestone; weighs 12% more than 

Elberta. Skin practically fuzzless. 

Flavor: Luscious, " peachy " flavor, 

overflowing with juice. 

Beware of Fraudulent Trees ! 

The wonderful success of the J. H. Hale 
peach has brought a flood of imitators. 
An old, worthless variety known as Hale's 
Early is being offered by dishonest persons 
as the true J. H. Hale. Refuse them! You 
can get genuine J. H. Hale trees, budded 
from Mr. Hale's bearing orchards, only from 
Wm. P. Stark Nurseries, Stark City, Mo. 

Special Collection 

35 Trees, Shrubs and Vines - 



Shipping: Firmness permits shipping 
almost like apples. Doesn't "squash 
down " in basket. A long keeper. 

Canning: Round, globular shape. 
Doesn't "rag." Brilliant, clear syrup and 
holds shape in the can. 

Hardiness: Exceptionally hardy. Late 
bloomer and stands lower temperature 
than Elberta. 

This Tag With Mr. Hale's Sig- 
nature on all Genuine J. H. 
Hale Trees. 



¥ C7 \??5i".?oZ mo 



o 



a 



B-X 

Postpaid 



» 



ONLY 



$5. 



00 



Peach 

5 " J. H. Hale " (Medium ) 

1 Alton (Early) 

2 Early Elberta (Medium) 
1 Red Bird Cling (Extra 

Early) 

Apple 

4 Original Delicious (Win- 
ter) 

1 Livland Raspberry (Sum- 
mer) 

1 Wealthy (Fall) 



Grape 

1 Agawam (Red) 
1 Brighton (Red) 
1 Campbell Early (Purplish 

Black) 
1 Concord (Black) 
1 Diamond (Yellowish 

W hite) 
3 Moore Early (Purplish 

Black) 
1 Niagara (White) 
1 Worden (Black) 



Ornamentals 

1 Dorothy Perkins Climb- 
ing Rose 

1 General Jacqueminot 
Rose 

1 Helen Gould Rose 

4 S p i r e a Van Houttei 
(Plant) (Bridal Wreath) 

1 Russian Olive (Small 
Tree) 

2 Honeysuckle Vine 
(Hall's) 



No Agents — Save l /s to % — Catalog FREE 

Our catalog is our only salesman. Buy direct from Nursery and save money on all best 

varieties apple, peach, pear, plum, apricot, quince, grapes, bush 

fruits, roses, ornamentals, shrubs, etc. 

Wm. P. Stark Nurseries 

Stark City Box 208 Missouri 



New and Revised Edition 

The Boy Scouts' 
Official Handbook 

With 56 pages of entirely 
new material; also the new 
requirements for many of 
the Merit Badges, not in the 
old editions. 

The best book for all boys 
who want to know how to 
do things in the right way. 

£%Cany Illustrations and "How to" 'Diagrams 

At All Bookstores 

Paper, net 25 cents 

Garden City Doubleday, Page & Co. New York 



What Do You Do With 
Your Spare Time ? 

IN every college throughout this broad country 
there are students who are paying their tuition 
with money earned in spare moments. In every 
walk of life there are people adding to their incomes 
by engaging in some pleasant and profitable occu- 
pation during their spare hours. 

You Have Spare Time — What Do You Do With It ? 

Most people turn to magazine work because it is 
interesting and profitable; the field is large and ten 
dollars or more a week can be added to your income, 
provided you interest yourself in distinctive publi- 
cations. The World's Work, Country Life in 
America and Garden Magazine are popular, easy to 
sell, and subscriptions to them when expiring are 
usually renewed. 

Write to the following address for our rates of com- 
missions and rebates. We have a liberal cffer to 
give you. 

Circulation Department 

DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY 

Garden City New York 



December, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



147 



A Stocking Full of Good Books 



Myths Every Child Should Know — Illustrated 
Freckles (New "Limberlost Edition" Illustrated) 
Scouting With Daniel Boone 

A Handbook to the Poetry of Rudyard Kipling 
Andersen's Fairy Tales — Illustrated 




First, Come the Children 
Myths Every Child Should Know 

Edited by Hamilton Wright Mabie 

Illustrated by Mary Hamilton Frye 

A book that every child will love, full of wonder-tales with 
many pictures in colors to illustrate them. 
10 illustrations in color, io in black and white. Boxed, Net $2.00 

Andersen's Fairy Tales 

Illustrated by Dugald Stewart Walker 

Mr. Walker's work in Scribner's, St. Nicholas and the Ladies' 
Home Journal has attracted much attraction by reason of its poetic 
quality and exquisite detail. His illustrations for these fairy tale 
classics make this volume one of the most truly artistic gift books 
of the Holiday Season. 

12 illustrations in color, many in black and white. Net $1.50 

Scouting With Daniel Boone 

By Everett T. Tomlinson 

Author of "Three Colonial Boys," etc. 

It's a lucky boy, on Christmas morning, that finds this story of 
Daniel Boone, and his adventures in the Kentucky wilderness. 
Illustrated by Norman Rockwell. Net $1.20 

A Midsummer Night's Dream 

New popular edition, Illustrated by Arthur Rackham 

A new edition of the best known of all Mr. Rackham 's illustrated 
works. 16 Illustrations in color and many in black and white. Net $1.50 

Boy Scouts of America 

The Official Handbook 

An entirely new and revised edition, with 56 pages of additional 
material, including the new rules and requirements for Boy Scouts. 
Paper, Net 25 Cents. 



Gift Books for Your Friends 
FRECKLES (Limberlost Edition) 

By Gene Stratton-Porter 

New popular edition illustrated by Thomas Fogarty 

The readers of this book number into the millions, and this new 
edition with Mr. Fogarty's color drawings puts it into a permanent 
form. Net $1.30 

The Blossoming Rod 

By Mary Stewart Cutting 

Author of "Little Stories of Married Life, " etc. 

The true Christmas spirit fills the pages of this little story. 
Attractively bound in boards with frontispiece and decorations in 
two colors. Net 50 Cents 

A Handbook to the Poetry of Rudyard 

Kipling By Ralph Durand 

Mr. Kipling has personally helped to prepare this book, which 
clears up the many obscure allusions and unfamiliar expressions 
in his verses. Net $2.00 

The Best Stories in the World 

Edited by Thomas L. Masson, of Life 

A collection of witty and humorous anecdotes and stories. 
Bound in red limp leather. Net $1.23 



Bob, Son of Battle 



By Alfred Ollivant 



A dog story that has become a classic. Bound in blue limp 
leather. Illustrated. Net $1.50 

SongS of Nature Edited by John Burroughs 

An anthology of out-door poetry. Bound in blue limp leather. 
Net $1.50 



LIMP LEATHER EDITIONS OF POPULAR AUTHORS 



The Pocket Kipling 

Bound in red flexible leather. 23 vols. Each vol. net 
$1.50. 

Joseph Conrad: Deep Sea Edition 

Bound in blue limp leather. Each volume, net Si. 50. 10 vols. 
Boxed net Si 5. 00. Make this a Conrad Christmas. 



O. Henry 

Bound in flexible red leather, each volume net Si-So; complete 
set, 12 vols., net S18.00. 

David Grayson 

The Library of the Open Road. A special Holiday Box con- 
tains these three Grayson volumes in leather: "Adventures in 
Contentment," "Adventures in Friendship" and "The Friendly 
Road," Net $4.50. 




DOUBLED AY, PAGE & COMPANY, GARDEN CITY, NEW YORK 

For information regarding railroad and steamship lines, write to the Readers' Service 



148 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



D ECEMBEB, 1914 



£f 



-THE • TALK- OF THE - OFFICE 




THE AMERICAN BOOKS 

A FTER long preparation we are ready to 
f~\ announce a series of books on current 
problems which will take up the most 
interesting questions at issue in America to- 
day. The feature of this series will be the 
discussion of distinctively American move- 
ments by American authorities, and of prob- 
lems connected with the future prosperity of 
the United States. We have therefore chosen 
as a title for the series, "The American 
Books." These volumes will be of pocket 
size, well bound in scarlet cloth, and will 
be sold at the popular price of 60 cents a 
volume. 

The series was projected many months 
before the Great War, but it derives ad- 
ditional importance from the new position 
which that great struggle has given America 
on the face of the globe. The United States, 
standing aloof from the suicidal bloodshed 
of the Old World, will probably become the 
peaceful arbiter of the earth's destinies and 
the flywheel to keep the industry of the world 
revolving. A new responsibility toward the 
world's welfare has therefore devolved upon 
the United States. 

An inquiry into the meaning and tendency 
of American civilization to-day is thus not 
only a matter of high interest but of patriotic 
duty. We wish "The American Books" 
to be a series of brief authoritative manuals 
which will attempt to lay bare some of the 
problems that confront us to-day; written 
in popular terms that will inspire rather than 
discourage the casual reader. The series 
should prove not only of great interest to all 
American citizens who wish to aid in solving 
their country's pressing problems, but to 
every foreigner visiting this country who 
seeks an interpretation of the American point 
of view. 

We wish "The American Books" to be 
written by the best men, and to this end seek 
the widest publicity for the plan. We shall 
be glad to receive suggestions as to titles for 
the series, and shall welcome authoritative 
MSS. submitted from any quarter. 

The first volumes of the series will be pub- 
lished early in 1915. Titles now in prepara- 
tion are: 



The American Indian 

By Charles A. Eastman (Ohiyesa), author of "Old 
Indian Days," "Indian Boyhood," etc. 

A History or American Literature, 

By Prof. Leon Kellner of the University of Czerno- 
witz (Austria), translated from the German by 
Julia Franklin. 

The Cost of Living, 

By Fabian Franklin, Associate Editor of the New 
York Evening Post. 

Socialism in America, 

By John Macy, late literary editor of the Boston 
Herald, author of "The Spirit of American Litera- 
ture." 

The Drama in America, 

By Clayton Hamilton, author of "The Drama of 
To-day," "Materials and Methods of Fiction." 

The American College, 

By Isaac Sharpless, President of Haverford College. 

The American School, 

By Walter S. Hinchman, Master in Groton School. 

The University Movement, 

By Ira Remsen, late President of Johns Hopkins 
University. 

The American Navy, 

By Rear Admiral French E. Chadwick. 

THIS IS A CONRAD CHRISTMAS 

It is safe to say that but few Conrad books 
have been given as Christmas presents before 
this year. And equally safe to say that the 
Deep Sea Edition in sea-blue leather, pocket 
size (at $1.50, net, per volume), will be a popu- 
lar gift among discriminating book lovers this 
December. 

During this past year Conrad has won his 
real and wide recognition in America. The 
year 19 15 will add still more to his popularity. 
Many famous critics think Conrad the great 
literary artist writing in English to-day, and 
" Chance" was voted the most important novel 
published in England in 1914. 

The Conrad volumes bound in blue leather 
are as follows: 



Chance 

An Outcast of the 

Islands 
The Nigger of the 

Narcissus 



Almayer's Folly 

Youth 

Lord Jim 

Falk 

Romance (Written 



THE NATURE LIBRARY AS A CHRISTMAS PRESENT 

The new edition, half the thickness, at half the 
price, on thin paper, but with every identical 
picture and illustration and word of text, is 
now ready. The first edition of The Nature 
Library was in 17 volumes, and cost $68. 
Many thousands bought it, but we thought 
of the many other thousands to whom this 
sum would seem high. So we devised a way 
to make The New Nature Library so that it 
could be had at less than half the old price. 
And the way lies in the new use of the thin 
paper that has come to be recognized as an 
improved method of book making; thus the 
17 volumes were put into 8, without taking 
out one page, or one color plate, or illustration. 
Following are the subjects covered: 



Bird Neighbors 
Animals 
Butterflies 
Frogs 

Grasses 



Shells Game^Birds 

Bird Homes Reptiles 

Fishes Moths 

Trees Insects 

Spiders Mushrooms 



Mosses and Lichens 



Wild Flowers 



'Twixt Land and Sea with Ford Madox 
Typhoon Hueffer) 



We will send the eight volumes and a year's 
subscription to Country Life in America for 
$1 down and $2 a month until $31.50 has been 
paid; or if you prefer to pay cash, a discount 
of 5 per cent, may be deducted. 

CHRISTMAS COUNTRY LIFE 

Again the Christmas Annual of Country 
Life in America is ready. It is a relief to 
turn to these bright pages of good cheer in 
these Christmas days, which find us more able 
to appreciate the spirit of Christmas than 
probably any other country in the world. 
If you are unfamiliar with Country Life in 
America let us send you a trial subscription, 
five months for $1. We append a coupon for 
your convenience. 

DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & Co., 

Garden City, N. Y. 

Enclosed find $1. Please send Country 
Life in America for five months to 

Name 

Address 




Cover Design — Ardisia crenulata ------ - Nathan R. Graves 



The Month's Reminder 149 

Photoeraph by Arthur G. Eldredge 

Novelties Among the Chrysanthemums - - - 151 

Photographs by J. H. Pepper and E. D. Smith 

Roberta of Roseberry Gardens - Frances Duncan 153 

Illustrated by Jack Manley Rose 

The Making oe Miniature Gardens 5. Leonard Bastin 157 

Photographs by the author 

Fresh Vegetables All Winter - - F. F. Rockwell 158 

Photographs by the author 

The Gardens of the Panama-Pacific Exposition 

G. B. Fumiss 160 

A Three- Year Old Garden of Quick Growers 

A. L. Bright 161 

Photographs by the author and Henry Troth 

Alstromeria Outdoors ---------- 164 

"Cushaw," a Good Name Neglected -C.N. Lyle 164 

Squash on a Trellis - - - Walter C. Wood 164 

Nasturtiums and Phlox Indoors - - - M. F. B. 164 

Tea Roses Outdoors in Michigan - Mary Rutner 164 



Fall Cauliflowers and Peas 
Ever-Ready Planting Cards 
White Pentstemons - 
A Unique Double Crop - - 



Mrs 



Louise Bijur 
P. B. Springer 
- - - A. P. S. 

Archibald Rutledge 



Growing Flowers in the Middle Southwest 

Virginia B. Mead 

What's the Matter with the Dahlias? - E. W. Davis 

The Old Black Gilliflower Apple - S. A. Beach 

Photographs by G. O. Stoddard 

Coal Ashes for Dahlias - - 
Gardening for Young Folks - 
Winter Gardening Begins - - 
Shrubs for Shade - - - - 

Two Crops of String Beans - 



Florence Spring 
Ellen Eddy Shaw 
J. M. Patterson 
- Fred Haxton 
- Janet G. Sims 



164 
164 
164 
165 

165 
165 

165 

165 
166 



108 
170 
170 

Suggestions for the Home Table Effie M. Robinson 172 

Club and Society News 174 

Readers' Service ------------ 1 j( ) 



SUBSCRIPTION: 

$1.50 a year 
Single copies, 15 cts. 



LEONARD BARRON, Editor 

COPYRIGHT, 1914, BY 

DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY 

Entered as second-class matter at Garden City, New York, under the Act of Congress, March 3, 1879 



F. N. DOUBLEDAY, President 
HERBERT S. HOUSTON, 



S. A. EVERITT, Treasurer 
RUSSELL DOUBLEDAY, 

Secretary 



For Foreign Postage 

add 65c. 
For Canada add 35c. 



Frances Duncan's Gardencraft 




Walled Garden made with Suburban Set 

The Ideal Gift for the Garden Lover — Whatever Age or Sex 

You can set up any kind of a garden and see how it looks in 
miniature and in scale. Simple enough for a child, scientific 
enough for a landscape gardener. 

GARDENCRAFT FOR CHILDREN— a joyous pastime, 
highly educational, in use by Montessori, Louise Klein Miller 
and others intelligently interested in children and in gardening. 

Suburban Size (sent C O. D. on approval) $3.50. Other Gar- 
dencraft and Country Life Sets 50c to $12.50. Send 25 cents for 
the Chicken Yard. Catalogue on application. 

GARDEN PLANNING SETS for Grown-up Gardeners with Country 
House, shrubs, annuals, perennials, pool, pergola and other garden accessories. 

What size Garden do you wish ? We have them 50' x 50' — 50' x 100' — 
75' x 100', etc., from #3.50 to $12.50. 

GARDENCRAFT WORK SHOP 

1 Milligan Place, New York, 6th Ave. bet. lOth and 1 1th Sts. 



BOBBINK & ATKINS 

World's Choicest Nursery and Greenhouse Products 

EVERGREENS, CONIFERS AND PINES. We have more than 75 acres planted with 
attractive EVERGREENS. Our collection is conceded to be the most complete and magnifi- 
cent ever assembled in America. The varieties comprising same have been thoroughly tested 
and proved hardy. Our plants are dug with a ball of earth and burlapped previous to shipping. 
Before purchasing, those interested should not fail to inspect our collection. 

The Following Plants for Outdoor Planting, Interior and Exterior 
Decorations are Among Our Specialties 



DECIDUOUS TREES AND SHRUBS. 

We have an enormous collection in all varie- 
ties and sizes. 

RHODODENDRONS. We have many 
thousands of acclimated plants in hardy Eng- 
lish and American varieties. 

HARDY OLD-FASHIONED FLOWERS. 

We have thousands of new and old-fashioned 
kinds, including Peonies and Iris. 

TRAINED, DWARF AND ORDINARY 
FRUIT TREES AND SMALL FRUITS. 

We grow these for all kinds of Fruit Gardens 
and Orchards. 

ROSES. We have several hundred thousand 
rose plants that will bloom this year. 

AUTUMN BULBS AND ROOTS. We 

grow and import quantities of Bulbs and roots 
from all parts of the world. 



HEDGE PLANTS. We grow a large quan- 
tity of California Privet, Berberis and other 
Hedge Plants. 

HARDY TRAILING AND CLIMBING 
VINES. We have them for every place and 
purpose. 

BAY TREES AND PALMS, and other 
plants for conservatories, Interior and Exte- 
rior decorations. 

BOXWOOD. We grow thousands of plants 
in many shapes and sizes. Everybody loves 
the rich green color and delicate aroma of 
old-fashioned Boxwood. 

OUR RUTHERFORD LAWN GRASS 
SEED has given satisfaction everywhere. 

PLANT TUBS, WINDOW BOXES, 
ENGLISH GARDEN FURNITURE, and 
RUSTIC WORK. We manufacture all 
shapes and sizes. 



OUR NEW HYBRID GIANT FLOWERING MARSHMALLOW. Everybody should 
be interested in this hardy new old-fashioned flower. It is perfectly hardy and will grow 
everywhere. 

OUR ILLUSTRATED GENERAL CATALOG No. 25 and AUTUMN BULB CAT A. 

LOG describe our products; mailed upon request. 

We Plan and Plant Grounds and Gardens Everywhere 

We invite parties who intend to lay out and plant their grounds to visit our Nurseries and 
inspect our immense stock. 

Nurserymen, Florists and Planters Rutherford, New Jersey 



148-c 



148-6 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



December, 19 14 




Ornamental Fences of Concrete 

harmonize well with the better types of architecture. 
In appearance they suggest the strength, the dignity and 
the permanence which should surround a home. Con- 
crete is a plastic material; can be molded into the most 
graceful and artistic forms; is as well adapted to the 
construction of small ornaments about the grounds as 
it is to the building of the house or garage. If you use 



UNIVERSAL 



PORTLAND 

CEMENT 



you may be sure of thoroughly dependable cement, By using 
UNIVERSAL and employing good workmanship, clean sand, 
gravel or crushed stone, you may be sure of first'dass concrete. 

Send for these books — .Concrete for the Farmer »-»•»». Free 
Small Farm Buildings of Concrete • » » Price 250 
The Concrete House and its Construction Price $1 00 

UNIVERSAL PORTLAND CEMENT CO. 

CHICAGO c: ;: PITTSBUKGH :: :: MINNEAPOLIS 
Annual Output 12,000.000 Barrels — -- — -- — Plants at Chicago and Pittsburgh 



_J 



v ^AEOWAY 

IfV^poTfERY 

IS THE SETTING EXQUISITE THAT ENHANCES 
THE BEAUTY OF FLOWERS 

Send for our illustrated' — 
'catalogue of Flower Pots, 
,i Boxes,\&ses,Benches, Sundials, 
\ Gazing Globes, Bird Fonts and 
R other Artistic Pieces for Garden 
jf and Interior Decoration. 

Galkjway Terra CoTta Go. 

3214WALNUT ST. PHILADELPHIA, PA. 




We have issued a Very Interesting Catalogue on 



6i 



Pergolas 



99 



AND GARDEN ACCESSORIES 

showing a series of new designs; can be had free on request. 
Catalogue "H 28" for Pergolas and Columns for Pergolas. 

Catalogue "H 40" for Exterior and Interior Wood Columns. 

HARTMANN-SANDERS CO. 

Exclusive Manufacturers of 
Koll's Patent Lock Joint Stave Column 

Suitable for Pergolas, Porches, or 

Interior Use 

Main Office and Factory: 

ELSTON and WEBSTER AVES. 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

Eastern Office: 

6 East 39th St., New York City 




For injormation about live stock write lo the Readers' Service 





Buy A Live 

Christmas 

Tree And 

Plant It 

Out 



T70R $2. so, we will send you, carefully packed 
in a box, a fine, eight year old White Spruce 
Tree, 4 feet high. After Christmas, plant it 
outdoors. We guarantee it to grow. The 
ground will not be deeply frozen then. Six 
inch mulch will surely keep frost out. 
Larger Christmas trees, up to 12 feet. 
Send for prices. 

A Magnificent Christmas Present 

Order a carload of White Pines, Fir, Spruce, 
Hemlock and Cedars; 6 to 25 feet high 
Guaranteed to live, or will replace. They will 
save you 5 to 15 years waiting for small trees 
to grow up; and make a beautiful landscape, 
perfect screen, or windbreak. 

Winter Work For Your Men 

Let us send our tree-moving apparatus, and a 
skilled foreman to work with your men moving 
big Pines, Cedars, Oaks, Elms and Maples to 

your grounds It's a cheap way 

to get immediate effects. 

Send for price list showing special 

Winter Reductions on trees of all 

sizes. 

Isaac Hicks &>Son 

Woslburu . Long Island 




Reliable Seeds for 1 9 1 5 

Notwithstanding present conditions in Europe, we shall 
receive all our stock of seeds. 

However, there will be a diminished supply of some var- 
ieties, therefore, customers desiring as complete an assortment 
as usual, should place their orders as early as possible in the 
new year. 

R. & J. Farquhar & Co. Boston, Mass. 



STATEMENT OF THE OWNERSHIP, MANAGEMENT, 
&c, OF THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 

Published in accordance with the Act of Congress of August 24, 1912. 

Editor, Leonard Barron, . . . Garden City, N. Y. 

Managing Editor, Leonard Barron, . „ Garden City, N. Y. 

Business Managers, Doubleday, Page & Co., Garden City, N. Y. 

Publishers, Doubleday, Page & Co., . . Garden City, N. Y. 

Owners, Doubleday, Page & Co., . - . Garden City, N. Y. 

Stockholders holding r per cent, or more of 
total amount of stock on October 1, 191 4 

F. N. Doubleday, Garden City, N. Y. 

Walter H. Page, ...... London, Eng. 

Herbert S. Houston, Garden City, N. Y. 

S. A. Everitt, ....... Garden City, N, Y. 

Henry W. Lanier, ...... Eliot, Me. 

Oliver L. Johnson, . . . . Norwich, Conn. 

F. Coit Johnson, ....... New York, N. Y. 

R. M. Fair, . . .... Chicago, III. 

W. W. Fuller, . . . . . . . New York, N. Y. 

W. F. Etherington, . .... New York, N. Y. 

A. W. Page, . ...... Garden City, N. Y. 

Known bondholders, mortgagees and other security holders, 
holding 1 per cent, or more of total amount of 
bonds, mortgages, or other securities. 

No bond, mortgages, or other securities ot indebtedness out- 
standing. 

(Signed) DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY 

By S. A. EVERITT, Treasurer 

Sworn to and subscribed before me this 1st day of October, 1914. 

(Signed) Albert H. Jennings, Notary Public 
Nassau County, N. Y. 

Commission Expires March 30, 1916. 



The Garden Magazine 




DURING this month thor- 
oughly clean up the gar- 
den, and make snug for 
winter. See that every 
nook and corner is thoroughly raked 
out and all refuse burned. Spade 
the garden before the soil freezes; 
let the ground stay rough over win- 
ter, if the soil is acid. This is a 
good time to apply a dressing of 
lime; sprinkle it over the surface, 
using as much as you can afford. 
This, allowed to stand all winter, will neutralize the acids in the 
soil by spring. Air slaked lime is the best for the purpose. Last 
month it was suggested that trenching the garden would prove of 
value in reducing the crop of cutworms next year. It is still not 
too late to do it; in which case the lime would not be applied until 
after the trenching is finished. 
Keep right on raking leaves 
and piling them up at some con- 
venient, yet out of the way, 
place for a stock of leaf mold 
later on. Also pile all leaves 
near by on your rhododendron 
bed. 

During December, consider- 
able heat is required in the 
greenhouse and without proper 
precautions the plants will be- 
come badly infested with green 
fly, red spider, thrip, etc. It is 
a wise policy to use preventive 
measures, as these pests, when 
once well established, are very 
hard to get rid of. Therefore, 
make a habit of spraying your 
plants once every week or ten 
days with a weak solution of to- 
bacco water or some such prep- 
aration, such as aphine. This, 
with an occasional dusting with 
tobacco dust, will keep the 
plants free. 



DLENTY of dry leaves, salt 
hay and other covering 
materials should be on hand, for 
additional cov- 
vering for all 
the vegetable 
trenches during severe weather. 
In mild weather very little cov- 
ering is required, but it should 
be on hand for additional cover- 
ing for all the vegetable trenches 



THE MONTH'S 

REMINDER 



COMPILED WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE HOME GARDEN, FROM 
THE TEN YEARS' DIARIES OF A PRACTICAL EXPERT GARDENER 

For reckoning dates, the latitude of New York City is generally taken as a 

standard. In applying the directions to other localities, allow six 

days' difference for every hundred miles of latitude 



during severe weather. Do not put 
on the extra covering unless it is 
necessary as too much covering 
will create heat and cause the vege- 
tables to decay. 

It is still not too late to mulch all 
permanent beds, such as asparagus, 
rhubarb, horseradish, herbs, etc. 
In fact, when mulching, it is always 
advisable to wait until the ground 
is slightly frozen. 



Vegetables in 
Trenches 




When winter comes the beauty and value of the evergreen is fully realized. Look 
around your garden now, make your plans for spring planting and place your orders. Ever- 
greens may also be moved in winter, with frozen balls 



' n pHE final protection may now be applied to all the tender per- 
A ennials, such as anemone, anchusa, tender iris, campanulas, 

p . . pompon chrysanthemum, Incarvillea, tender lilies, 

r d poppies, etc. Any attempt made to cover these plants 

should be with the idea of protecting them from exces- 
sive moisture as this, coupled 
with freezing weather, is very 
disastrous. Kept dry, all the 
plants named — and most 
others too — will stand very 
severe weather. This fact is 
proven by perennials which 
are considered tender, living 
out all winter without any 
protection in dry mountainous 
regions where extreme cold is 
encountered. Boxes, boards, 
mounds of earth, tar paper, or 
anything that will turn water, 
should be used in connection 
with litter or leaves in the pro- 
tection of the tender plants. 
Tritomas and montbretias are 
considered very hard to winter. 
In fact, I have never had any 
success leaving them outdoors 
on Long Island no matter how 
carefully I have protected 
them, although both are hardy 
at Lenox, Mass., and even at 
Bar Harbor, Maine, where the 
winters are much more severe. 
In low places, where alternate 
freezing and thawing is the 
usual winter weather, it would 
be best to lift them and 
store in a cool cellar for the 
winter. 



PROTECTING materials 

should now be applied to 

all tender shrubs and trees when 

necessary. All the tender ever- 



149 



150 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



December, 1914 



greens such as the retinisporas, rhododendrons, boxwood, androm- 
eda, etc., need some little protection, but don't forget that too much 
protection is just as great a danger as too little. Damage to most 
Tender Trees and P^ ants °f evergreen character is caused by 
Shrubs sudden changes, such as a' very low temper- 

ature followed by a strong sun. The best pro- 
tection against such conditions is a few pine boughs, placed 
about the plants, which is done by first making a hole with a crow- 
bar and ramming the sharpened end of the bough into place. This 
form of protection also has the advantage over any other in ap- 
pearance. When you get a number of plants strawed up they 
resemble a cemetery. If you have to resort to straw, however, 
it makes an excellent protection, but be careful not to put it on 
too thick. Dwarf plants, such as boxwood edging, can be protected 
by placing boards over them, or laying pea brush over the plants 
and covering this with hay or pine branches cut very short. 

A S SUGGESTED last month, all permanent borders, no matter 
"^ what the character of the plants, should be well mulched. 
This not only helps to protect the roots during severe weather and 
sudden changes, but because of this yearly application of fertilizer, 
the ground does not run down and become im- 
poverished. This applies particularly to perennial 
borders, fruit borders, shrubbery borders or beds, 
the small open border surrounding specimen plants (particularly 
evergreens), rose gardens, etc. 



Protection 
and Feeding 



TT IS still not too late to plant anything that is perfectly hardy; 
in fact, you can work just as long as the ground can be handled. 
It is wisdom, however, to mulch all late plantings. And do not 
under any circumstances leave the plants around with the roots 
Kee o exposed during freezing weather. That is even more 

Plant'ne harmful to them than exposure to a strong sun in 



summer. 



T 



TIIS is a good time to think of preparing for the removal of 
any big trees. They can be dug around leaving them in 
position with a large ball of earth and allowed to freeze, after which 
they can be handled with impunity as none of the roots will then 
M . „. get disturbed. It is well to lay some hay over the 
T ball of earth during mild or rainy weather, which will 

prevent the weather from cracking the soil and wash- 
ing down. 



jDEDS or borders which were planted with bulbs should have 
a good application of leaves after the freezing weather sets in. 
This keeps an even temperature and prevents alternate freezing 
Wh B lh and thawing, which sometimes causes the bulbs to 
p. , rot. Remove the covering early in the spring or the 
bulbs will start growth too early. 
All very tender shrubs, such as tender roses, tender forms of 
hydrangea, etc., should be buried. This is the best way to winter 
tender plants, and although it is quite troublesome it is very effec- 
tive. 

A FTER all the foliage is off the fruit trees, look them over care- 
"^ fully for scale, and if there is the least indication of it spray the 
trees with one of the special scale preparations like Scalicide or one 
c , of the lime-sulphur washes now offered by many manu- 
al y . , facturers. This should be done at once, and if attended 
to you can positively overcome all attacks of the pest. 

CEA kale, rhubarb, asparagus and endive can all be forced at 
this time, and while each one differs somewhat as to details 
of culture the conditions required are very similar. The usual 
procedure is to plant the roots in something that is retentive of 
tj moisture, such as spent mushroom droppings and soil 

p . mixed in equal quantities. They are usually grown 
under the benches where it is dark; the sea kale and 
endive in pots, the rhubarb and asparagus in beds. In this way 
they do not occupy any valuable bench space. They require fre- 
quent watering, but do not allow the soil to get wet and soggy. 
The asparagus and rhubarb will do well enough with just a curtain 
of canvas or burlap hung along the bench to keep out the light. 



The sea kale and endive should have inverted flower pots placed 
over them so that they will bleach thoroughly. The endive referred 
to is the French endive listed in seed catalogues as Witloef chicory. 
The French globe artichoke should be protected over the winter; 
but be careful, for too much covering will cause rot. The best 
plan of which we know is to place over the plants a triangular 
support, such as a tomato trellis, and place the protection over 
this. Corn stalks covered later with hay, leaves, or anything 
of that nature, makes the ideal covering. Do not let this covering 
come in contact with the plants. 

pALMS and such plants that are not in active growth during 

early winter should be watered occasionally with lime water. 

This prevents the soil from souring. Vines (such as allamanda, 

bougainvillea, etc.), which are planted in an open border, should 

In the ^ e dried °ff so that they lose their leaves or at 

Greenhouses least part ° f them - This S ives them a § ood rest > 
but do not dry them off so that the wood shrivels. 

Now is also a good,time to look over the bulbs that have been stored 

for the winter — such as dahlias, gladiolus, etc — to be sure that 

they are all right. 

CUCCESSION sowings can be made of beans, cauliflower, beets 

and carrots, making two sowings of the beans and cauliflower 

and one of the beets and carrots, Muskmelons started now are 

Vegetables eas ^ surj J ect s to force; as the days soon begin to 

Indoors lengthen, forcing becomes easier. These should be 

sown singly in 2-inch pots; and use only the forcing 

types if you want the best results. 

V/FAKE sowings of Gypsophila elegans, schizanthus and rho- 
dan the. These are all good flowers for cutting or pot work. 
Carnation cuttings should be taken this month, stuck in sand. 
Sta f Take the cuttings from healthy plants and from flower- 
p. ing shoots, only. Calla lilies started early can be fed 

freely at this period. 

COME of the early planted lilies should now be showing bud, 
which is time to start feeding. Do not start feeding until 
they do show bud, or they will start into renewed growth. 

Bulb forcing is one of the most profitable and interesting and 

v . perhaps easiest way to obtain winter flowers. Commence 

J^v. now; there is an endless number of varieties that will 

give a continuous supply of flowers from now until spring. 

Roman hyacinths can be brought into the heat and forced, as can 
the French grown narcissus which lend themselves to early forcing. 
The Paper Whites can also be forced at this early date and freesias 
should be fairly well advanced. In fact, they should be in bloom 
the latter part of the month. 

Late this month, any of the Polyanthus type of narcissus can be 
brought inside as can some of the earliest on the single tulips. 
Always try to bring in the bulbs at the rate you can use them. 
This will insure good flowers at all times. Better not bring inside 
any of the double tulips until next month; also any of the large 
trumpet types of narcissus; the Parrot, Darwin and Gesneriana 
types of tulip should be left outside until February ist. 

A LL bulbous plants require quite a lot of water. In fact, they 
■*"*■ can be grown in water, so it is advisable to water them copi- 
ously when in soil in pots; also feed freely after the buds appear, 
using liquid manure for the purpose. All bulbs should be placed 
w . under the benches when first brought in. This length- 

* < r" ng ens the stem but they must not be neglected and left 
too long, or weak stems will be the result. 

Late in December, bring spirea (astilbe) into heat. It can be 
brought into the greenhouse earlier than this, but it will not seem 
to do so well or to flower any earlier.. 

T ILY-OF-THE-VALLEY can be forced the year round by 

*-* using cold storage pips. This flower does not force well 

until it has had sufficient rest, therefore if cold 

y-o - e- a ey stora g e roots are no t used, do not bring the pips 



all year 



into the greenhouse until late in the month. 



NOVELTIES AMONG CHRYSANTHEMUMS 







SEEN AT THE LEADING EX- 
HIBITIONS OF THE SEASON 

Photographs by J. H. Pepper, E. D. Smith, and others 



Harvest Moon — A new deep yellow Pompon 
which A. N. Pierson, Inc., has been exhibiting this 
season. It throws well-formed sprays 





Marigold — An exhibition and commercial flower of wonderful color 
Brighter yellow than Golden Wedding and comes to maturity by middle 
of October. (E. D. Smith Co.) 



Golden Mensa — A beautiful yellow form of the 
ramiliar white Mensa. When disbudded the flow- 
ers may be had 3 in. and more across. Suitable 
for vase work and table decorations. Exhibited 
this year for the first time 




Antigone— A glistening white incurved Japanese. Very 
early, and has scored well, both in the exhibition and com- 
mercial sections. Exhibited bv C H. Tottv 





NESCO — A silvery pink Pompon by Elmer D. 
Smith & Co. Notable for its clean color, perfect 
flowers and graceful growth 




Lilian Doty — Very prominent at the shows. 
A splendid pink variety throwing large and hand- 
some trusses of flowers, and when disbudded, 
flowers 3 in. across. A disbudded stem and a 
cluster in contrast 




Mrs. J. Purroy Mitchel — A snow-white exhibition 
variety of the Japanese reflexed type. Very large, some 
of the blooms seen measuring over 10 in. across. Foliage 
good. Exhibited by C. H. Totty 



Kewanee — Giving an entirely new color — a chamois 
yellow — a tall growing plant if started early. The high 
moulded form of flower makes it good for collections. 
Certificated. (E. D. Smith & Co.) 

151 



Mrs. R. C. Pulling — A shapely flower of the Japanese 
incurved type, suitable principally for exhibition purposes. 
In color it is an unusual yellow.or buff. An English variety, 
introduced by C. H. Totty 



152 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



December, 19 14 




Zora — An early flowering bright yellow Pompon 
of graceful form and having large flowers on good 
stems. Certificated by C. S. A. (Smith.) 






Illona — Late flowering Pompon rosy lavender 
color. The flowers are well borne and very freely 
produced. Certificated. (Smith.) 



Excelsior — One of the most beautiful of this season's novelties, partic- 
ularly adapted to vase work. Its petalage is light but tough. Its color is a 
delightful dark terra cotta, with greenish yellow centre. The flowers may be 
had on long single stems. 




Golden Queen — Incurved, clear yellow, matur- 
ing early in October. Acceptably received as an 
early commercial flower. (Smith.) 



Cranfordia — An improvement on last years Cranford Yellow. A deeper 
and more pleasing yellow and somewhat sturdier of habit. Plants may be 
grown ten and twelve shoots to a plant. The flowers in our photograph 
were four and five inches across, on long single stems. Good outdoors, or in 
pots under glass. 





Crystal Gem — A white for commercial purposes, 
coming into bloom during latter part of October. 
The bloom is well formed and solid. (Smith.) 




A. S. Baldwin — A shapely light yellow incurved 
Japanese, good for exhibition or commercial use, 
with broad and strong petals. Its habit of growth 
is good, and it should do well anywhere. 



R. B. Burge — A glistening white with yellow centre, is one of the best of 
the single chrysanthemums. The variety may be grown and flowered out- 
side, or brought indoors for finishing. The form of the flower makes it ex- 
cellent for packing and shipping. 



MODELLE — A new color in commercial blooms, 
closely approaching orange, with tinges of amber. 
It comes in during the full November season. 
Certificated. (Smith.) 



December, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



1 53 





ofierta of 
oseoerrv harden, 

^'bp? Jr a rices ) ^Duncan 

QD ecorations oy- JaclL (wTantep Rose 







w^nm 












Roseberry Gardens is not a historic account of an actual nursery, although I 
dare say it is typical of other days and many of the older nurseries, when the 
nursery business was more leisurely and perhaps more scholarly than to-day. To one who has ever been in touch with 
the growing of plants there is a poetry and charm in the life of the place which no other business possesses. And if the reader 
finds a little of the sheer happiness there is in having to do with the exquisite young life, the story will have been worth while. 



(Continued from page 122, November Number) 

MISS HEWSON,' I says, 'belike 
ye're not aware that 'tis not of 
hersilf yer mother is think- 
in', but of children an' grand- 
children and of makin' the place beautiful 
for thim. 'Tis yersilf and yer children 
afther you that'll see the full beauty of 
that rhodydendron.' 

"At that she quieted down a bit an' 
let the old lady buy two or three plants. 
But 'twas not long before she began 
again wit' her 'Now mother!' She 
spint but fifty dollars, did the old lady. 
She'd have spent two hundred and fifty 
if the daughter'd let her alone! " 

'"Oh, Miss Hewson,' I says to myself, 
'indeed you'd do better if you'd as 
much since as yer mother. And you'd 
give a lot of that same State of Pinnsyl- 
vania if you was as young and good 
lookin' as the gur-rl we have in the office ! ' 

" 'Tis a pity," said Michael shaking 
his head, "for a gur-rl to grow up like 
that. But her father's a State Sinator, 
and what can you expect!" 

Chapter V 

On the May morning when we first 
met Michael O'Connor (when the grumb- 
ling teamster had at last gone down 
the road), he returned to the office and 
sat down beside the big desk where the 
young secretary was established. 

"Thank Hiv'en that's done!" said 
Michael fervently. " 'Tis like a nightmare 
sittin' on the chist of the Roseberry Gar- 
dens till Tompkins is off in the mornin'." 

The young secretary laughed and 
pulled a bunch of lists from a drawer. 

"Tell me about these, Michael." 

They were orders to be given to the 
different foremen. Michael drew out a 
case and put on large steel spectacles. 
She held up one for his scrutiny. 

"Pete?" inquiringly. He shook his 
head. "He's not sinse enough for that. 
Give that to O'Mallev. Here!" He 



took the lists in his hand. "This, and 
this, and this — that'll keep him busy." 

He sorted the orders carefully and 
slowly according to the intelligence re- 
quired and convenience in digging. 

"We must send a man to-morrow to 
do planting at the Babies' Home," said 
Roberta. "Who's the one to send?" 

Michael puckered his lips a moment 
then his face lightened. 

"Brian," he said, "sind Brian. 'Tis 
a foine lad he is and knows the plants 
well, but he can't keep from the dhrink. 
'Tis a pity a man would wish to take 
leave of his sinses for the sake of puttin' 
things down his t'roat! Sind him! 
'Tis only milk and infants' food he'll 
get and not a dhrink wit'in ten miles! 
'Tis just the place for him." 

The girl clipped the lists together in ac- 
cordance with Michael's suggestions, ini- 
tialed them, pushed the order-book aside. 

Michael picked up his felt hat, started 
to go, then suddenly turned. 

"I was forgettin'!" he exclaimed. "I 
know ye had to go in airly yesterday 
about that shipment, but 'twas a pity! 
Mister Herford, Mr. Maurice J. Herford, 
was here?" 

"Was he?" asked Roberta carelessly. 

"He was that! An' so dissap'inted 
at not gettin' a sight of yez, he c'u'd buy 
nothin' — nothin' at all, at all!" 

Roberta's eyes laughed. "Too bad!" 
she said. 

"Yes, so I thought. It wint to my 
h'arrt to see my little man so disap- 
p'inted-like, so I tuck him out to the 
houses, an' I showed him the Magnolia 
pavijlora you was forcin', an' I gave him 
wan branch. I said I knew — " he 
smiled beamingly — "you was forcing 
them for him, knowin' his intrust in 
magnolias." 

"Michael!" exclaimed the girl, "how 
could you! " 

"How c'u'd I not?" he demanded. 
"There was the foinest little man that 
comes out to Roseberry Gardens. How 



c'u'd I let him go home so forlornsome 
and lookin' like there was nothin' in 
life at all, at all? Don't ye give a flower 
to a b'y or girl in the street that looks 
hungry for it? An' if so little a thing 
w'u'd make a man happy, 'tis not 
yerself, Miss Davenant, that w'u'd have 
the h'arrt to refuse!" 

Roberta laughed helplessly. 

Michael was already disappearing. 
Left alone in the dingy office, a look of 
vexation clouded the girl's face, then she 
laughed. One couldn't get really cross 
with Michael. She looked at the clock. 

"Eight," she said It would be an 
hour and a quarter before the coachman 
would bring Mr. Horace Worthington 
and the mail. She took her hat from 
the nail and went out into the gay May 
morning. 

On one side of the office was a wide 
plowed field, in which the men were 
preparing to plant corn, to give the land 
its sabbatical year. Perched on the 
fence was a solemn row of blackbirds, 
waiting for the sowing to begin — all with 
their eyes on the furrows. 

But she went the other way, past the 
rows and rows of dogwood whose petals 
were beginning to open. The red flower- 
ing ones looked as if a flock of scarlet 
butterflies had just lit on their dark 
branches. Through the arched gatewav 
n the hemlock hedge and along the 
broad grass path she went. Down the 
path she had caught sight of Mr. Trom- 
mel, basket on arm, bending over the 
gorgeous azaleas. 

"Good morning, Uncle Rudolph!" 

"Good morning!" he responded. 
"You can help me a bit, I think. What 
iss the color?" 

He clipped off a blossom and held it 
up. She looked at it critically. 

"The petals are rose-color and the 
buds garnet. I think I should say just 
that. You can't make a mixture of the 
colors. They aren't mixed; they're 
distinct." 



154 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



December, 1914 



Rudolph nodded "good" and wrote 
with a cramped hand on the label, re- 
peating as he wrote. " Garnet unfolting 
to pale rose," then twisted the wire 
around. 

"Und this?" 

It was hard to tell; the petals were 
salmon infused with pale gold. 

"What is it's name?" she asked. 

"Three-hundred und forty-four." 

"Sounds like a prisoner," she said, 
"or a ward patient! It should have a 
better name than that!" 

"You can name it," he said, "it iss 
mine. It iss one of the new seedlings. 
It iss hard to find names for all the chil- 
tren. Take it!" 

She took the flower. "It looks like 
the sun shining through in the morning 
more than anything else," she said. 
"Perhaps I'll find a name, but I must 
go now, Uncle Rudolph; I've a list for 
Peter. I have to go down to 'End 
Entirely.'" 

She went quickly down a broad grass 
path, through another gateway and 
into the drive again. It was not a wide 
one; on each side were tall, close-clipped 
hemlock hedges that stretched straight 
to the bordering line of woods, where 
the drive ended in a circle. This was 
what Michael called "Entirely." "To 
be sure," he said, " 'tis the 'End En- 
tirely.'" To Roberta's mind there 
should have been a statue or a fountain 
or a pool at the end of the driveway; 
the straight hedges, the blooming trees 
that reached above it and the dim woods 
that ended it seemed to demand such a 
terminus. Instead, at the end of the 
stately drive, was an 
unnoticed opening 
which led to the un- 
pretentious establish- 
ment of Washington 
Jones, the well-temp- 
ered Negro teamster. 

Roberta walked 
quickly and happily, 
swinging the azalea be- 
tween her fingers, look- 
ing up again and again 
at the late Magnolia 
Lenne that held up 
great wine - colored 
chalices to the morning 
sun, and the blossom- 
ing pear trees. For on 
the other side of the 
hedge pear and peach 
tree stood row after 
row in brilliant flower 
while here and there a 
crimson peach showed 
vivid against the 
dazzling whiteness as a 
scarlet tanager against 
a snowbank. 




Unconsciously, she began to hum an 
air and then sang in a clear young voice, 
light and rather delicate but true. 

"Faites-lui mes avceux, portes mes vceux 
Revellez a son ame, 
Le secret de ma flamme 
Que mon cceur nuit et jour — " 

She stopped suddenly. 
Just at the opening of Washington's 
private road, which the widening of the 
hedge had concealed, stood a tall young 
fellow, sketch-book in hand, soft felt 
hat pulled down over his eyes. He had 
on brownish, loose-fitting clothes, but 
she noticed only the dark gray eyes and 
the shock of light hair. 

He pulled off his cap quickly. "I 
hope I'm not trespassing," he said. 

"No," she answered, "not unless you 
break branches or pull up plants." 

"It was so like an English garden," 
he said, "and I had to have a bit of an 
English garden. I wish I hadn't stopped 
the song!" 

Roberta did not answer. 
"Look!" she said, pointing to the 
blossoming tree that reached over the 
hedge opposite. A brown thrush flew 
from the hedge top, lit on the very tip 
of a blossoming branch, poised himsejf, 
swaying with the branch his own weight 
set in motion. The two watched in 
silence; then came a strain of exquisite 
song, clear and high. A moment later 
and it was repeated. "I hoped he'd do 
that," she breathed, then laughed 
softly from sheer happiness. "How per- 
fect!" she said. "He sang it 'twice 
over' for you, too! There's 'England 
in April' and if you want the ' elm tree in 
tiny leaf,' it's down 
yonder." No one but 
Robert Browning would 
have remembered how 
the thrush loves the top 
of a spray and loves 
to swing, like the bob- 
o-links do on the tops 
of the tall grasses. 

"It was perfect," 
said the young fellow 
softly. They waited, 
but the thrush didn't 
sing again; instead he 
flew to a more distant 
pear tree. 

Roberta came to her- 
self. Perhaps a thought 
of Aunt Adelaide 
flashed across her mind, 
and her probable opin- 
ion. 

"I must go. I am 
quite sure you are not 
trespassing," she said 
formally, "but it might 
be well to stop as you 
go back and ask Mr. 



Worthington's permission. He would 
prefer it." 

She nodded slightly, turned, and dis- 
appeared past the hedge and among 
young dogwoods. 

Paul Fielding looked after her, but 
she had vanished. He turned to the 
hedges and blossoming trees. 

"Lordy! but that was pretty," he 

said. ' ' I wonder who- ' ' He tore up 

his sketch and began working rapidly, 
sketching, suggesting, the hedge and the 
flowering trees and against the hedge was 
a girl's outline with a splash of copper- 
color where her head should be. 

Meanwhile, Miss Davenant was walk- 
ing swiftly along a narrow foot-path that 
skirted the oak woods. She looked 
back. No one was in sight. Then she 
began running, lightly and easily with 
the sureness of an Indian, until the path 
ended at a wagon track. Flushed and 
breathing quickly, she stopped running, 
put up her hand to her hair, the im- 
memorial feminine gesture, for was she 
not nearing Peter's "gang "and the secre- 
tary to the head of Roseberry Gardens 
must be dignified as befitted that ancient 
place? Presently she saw the men. 

One of them, evidently the head work- 
man, left his group and approached. 

"Good morning, Peter," she said. 
"It's just a few things for an order of 
Brian's that are over here." She handed 
him a slip. " Bring these over and mark 
them for him. That's all." 

"It was too pretty an errand for 
Barney," she said to herself as she turned 
away, and walked down the wagon 
track which was a short cut to the office. 
. It was a lovely bit of road. There were 
violets in the grass alongside and wild 
growth of young oak and maple and 
witch hazel arched the narrow road 
overhead. Presently she stopped, listen- 
ing. There was the thrush again. 

"I oughtn't to have spoken that way 
without an introduction," she said to 
herself, ruefully. "I wish I didn't do 
things first and think afterward! But 
it was the thrush's fault!" 

Chapter VI 

Promptly' at 9:15 every morning Mr. 
Horace Worthington's coach, driven by 
a frosty-haired negro, Peregrine Pink, 
drove up to the office door. 

"Whoa-dar!" the young secretary 
would hear through the open window in 
tremendous tones. "Whoa-dar!" and 
Peregrine would rein in the placid, 
leisurely gray horse as fiercely as if he 
were a battle-impassioned stallion and 
Peregrine himself a cavalry officer. 

Then the office door opened, Mr. 
Worthington would come in, glance at 
the clock, compare it with his watch. 



December, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



155 



"Dear me! I must speak to Pere- 
grine; he is invariably late." 

But by that time Peregrine had driven 
off, breathing a bit hard from the late 
excitement. 

Peregrine's instructions were that he 
should be at the Worthington residence 
at a quarter of nine. But whether the 
old darkey were dilatory or whether he 
held a firm opinion that nine o'clock was 

"Just at the open- 
ing . . . stood 
a tall young fel- 
low, sketch book 
in hand" 

4& r - 



■r~ 



too early for Mr. Horace Worthington 
to be at his office, it would be hard to 
say; but never, during the past five 
years, did he appear at the Worthington 
house before exactly nine. And alwavs 
Mr. Worthington intended to "repri- 
mand Peregrine." 

Mr. Worthington was not at all suc- 
cessful at reprimands; either he post- 
poned giving them or they missed the 
mark and went harmlessly over the head 
of the offender. 

"Patrick," Roberta heard him say to 
an aged workman who had done exactly 
the opposite of the instruction given, 
"it seems to me that if there is an 
erroneous method of work, you invar- 
iably choose it!" 

"Yis, sorr," responded Patrick with 
contented pride, "oi do that!" 

Mr. Worthington was a bachelor of 
seventy, with the serenity and benignity 
that seems to come to many men who 
have lived their fives among plants: for 
gardens have a way of blessing those 
who really love them. 

He was a scholarly old gentleman. 
He liked to quote Horace and Ovid, and 
would repeat line after line of Homer be- 
cause he liked the music and sonorous- 
ness of the old poet. He read Sir Thomas 
Browne. He never could plan an or- 
chard without associating it, in his mind, 
with Sir Thomas Browne's adored 
quincunx — the quincunx which, for the 
exquisite old prose-poet, seemed the 
quintessence of garden symbolism. As a 
young man he had travelled extensively, 



not only on the Continent, but in Russia, 
and Japan, which then was an almost 
unknown country. He knew the Kew 
Gardens almost as well as he knew Rose- 
berry Gardens. And in landscape gar- 
dening he swore by Repton and by Le 
Notre. 

Yet with all his love and feeling for 
antiquity, for the beauty and charm of 
the older gardens, in horticulture and 
horticultural experiment, he was not so 
much intensely modern as he was a 
futurist. For to be modern is to be 
mentally in the fashion, and merely to 
echo the thought and feeling about one 
— an easy and unimportant thing to do. 
Horace Worthington was a futurist. 
As early as in the '40's he was writing of 
city playgrounds for children, of roof- 
gardens where plants might really be 
grown, of house-top conservatories, 
things which to-day, some seventy years 
later, are matters of "modern experi- 
ment." 

He wished to see a winter garden in 
the heart of the city — an entire block 
devoted to it, the centre a great glassed 
in space, with no extra heat but what 
the sun through the glass afforded. The 
outer edges of the square would be art- 
shop, florist shop, curios and others at- 
tracted by the charm of the situation. 
Here would be, not hot-house plants, 
but grown as in the open those not quite 
able to stand a northern winter — cam- 
ellias, Indian azaleas, tender rhodo- 
dendrons, the Southern jessamine. Here 
might the aged and convalescent sit 
and sun themselves and watch the busy 
life go by and drink in happiness. In 
summer, the glass would be removed and 
it would be a Public Garden. 

But when he wrote of those ideas to 
the papers in rather flowery letters 
signed "Agricola," he was accused of 
getting his ideas from Nineveh and 
Babylon, of being so steeped in his be- 
loved ancients that he was "out of touch 
with modern life." Worthington was 
considered old-fashioned, a sentimental- 
ist and a 
dreamer 
about gar- 
dens. 

Because a i 



thing 
never 
done, 
was 



had 
been 

and 
not 



Inside the house had changed as 
litUe as the outside " 



horticul- 
tural usage, 
was no rea- 
son why it 

shouldn't be done. Because a plant 
"couldn't be grown in this country" was 
no reason why it mightn't thrive at 
Roseberry Gardens. 

And if, in his mind, the experiment 



of the Arabian gardeners centuries and 
centuries ago with the traditional "blue 
roses," the supposed origin of the yellow 
roses linked themselves with the present 
way of encouraging the blue tint in 
Hortensis hydrangeas by iron filings in 
the soil, he would consider the Arabian 
gardener a fellow experimenter, ani- 
mated all those years back with the same 
passionate interest in a plant's possi- 
bilities. He, too, had lived in the future. 

So where other horticulturists were 
content to import new or unusual plants, 
Horace Worthington was never content 
until he could grow them and grow them 
easily in the Roseberry Gardens with no 
more than the customary amount of 
care. Wherefore, instead of importing 
plants, he imported Rudolph Trommel, 
whose interest in experiment was as great 
as his own. 

Horace Worthington had the theory 
that, although it was possible to modify 
the soil, it was not possible to modify 
the climate, but that the plants them- 
selves could learn to suit it. That if a 
plant could, by coddling, be brought 
through safely, the second or third gen- 
eration might endure the climate without 
coddling. 

Because he believed in the climatic 
similarity, Japan and Japanese horti- 
culture interested him greatly. He had 
met Siebold, the German botanist; he 
knew well Dr. Hall ; and it was to Rose- 
berry Gardens that Dr. Hall brought 
the exquisite Japanese flowering apple, 
known first as Malus Halleana, now as 
Pyrus Mains, var. Parkmanni. 

He and Rudolph Trommel would hold 
in the private office long and animated 
conversations, chiefly about rhododen- 
drons, of which Roberta could not help 
but hear fragments. 

" It is the climate that makes the differ- 
ence," Mr. Worthington would say. 
"It makes the difference in races and in 
plants. Give Labrador the climate of 
Equatorial Africa and you will have 
tropical vegetation. It is our climate 
that strains the English rhododendrons; 
the peat soil or not has little to do with 
it. The extremes and sudden changes 
tax the root system, and that is why a 
native rhododendron has twice the spread 
of roots that an English one has. It 
needs them." 

• "That may be so," assented Rudolph 
Trommel. 

" If we can develop a good root system, 
we have it! Peat does not encourage a 
large root system and demands much 
moisture; we must try it without peat, 
and with no surface watering. If we 
get the resistance of the Catawbiense, 
with the fine color, it will be an achieve- 
ment!" 

"It iss possible," said old Rudolph, 



156 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



December, 1914 



who rarely was worked up to the same 
pitch of enthusiasm as Horace Worth- 
ington. 

"Possible!" the old gentleman would 
say in a glowing voice, "it can be done! 
We can have the color of the hybrids and 
the hardiness and ease of culture of the 
common privet!" 

"But we need a hedge plant, Trom- 
mel ! Something that will be in America 
as the yew is in England." 

For Michael O'Connor, Mr. Worth- 
ington had an affectionate and amused 
tolerance. He had tolerance and some- 
thing like real pity for Henry Stirling, 
painstaking and hardworking and absent 
just now on business. Poor Henry! 
He had no feeling for the beauty and 
poetry of the business; it was all sizes 
and prices and quotations. It could no 
more be helped than blindness! He 
liked Roberta. He liked her color in the 
dingy office, very much as he liked the 
color of the -azaleas; he liked her eager 
interest in the plants and he used to 
lend her books — Rep ton, and Gilpin, and 
Evelyn's Diary, and a fat, compara- 
tively modern book, "L'Art de Jar din," 
of Andre's (for its excellent account of 
Le Notre) also Robinson's "English 
Flower Garden" with the caution that 
he was a bit gone mad over the " natural- 
istic" and she must not believe him too 
completely. 

And Roberta used to take them home 
to the old house until Aunt Adelaide 
became quite wildly interested. She 
used to read them while Roberta was at 
the office. She liked particularly the 
elegance of the Le Notre gardens, and 
William Robinson and the emphasis 
he laid on gardening being so lovely 
and suitable a concern of woman. She 
first began to be relieved that Roberta 
was interested in something so safe and 
womanly, and then she grew interested 
in her own account. 

Mr. Worthington's usual programme, 
after his glance at the clock and his 
threatened reprimand for Peregrine, was 
to hand to the young secretary part of 
the mail and retire into his private office 
with such of the letters as interested him 
or needed his attention. After an hour 
or so he would dictate a bit, and then go 
out to see the azaleas or some other 
plants in which he was engrossed, walk 
about the gardens and survey the work. 

He had been gone but a short time 
when the door opened and on the thres- 
hold appeared Paul Fielding, his shock 
of yellow hair bared to the morning sun. 

"Is Mr. Worthington in, and may I 
see him? " he asked. 

Miss Davenant looked up from the 
pile of orders she was copying rapidly, 
flushed a little, for she flushed rather 
easilv. 



"He has just gone out," she answered, 
"you'll find him in the azalea plantation." 

Young Fielding thanked her and with- 
drew. But she heard more of him 
later. 

"I met a most estimable young man," 
Mr. Worthington reported when he 
came in at almost noon, for Paul had 
evidently found him, "young Fielding, 
a son of Major Carlton Fielding of 
South Carolina, the Fieldings of "Par- 
adise Park" on the Cooper. It was his 
great grandfather, Carlton Fielding, who 
brought over the first Camellia japohica, 
and was very well known at Kew. The 
largest specimens of Camellia japonica 
in the country are at Paradise Park and 
this young man says the original plant 
is still living, a hundred and fifty years 
old. Very interesting." 

"Also, he tells me, that his father has 
naturalized the Indian azaleas at Para- 
dise Park. The young man is interested 
in landscape gardening and wishes to 
learn our Northern plants; his father 
advised him to visit here. So, if you 
will tell Michael and the other foremen 
to afford him any information possible, 
we shall be doing our duty by him. So 
few of the young men now-a-days have 
any interest in plants!" sighed Mr. 
Horace Worthington regretfully. 

Miss Davenant heard more of the 
young man later, when Michael O'Con- 
nor came in at noon. 

"Who's the lad the boss says we must 
lind a hilpin' hand on the path av' 
larnin' — him that was here this mornin', 
leggy as badly grown Rose of Sharon, 
wid the hair like a corn-shock? " 

"Mr. Fielding," she answered, "Mr. 
Paul Fielding of Paradise Park, South 
Carolina, whose great-great-grandfather 
imported the first Camellia japonica." 

"He did, did he? " questioned Michael, 
"And what's to become of my little 
man? The foinest man at buying cam- 
ellias that America has projuced?" 

Roberta laughed. "I don't see how 
anything can happen to Mr. Herford, 
Michael, so long as you take such care 
of him." 

"'Tis well I do," said Michael, "but 
what's the long lad doin' here?" 

"He's been studying landscape gar- 
dening and wants to learn plants." 

"Larn plants," repeated Michael. 
"If he spiles things for my little man, 
I'll larn him," he said grimly. 

Chapter VII 

If Peregrine Pink had a poor sense 
of time, Mr. Maurice Herford's was mar- 
vellously acute. 

Exactly at 4:30 Mr. Horace Worthing- 
ton was driven home. Miss Davenant 
stayed usually until nearly six. She 
liked having the place to herself and get- 



ting the work arranged clearly for the 
next day. 

Rarely did a customer come late in 
the afternoon, for folk who came to Rose- 
berry Gardens came usually expecting 
to spend an hour or so among the plants 
and came earlier — all except Mr. Maur- 
ice J. Herford. Exactly five minutes 
after Mr. Worthington's carriage had 
rolled down the road toward the village, 
Mr. Harford would appear coming along 
the side road from the direction of the 
Philadelphia turnpike. 

Mr. Herford was an old friend of 
Michael. " 'Tis twinty years," said 
Michael, "since Mr. Maurice Herford's 
been comin' to Roseberry Gardens and 
twice the season, and he's bought well 
from the first. Says he, 'There's no 
place I'd rather be: and if I had the 
sinse to do the wor-rk', says he, 'I'd ask 
f'r a job to-morrow.'" 

Maurice Herford was wealthy — very 
wealthy — a bachelor of forty odd and 
a man of leisure. He travelled every 
summer and belonged to one fashionable 
and exclusive club in the city, but that 
was all, for he had an intense love for 
plants. Precisely what the bond was, 
it would be hard to say, but the wealthy 
recluse really loved Michael O'Connor. 
I believe his most vivid happiness was 
to come out to Roseberry Gardens, walk 
about the delightful old place and sit 
by the greenhouse benches and talk with 
Michael O'Connor of plants, or of Irish 
politics. Intensly "Home Rule" was 
Michael, and it was but little use he had 
for the English administration. 

"Idle ould woman!" he would say of 
the late Queen Victoria. 

" 'Tis an idle ould woman, she is, wid 
a large family! And by and by a little 
juke is born somewhere off and thin — 
does he aim his living? Is he thrained 
to a trade, seeing that the job av King 
av England is far from him. Not at 
all — at all! As soon as iver he is born 
the poor Irish is taxed for his mainten- 
ance! And thin, there is another little 
juke, for ivry wan of the ould woman's 
children has children a-plenty, and again 
the poor Irish is taxed. 

"Of what use is it? 'Tis better to 
support a President and a District 
Leader, for the District Leader is Irish, 
an' 'tis the Irish come in on some av the 
jobs inst'id of exclusively on the taxes." 

Michael could never be done talking 
of the charms and virtues of his adored 
Maurice J. Herford. 

"Foinest little man that ever was," 
Michael would say. " 'Tis twinty years 
that he's been buying plants here. 
Twice a season he used to come. 'Tis 
twice a week since last September. 
There's no wan buys like him. 
{To be continued) 




,.\ The Making of Miniature Gardens 



By S. Leonard Bastin 



AN INDOOR SUGGESTION FOR THE CHILDREN IN THE WIN- 
TER MONTHS— THEIR POSSIBILITIES AS TABLE DECORATIONS 



Small pebbles are put in the 
bottom of the pan, with earth 
filled in over them 



A MINIATURE garden may well 
be made an excellent object lesson 
to the younger members of the 
family especially in the winter time when 
there is little doing out of doors. I have 
constructed a numbers of these gardens and 
it may be of interest briefly to outline the 
method of procedure. In the first place it 
is necessary to secure one or more flat dishes, 
made of some glazed ware. These should 
be quite shallow, about a couple of inches in 
depth perhaps, and may be square or round 
or indeed any shape that suits the fancy. 
As a matter of fact ordinary photographic 
dishes have been found to answer all the 
requirements, and as these are cheap and 
may be readily secured in all sizes they are 
to be strongly recommended. 

The first step in the formation of the gar- 
den is to cover the bottom of the dish with a 
layer of pebbles. These should be small 
clean stones such as are obtained from the 
bed of a stream, or indeed may be purchased 
from a florist's store where they are offered 
for use in the culture of narcissus bulbs. 
Next secure a quantity of fine mold; this 
should be quite free from lumps and it is 
well to pass it through a sieve before use. 
It is perhaps most easily handled if it is in a 
dry condition. The layer of pebbles being 
in position, the mold is placed in the dish 
and with the fingers is firmly pressed down, 
so that the dish is about half full. It is 
now just as well to form some idea of the 
exact design which the garden is to follow, 
a glance at the accompanying pictures will 
perhaps give more hints in this direction 
than could be con- 
veyed in lengthy 
descriptions. A few 
general remarks, 
however, may be 
useful. 

One important 
point which should 
be mentioned is that, 
in the case of the 
"rockwork" it is in- 
advisable to use real 
stone. In all the 
gardens shown in the 
photographs thispar- 
ticularpart is formed 



save where a few 
small pebbles have 
been added to give 
an effect. Chunks 
of wood, such as are 
often used for burn- 
ing purposes, are of 
great service espec- 
ially if these are in a 
somewhat rotten 
condition. The com- 
paratively soft ma- 
terial is readily cut 
with a knife into a 
shape resembling a piece of ' ' rock. ' ' In this 
state wood is an admirable medium for hold- 
ing the moisture and, in a wonderfully short 
time it will be found that all sorts of mosses 
and little plants may be established. It is 
well to put the rocks into position when the 
dish is half full and, as this is accomplished, 
the soil is pressed tightly round the pieces of 
wood until the receptacle is full to the brim. 
If liked, little model wooden houses may be 
added as shown, and paths of small pebbles 
could be put down to enhance the effect. 
Where there is room a pool may be introduced 
and this will form a very attractive feature. 
The pool might be formed with a tiny dish 
or a tin lid, or a little piece of mirror could 
be used to give the impression of water. 

The planting of the garden is a matter in 
which indivudial taste must of course oper- 
ate. The plants most suitable for these 
miniature gardens are those of a moisture 
loving habit, such as mosses, tiny ferns and 
any small creeping species which would not 
be likely to be rank in its growth. 

Before planting the whole of the soil 
should be quite saturated with water, and 
until the specimens have taken ahold plenty 




of pieces of wood, 



The little gardens can be made up in an endless variety of styles and are appropriate for tabic centre pieces 

157 



of moisture must he supplied. Little niches 
should be cut in the wood "rockwork" and 
in these small portions of mosses, etc., are 
inserted and if the wood is kept in a damp 
condition the plants soon grow. Low grow- 
ing forms of mosses if placed in tiny tufts on 
the surface of the soil soon spread over the 
entire area and will form the "grass lawns" 
of the little garden. Now and again the 
seeds of the smaller grasses may be sown as 
seed to give a little fresh greenness. 

The general upkeep of the miniature gar- 
dens consists in placing the dishes in a 
fairly light position, though it is well to avoid 
direct sunshine. A good supply of moisture 
is necessary, though if the growth of the 
tiny plants threatens to become rank a cer- 
tain withholding of water is desirable. On 
occasion, too, a little gentle pruning of the 
more vigorous growth will help to keep the 
garden in an orderly state. Duties of this 
description will of course add to the pleas- 
ures of looking after a miniature garden. One 
of the most useful purposes to which the 
little gardens maybe turned is in schemes 
of table decoration. Of course for this the 
somewhat large sized gardens are the best 
seeing that they will occupy a greater space. 
The borders of the dish may be readily 
hidden with layers of moss. If it is desired 
to keep this material from coming into con- 
tact with the linen cloth the whole affair 
may be arranged upon a large tin tray, 

AVAILABLE MATERIAL 

As soon as you begin to make these mini- 
ature gardens, you will be surprised at the 
rich variety of material that is ready to 
your hand. For instance, go into the woods 
and gather up some of the seedlings of the 
evergreens ; in their variety they lend them- 
selves charmingly to this kind of decoration. 
Here and there, too, in the dryer, less fertile 
soils, you will come upon older plants that 
have made a stunted and distorted growth 
and which look quite Japanese in effect. 
Nothing could be better adapted for the 
purpose in mind. While you are in the 
woods, also you will probably be able to 
gather up whole sheets of mossy growth. 
There is a rich variety in the mosses, alone, 
which used on a 
miniature scale will 
easily lend a variety 
of color and struc- 
ture that is very in- 
teresting. 

An entirely differ- 
ent character of gar- 
den will be con- 
structed by the use of 
small cactus, which 
again offer an'endless 
variety. The smaller 
bulbs can be used in 
this connection to 
give brilliant color 
effects. 



Fresh Vegetables All Winter-By f. f. Rockwell, 

MAKING REAL USE OF THE LIGHT COOL AND SMALL GREENHOUSE— EASILY GROWN 
CROPS THAT WILL KEEP UP A CONSTANT SUPPLY UNTIL THE SPRING GARDEN SETS IN 



Con- 
necticut 



jl T LEAST some of the fresh vege- 
7\ tables which winter gardening 
/ % makes possible should be enjoyed 
•A- -^ by every possessor of a green- 
house, no matter how small it is. Any one 
whose gardening experience has been con- 
fined wholly to crops out-of-doors will be 
surprised at the very small amount of space 
required to furnish the average home table 
with such fresh vegetables as are usually 
forced during the winter months. Take 
lettuce, for instance: in the garden, under 
what you consider intensive cultivation, 
you plant it 12 inches apart each way — 144 
square inches to a plant. Under glass, it 
can be grown as close together as 6 inches 
each way for the loose leaf kind, and 7x7 
inches for the heading sort — 36 and 49 
square inches, respectively! At the former 
distance, on a bench space only 3x6 feet, 
seventy- two heads can be grown. True, 
for commercial purposes, these distances 
are usually increased an inch each way; 
but, where the crop is to be used for the 
home table, and where every other head 
can be taken out, before they are quite 
matured, the distances named are ample. 

I have grown tomatoes successfully as 
close together as 18 inches each way; and 
in a small greenhouse, where many flowers 
are grown, and where space is not available 
for tomatoes, I have seen them grown 
successfully in wooden boxes about 15 
inches square and 8 deep, which were 
placed upon the floor in positions where 
the vines could be trained up. They were, 
of course, trained to a single stalk and a 
great deal of the foliage removed in both 
cases. Cucumbers may be handled in much 
the same way. Where forced 
commercially, they are usually 
given at least 8 feet of head 
room, but it is possible to grow 
them on a side bench within 
two feet or so of the glass, the 
vines being trained on heavy 
string or wires run some 6 
inches below the glass and sup- 
ported from the sash bars. 
Half a dozen vines, with good 
results, will yield a generous 
supply of cucumbers at a time 
when a single one is prized. 
> Radishes mature so quickly 
where they are given ideal con- 
ditions that they may be used 
as a "catch" crop between 
other vegetables, or a short 
piece of row 2 or 3 feet long 
sown every week — the rows 
need be only 4 inches apart — 
will keep the table supplied 
with delicious, crisp roots. 

In achieving success with 
vegetable forcing in winter, 
nothing is more important than the selection 
of suitable varieties. The loose leaf type 
will do better than the head lettuces, and 
for winter use, nothing is superior to Grand 
Rapids. It not only takes less room than 



a heading sort, but matures in a shorter 
time, can be eaten at any and every stage 
of development and is the healthiest and 
easiest to grow of any lettuce I have ever 
tried under glass. If, however, you must 
have a head lettuce, there is none superior 
in quality to the little Mignonette, and it 




Once transplanted lettuce plants ready for permanent beds 




In December or January start tomatoes and grow on in 
pots until bed or bench space is available 




Cucumbers just beginning to run. Lateral strings are tied across the heavy cords shown to 
form a supporting network for the vines 

can be planted as close together as 6 or 
7 inches. Other sorts that can be used, 
however, are Hitinger's Belmont, Hothouse, 
Boston Market, and Big Boston, the last 
thriving well in a cooler temperature than 

158 



that required for the other sorts, except 
Grand Rapids. 

Of radishes which can be grown in the 
same temperature as lettuce, Rapid Red 
is one of the earliest and best of the small 
or button type. Personally, however, I 
prefer Crimson Giant, a sort which, while 
it does not mature as early a,s many others, 
is large enough to eat as soon as any of 
them and retains its good quality until it 
attains large size. Comet is a good tomato 
for inside use; the fruits, while not as 
large as those grown outside, are specially 
pleasing in appearance and are superior 
in quality. Bonnie Best and Chalk's 
Early Jewel I have also grown successfully 
inside. The English varieties of tomato 
are especially grand grown under glass. 
Of cucumbers, Davis's Perfect andVickery's 
Forcing are both excellent kinds. Tele- 
graph and Sion House are proved varieties 
of the English cucumbers, which grow to a 
much greater length than the American 
sorts and are generally considered to be of 
much superior quality. Of beets, Early 
Model, Eclipse, and Crosby's Egyptian 
are good for forcing, but the latter, al- 
though it is still a favorite variety, I do not 
consider equal in quality to the others. 
Among carrots, Early Scarlet Horn, French 
Forcing and Nantes are good. If growing 
only one variety, I should plant the latter 
as some of the roots will be ready to use 
almost as early as some of the other sorts, 
and those remaining as the rows are 
thinned out for use will continue to grow. 
If you want to try beans, grow a first 
quality early sort, such as Early Bountiful. 
After settling the question of varieties, 
there are, of course, the details 
of temperature, ventilation, 
fertilization and so forth, 
which have to be looked after 
with each of the several crops 
that have been mentioned. 

As I have already said the 
loose-leaved lettuce is more 
certain to give satisfactory 
results under glass than the 
heading sorts. There is, how- 
ever, no reason why you should 
not succeed with the latter if 
you like it enough better to 
pay for the extra care re- 
quired. Greater care in water- 
ing will be necessary, especially 
after the heads begin to form. 
It is best to apply the water to 
the soil only, and to water on 
bright days, so that the sur- 
face of the soil and any parts 
of the foliage which have be- 
come wet may be dried off be 
fore night. During the larger 
part of the development of the 
plant a temperature of 45 to 50 degrees at 
night should be maintained, but just after 
setting the plants in the bed and while the 
heads are forming about 5 degrees less than 
that will be safer. Both Grand Rapids 



December, 1914 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



159 



and Big Boston will do 
well with a temperature 
of 40 to 50 degrees 
throughout their growth. 
For quick results with 
lettuce now you should 
buy plants from some 
neighboring florist or 
market gardener, or they 
may be had by mail 
at very slight expense. 
The plants are trans- 
planted once before being 
set where they are to ma- 
ture, thus securing a sav- 
ing of space during more 
than hah their period of 
growth. A small flat of 
seeds or a couple of feet 
of drill along the edge of a 
bench planted now will 
give you enough plants 
to follow up the crop 
which you set out at this 
time. 

December and January 
are the months in which 
cucumbers and tomatoes 
are generally sown, so 
they can be used to fol- 
low the lettuce when the 
strengthening sunshine 
and the warmer nights 
makes it more feasible to maintain the 60 
or 70 degrees at night and the 80 to 90 de- 
grees during the day required for the best 
development of the plants. If the green- 
house is so small that there is no separate 
warm section in which these things can be 
started and brought on 
until space is available in 
which they may be set out, 
a small frame on the order 
of a coldframe 
may be used 
in the house so 
that the temperature in 
it may be carried a few 
degrees higher than in 
the rest of the house. 
The tomatoes are 
started in the usual 
way, but at the 
t r a nsplanting 
after the first 
(or at the first 
if the seed is 
sown very 
thinly so 
that extra, 
strong large, 
seedlings 
may be attained) the young plants 
may be put into three or four-inch 
pots, and after they have rilled 
these, which will be in the course 
of two or three weeks if the con- 
ditions ' are right, they may be 
shifted into a size larger if bench 
room is not yet available for set- 
ting them out. An abundance of 
well rotted manure and a little 
fine, bone meal should be mixed 




This 4 x 4 ft. bench in a sash covered leanto with door opening into the cellar will furnish enough lettuce 

for the average home table 




with the potting soil. If paper pots instead 
of clay are used, it will be a much easier task 
to keep them from drying out. As cucum- 
bers are difficult to transplant unless one has 
had experience with them, it is best to start 
a few seeds, not more than four or five, in 
each of the required number of paper pots, 
and after these are well up, thin them out 
to not more than two. They should be 
given plenty of light and kept as near the 
glass as possible so that they will not be- 
come drawn and weak. A rich compost 
with a layer of fine manure at the bottom, 
if used in the pots, will give the plants a 
strong start in the few weeks' time they have 
to get ready for their permanent position. 
When the plants are ready to be set, 
and a solid bed and manure that is still 
actively fermenting — such as you would 
use for a hotbed — are 
available, a narrow trench 
with the manure packed 



in tight at the bottom under 
the plants will give them 
an extra start after trans- 
planting. Where this 
method is not practicable, 
make a generous hole for 
each plant enriching it 
well with either fine, short 
manure or a good handful 
of a mixture of cotton- 
seed meal, bone-dust and 
dried-blood or tankage. 
Keep the plants carefully 
shaded for a few days after 
setting them out. Under 
these congenial conditions, 
both tomatoes and cucum- 
bers will make a very rapid 
growth. Training should 
be attended to carefully 
and constantly. All side 
shoots should be removed 
from the tomatoes as soon 
as they are big enough to 
pinch out and a large part 
of the foliage, where it 
interlaces or shades the 
young fruit, may be cut 
out with advantage. 

For radishes, beets, and 
carrots the soil should not 
be made too rich, espec- 
ially in nitrogen, as this 
has a tendency to produce rank growth of 
top and an inferior quality of roots. I have 
found that a liberal dressing of unleached 
wood ashes gives especially good results 
with these, and a single pailful of ashes 
goes quite a ways in the greenhouse. All 
of these things will do well with a tem- 
perature the same as that given lettuce. 
The radishes may be sown in rows very 
thinly from 4 to 6 inches apart and the 



Cucumbers started in 
pots will produce fruit in 
a few weeks after being set 
out 





Grand Rapids lettuce, a reliable kind. Seedlings ready to plant, and ready for table 



Products of winter gardening: Davies' Perfect cucum- 
bers. Grand Rapids lettuce, Crimson Giant and Rapid 
Red radishes 

beets and carrots from 10 to 12 inches. 

The beets are generally transplanted the 

same way as lettuce except that they are 

set only 3 or 4 inches apart, but they 

may be grown directly from seed if 

there is space enough for them. You 

can grow a row of radishes between 

the rows of beets and carrots. 

In growing vegetables under 
glass, there are a number of things 
to be attended to that one ordin- 
arily pays no attention to out-of- 
doors. One of the most impor- 



160 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



December, 1914 



tant of these is fresh air. This is essential 
not only for keeping the plants in vigorous 
growth hut it is practically a preventive 
for troubles with insects and disease. While 
direct draughts, especially in cold weather, 
should be avoided, ventilation should be 
given every day and for as long a time as 
possible without getting the temperature of 
the house too low. While plen ty of moisture 
is essential, the beginner is more likely to do 
damage by giving too much of it. The 
soil should be thoroughly wet just before — 
or just after — setting out the plants. 
After that water should be given only as the 
condition of the soil seems to indicate that 
water is needed. Water as seldom as 
possible, but water thoroughly, and if 
possible only on bright days so that the 
foliage and the surface of the soil will be 



dried off by evening. While watering once 
in several days will be sufficient for a crop 
grown at a low temperature in midwinter, 
cucumbers and tomatoes which usually 
are making their greatest development in 
early spring when the sun is strong enough 
to run the house up to 80 or 90 degrees on 
bright days, often require a good watering 
every day. Frequent cultivation, whether 
any weeds appear or not, is just as essential 
indoors as out. 

What is perhaps the most important 
point of all I mention last for the sake of 
emphasis — that is — never let a bug appear, 
or if he does appear, never let him live 24 
hours. But prevention is very much easier 
and quicker than any remedy. Use good 
strong tobacco dust freely on the soil and 
about the plant and if necessary on the 



foliage. If this is attended to, further 
trouble will seldom be experienced. The 
green plant lice or aphids and the white 
fly are the things most likely to cause 
trouble. If these do appear, spray the 
former with a nicotine extract (which may 
be had in a number of readily available 
forms such as aphine 'to be used after 
simply diluting with water); and for the 
latter use fumigation or nicotine extract 
for the matured flies and kerosene emulsion 
— in fact the white fly must be treated 
exactly as if it were a scale. Examine your 
plants carefully at least once every week, 
as these like other insect pests, are incon- 
spicuous when they first put in their 
appearance and keep out of sight until, 
they have mobilized large armies of de- 
scendants. 



The Gardens of the Panama Pacific Exposition 



By G. B. Furniss, 



Cali- 
fornia 



A BRIEF OUTLINE OF THE LARGE UNDERTAKINGS FOR THE GARDEN FEATURES OF NEXT YEAR'S 
EXPOSITION AT SAN FRANCISCO— GROWING FEATURES IN BOXES TO TRANSPLANT BODILY 



IT IS a gigantic task. There are over two 
miles of water front along the shore 
line of San Francisco Bay. The loca- 
tion is sightly. To the north and east 
is a panoramic view of the bay with its 
islands dotted here and there and low re- 
ceding foothills in the distance. In front 
is the broad waterway leading westerly 
to the scenic Golden Gate, the historic and 
romantic portal of the vast Pacific Ocean 
beyond. The sunrise and sunsets are 
radiant with all the colors of the tropics. 
Much of the land had been filled in by salt 
water dredgings. This was topped off by 
tons of rich alluvial earth brought some 90 
miles by barge from the 
fertile valley of the Sac- 
ramento River. But 
I it tie development work 
could be done because 
planting was precluded 
by building construc- 
tion. This meant that 
nearly everything had 
to be done in a brief 
period just before the 
opening days. Lawns 
could be established 
with California rye 
grass in six weeks, but 
shrubs and trees re- 
quire time. Then 
again, the standard 
heights of buildings to 
first cornice average 60 
feet. These walls called 
for immense trees and 
high shrubbery as back- 
ground to give vista 
and proportion. A 
nursery was started in 
the vicinity; 14,000 feet 
of glass houses was con- 
structed and to-day 



there are 300,000 plants ready for use! 
The state was searched for specimen trees. 
These were carefully boxed. First the 
earth was cut down on all four sides and 
boxed in. Several inches were left between 
the box and the roots. This space was 
filled with rich earth and watered to en- 
courage side root growth. About six 
months later the bottom was boxed in. 
The trees were then lifted by windlass. 
Gigantic trees have thus been transported 
by team and rail. 

Along the main half mile of boulevard 
there is a double row of palms {Phoenix 
Canariensis), alternating with California 



Washingtonian fan palms which look like 
the growth of centuries. The Canariensis 
stand 30 feet high with long plume like 
branches making a 35 foot spread. The 
Washingtonians tower 40 and 50 feet with 
majestic spread of fans surmounting mas- 
sive trunks and weigh 25 tons each. Pink 
and scarlet ivy geranium, passion flowers, 
and tecomas have been raised in boxes 
and trained up between trellis nailed to the 
sides of the boxes. 

Another boulevard is planted to Drac- 
cena indivisa trees, 25 feet high. Eucalyp- 
tus has been largely used. These make 



gigantic growth! 




The Palace of Horticulture, taken at a point 125 feet above the ground. The building is 600 feet long 
and 300 wide. The dome in the centre is 186 feet high and 152 feet in diameter. The architecture of the 
domes and minarets resembles that of the mosque of Sultan Ahmed I. at Constantinople, while the details 
of the facades, spires and other decorations reproduce the eighteenth century French Renaissance 



In two years from seed 
they give trees 30 feet 
high! E. globulus pre- 
dominates because its 
large bluish leaf gives 
the effect of distance 
when massed against 
high walls. 

The acacias may be 
had in successive bloom 
from winter to winter. 
A. Bailey ana with its 
deep golden yellow and 
dainty silvery foliage, 
feathery and finely di- 
vided, comes in Janu- 
ary. A . mollissima with 
its heavy feathery green 
puts forth its clear yel- 
low bloom in February. 
A. floribunda blooms 
through the summer 
with its bright balls of 
yellow against bright 
flat leaves of green, and 
A . calamifolia flowers 
in late fall. A. latifolia 
and floribunda have 
been raised to standards 
with round tops 5 feet 



December, 19 1-1 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



1GI 



through, giving the effect of 
bay trees for use in the courts 
and in formal work. 

To meet the requirement of 
a long strip of edging, or 
hedge, a foot high and through 
Eugenia apiculata has been 
raised and shifted to 18 inch 
boxes. A tee, or fence of two 
4 foot laths, a foot high was 
nailed across the top of the 
box and on this the Eugenia 
has been trained and clipped 
to shape. The boxes are 
buried in the ground with the 
tees butted end to end thus 
giving a perfect line of hedge. 
The deep glossy green leaves 
with myrtle like flowers and 
dark red berries following 
make a valuable evergreen 
shrub. 

Another clever conception 
in the many last minute arrangements is 
for fences and walls. Boxes 4x4 feet and 
if inches deep have been filled with earth, 
topped off with moss and over this one inch 
mesh wire was nailed. In these Mesembry- 
anthemum spectabilis has been grown to a 
solid mat-like covering. These boxes will 
be fastened upright one above the other like 
slabs. One of these fences will be 1,000 
feet long and 20 feet high. Occasional 
hosing maintains the succulent growth. 
The gray color resembles stone and the 
bright red flowers dazzle in the sun. 




Large palms are moved by the trainload to give established effects to the Exposition grounds 

Japan has doubled its allotment of land 
and will follow the characteristic tea garden, 
with water falls, running water among 
stepping stones and the strange dwarf 
shrubbery. A rare exhibit of Iris is 
promised. 

Holland will show a constant bloom of 
bulbs with a miniature reproduction of a 
bulb farm with native soil. 

The Palace of Horticulture covers five 
acres. It is surmounted by a dome 160 
feet high and 150 in diameter; the largest 
glass dome in the world. 



The Court of Abundance is 
distinguished by full bearing 
orange trees. Magnolias and 
other richly scented trees are 
included. The Court of 
Flowers will be tropical in 
effect, including azaleas and 
ericas. 

In the Court of Four Sea- 
sons there will be water effects 
and a blaze of colors in small 
plants and large, such as 
Bougainvillea Brazilensis and 
laterita trained on uprights 15 
feet high. Pillar roses and 
rhododendron will also be 
massed here. 

There must be luxury of 
bloom at all periods during 
the period of the exposition 
and as fast as one display is 
finished, that feature will be 
taken out- and another 
brought in from the nursery. The plants 
being all growryah boxes ready for removal. 
Pansies, California poppies, begonias, fuch- 
sias eight feet high, likewise heliotrope, 
and hydrangeas with ten foot spread 
are used in abundance. There will be dis- 
plays by many trade exhibitors from the 
east and from abroad. One feature of 
interest lies in the offer of an award of 
$1,000 for the best new seeding rose for 
which entries have already been made by 
foreign as well as domestic growers; the 
rose gardens occupy a vast area. 



A Three-Year Old Garden of Quick Growers 



By A. L. Bright, 



Pennsvl- 



A PICTORIAL AND PRACTICAL ANSWER TO THE GOOD 
ADVICE THAT WE USE SLOW GROWING, AND WAIT! 



THIS is a practical presentation of 
a successful heresy! Of course, 
it is sound advice that we ought 
to plant the slow-growing, per- 
manent trees — beech, elm, and oak — 
rather than the temporizing transient kind 
of thing that quickly develops and equally 
quickly begins to get ragged or decay. But 
the question confronting most of us is unfor- 
tunately: What can be done at once for 
pictorial effects in the very near future? 
And I submit the accompanying pho- 
tographs as justification for what I have 
done. 

This garden of mine is only three years 
old — not a tree or shrub on the ground 
before the building of the house. I like 
yew hedges and spreading beeches as well 
as most people, but necessity forced me to 
fall back on the despised privet, and poplar, 
and rambler roses. 

One of Mr. Wilhelm Miller's excellent 
articles in an earlier issue of The Garden 
Magazine attracted my attention. His 
acquaintance with English as well as 
American horticulture makes his advice 



the more valued — "I stand for better 
gardens," he succinctly says — "Surely we 
have need of a prophet!" In the article 
to which I refer he strongly advocates the 
planting of slow growing trees only — and on 
the other hand entirely condemns "as 
trash" such old friends amongst the quick 
growers as willows, poplars, and privet. 

I have spent more than one summer in 
wandering through the gardens of Surrey 
and Kent and have often been a guest in 
English homes, and I think I can appreciate 
the necessity, with others, for the grandeur 
and dignity of slow growing trees in our 
American surroundings. I also feel as 
acutely as Mr. Miller the want of the beauti- 
ful settings and backgrounds one sees in 
England, such as time alone can achieve 
in a landscape. 

Still, it appears to me, there is a very- 
distinct place in the life of many new 
American gardens for just these despised 
quick growing trees and shrubs; and which 
to ignore, is to discourage many an amateur 
gardener who is unacquainted with the 
making of beautiful surroundings except 



through such helpful sources as The 
Garden Magazine. 

But isn't Mr. Miller a trifle drastic? 
"Wipe it all out," he greatly argues and 
start afresh and this time without hamper- 
ing ideas by Time and Space. For why 
not plant cedars and oaks — and wait! 
The privet hedge goes by the board — why 
not plant a hemlock hedge, and wait again? 
To be sure in some latitudes the hemlock 
dies out — but could it not, we are asked 
cheerfully, be replaced by a planting of 
young growth around the roots? 

Now he takes for granted two things — 
that we are all rich — and that we can all 
wait — while the very contrary is true of 
most American families. 

The making of gardens is of a piece with 
all the rest of American life. We want it 
now or we don't want it at all! Our rich 
men with large estates die — the place is 
sold — and often cut up into . building lots 
by the encroachments of a city suburb. 
It is not entailed as in England to the eldest 
son who puts another wing to the Eliza- 
bethan Manor, enlarges the orangery and 



162 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



Decembe: 



1914 



sedulously furthers his father's maturing 
plans. Our code of precedure (if we can 
be said to have any) can be summed up by 
"After me the deluge." Division is the 
general fate of our large places, and often 
these woodlands and gardens are not en- 
joyed in the youth of the owner but come 
rather late in life as a reward of long in- 
dustry. I know of many individuals who 
are building beautiful homes in their 
"Indian Summer" and have only a short 
few years for the equipment of them— 
must we then discard the quick growers in 
preference to watching and waiting for 
cedars of Lebanon and oaks of Bashan 
that will never reward us? 

We must have a quick effect — let us say 
in the next three or four years. So we 
return to the maligned poplar and privet — 
God bless them! I hold that the material 




Scenes in a Garden at Bryn Mawr, Penna., Taken Three Years After the Building of 



M— — — HIMIMMI IIMWW— » 



I 



December, 191-t 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



163 



at hand does not so much matter — that it 
depends on the way the thing is done — 
like the French milliner who can make a 
chic hat out of artistic sense and a yard of 
ribbon. 

The individuality with which the com- 
monest and most abused plants and trees 
are grouped and the manner of disposal 
makes a garden far more interesting to my 
mind than a place where the individual note 
is not found. 

The previous article referred to was 
illustrated by a photograph of my family 
place — it had taken more than two hundred 
years to get the background, and Mr. 
Miller then described it as "a garden that 
had found itself." It had! And now I 
submit these photographs of our new place 
— three years old — a garden of quick 
results. 




the House Was Begun. Not a Shrub, Tree or Other Plant Was There at that Time 




. TdrJIIisSg$<* 







ODDS AND ENDS 



FROM EVERYWHERE 




Alstromeria Outdoors 

IT WAS with considerable interest that I read in 
the October number of The Garden Magazine 
Mr. Behr's lament about his inability to grow alstro- 
meria. Alstromeria aurantiaca has flourished in 
my garden, in a clay soil and full sunny exposure, 
for some years, until it disappeared because of being 
hoed up by a workman by mistake. Alstromeria 
chilensis is still growing well in the shade of some 
maple trees where lilies and rhododendrons thrive. 
A. aurantiaca is, I believe, considered the more 
hardy of the two, but, while this variety used to 
wear a good coat of manure every winter in common 
with the rest of the garden, my chilensis has of 
late years received only a thin coating of leaves as 
they fall from the maples. I should say the plant 
needs some winter protection, a good soil, moisture, 
deep planting, and perhaps partial shade. They 
are indeed very pretty. My aurantiaca is 4 feet 
tall, and orange color; chilensis is 25 feet tall and 
in mixed shades of pink and cream color. 
Cleveland, O. S. Prentiss Baldwin. 

On page 04 of the October Garden Magazine 
Mr. Behr inquires about alstromerias. I have the 
plants growing out of doors and they were raised 
from seed since it has been impossible for me to 
make the purchased bulbs establish themselves. 

Some fifteen years ago my seed came from Ger- 
many and it refused to come up with the usual 
planting in a hotbed, so we sowed the remainder of 
the package in October, in a bed south of the house 
that was quite heavily covered for the protection of 
some tender bulbs. There the plants came up in 
the spring and bloomed the same year. I sold that 
place and again planted the seeds in the fall and 
transplanted the seedlings in June, to a lily bed that 
is always covered with leaves in winter and is in 
partial shade. There the plants have been for 
at least seven years and bloom in July usually — late 
July — they seem to be rather too much shaded. I 
have again sowed seeds, but failing to get any 
plants, I have concluded that the seeds have not 
been sufficiently protected from frost. 

The only secret seems to be that alstromeria seeds 
take some months to germinate. They transplant 
easily and demand a somewhat light soil in partial 
shade, and must be carefully protected with at least 
eight inches of leaves in winter. My variety is a 
handsome orange color, with black lines on the lower 
petals. The shape of the blossoms is unique and 
they are persistent when cut, the buds even opening 
in water. 

Illinois Mrs. F. Norton Biggs. 

"Cushaw," a Good Name Neglected 

IN THE catalogues we sometimes see the word 
"cymling" applied to summer squash; but we 
never hear of winter squash being called anything 
but winter squash. In the South the winter squash is 
still known by the Indian name, cushaw. The plant 
was here and known among the Indians by that 
name when Columbus discovered America. Why 
not use this good old name? The cushaw usually 
has a neck. Those without necks are more or less 
disrespectfully called "potato pumpkins" by the 
negro cooks. 
Lexington, Ky. C. N. Lyle. 

Squash on a Trellis 

LAST year my garden was so full of vegetables 
that I had no room for the Hubbard vines to 
run, so I set up a 2 x 2 stick about three feet away 
from a clothes line post, ran two 16-foot, 2x2 
scantlings from the tops of these uprights to points 
near the squash hill, and nailed light stuff across 
to form a rough trellis. Meanwhile, I had covered 
a few joints of the vine to get ahead of the borer. 

My yield from the trellis was five fine squash 
weighing in all 285 pounds, while a vine on the 



ground gave only one small one. I would have had 
even better success if one of the runners had not 
been blown off the support and so injured as to 
mature only one fruit. 

I found that the big squash, or stink, bugs gave 
me no trouble on the elevated vines, remaining near 
the hill where they could hide in the dirt. The 
labor of picking them off was thereby considerably 
lessened. 

Another feature of my garden that attracts at- 
tention is a catalpa tree which I trimmed back in the 
spring and of which the main branch has grown, 
since May 1st. eleven feet and ten inches. 

Stamford, Conn. Walter C. Wood. 

Nasturtium and Phlox Indoors 

FOR several years past I have had nasturtiums 
among my winter blossoms. The slips may 
be rooted either in water or in earth, the best slips 
being small branches taken off at a joint. They 
may be started at any time after the latter part of 
August. I keep them in a sunny south window in an 
attic room that gets heat only from the hall, and 
have had these new plants in bloom by Christmas 
Day. I discovered, also, by accident that Drum- 
mond phlox can be made to bloom all winter. A 
bit of phlox, taken from the garden in October was 
put in soil, and it did well from the very beginning. 
The first new blossoms came the day before Thanks- 
giving, and from that time until late spring the 
plant was never wholly out of bloom. As the winter 
went on the stalks grew slender and the flower was a 
paler purple, and by spring it was almost like a vine. 
It was not sickly looking, but was singularly dainty 
and fairy like, having from five to eight blossoms at 
a time. 

Massachusetts. M. F. B. 

Tea Roses Outdoors in Michigan 

I HA VE heard it said that it is impossible to winter 
tea roses out of-doors so far north as Michigan, 
but 1 have proved that with little care it can be done. 
After hilling up the earth about the stems two or 
three inches, and putting over this a layer of man- 
ure, I spread a thick layer of loose leaves over the 
bed. I have a number of old sawhorses and after 
the first heavy snowfall set these over the plants and 
hang an old canvas awning over them. (Sometimes 
I use an old Brussels rug, glazed side up, and this 
sheds moisture perfectly.) The sawhorse and 
canvas make a tentlike arrangement that allows 
free circulation of air at the ends. I uncover the 
plants gradually in the spring. Twice I have su- 
cessfully wintered, in this, way, tiny six-f or- twenty- 
five-cent rose slips that were planted in June. 
Michigan. Mary Rutner. 

Fall Cauliflowers and Peas 

CAULIFLOWER as a fall crop is grown by mar- 
ket gardeners but the home gardener seems 
to.be afraid of it. In my garden on the Jersey Coast 
I had big white cauliflower heads until the first of 
December, both last year and the year before. 

I plant Autumn Giant in a prepared bed in the 
garden on June 15th, and transplant on July 20. 
During the dry weather of August and September 
I water the roots thoroughly about once a week, 
and two or three times during September sprinkle 
nitrate of soda around each plant, six inches from 
the base of the head. I keep the earth well worked 
and free from weeds, and the plants grow steadily 
from the time they are planted until the heads 
mature. Encouraged by my continued success 
with fall cauliflower, I decided to try peas again, in 
spite of continued failure during the past few years. 
So few peas ripened on the vines that, after the birds 
were through eating, there was nothing left for me. 
Last year, however, I had some space that I didn't 
need for anything else, so I planted them again, as I 
hated to admit to myself that I couldn't grow them. 
I planted Stratagem peas on August 10. They 

164 



grew beautifully from the beginning, and I supple- 
mented the lack of rain by watering them regularly. 
I dug a trench along each row, two inches fiom the 
roots, and allowed the water from a hose to run for 
several hours from one end of the row to the other, 
until the ground was thoroughly soaked. I did 
this about once a week. Three-foot wire was 
stretched between the rows, and the peas trained up. 
against it. They grew to be two and a half feet 
high and bore almost as heavily as spring peas. I 
began picking October 3rd. 

My success may have been due to the exceedingly 
dry weather, which meant no mildew, or perhaps 
it was just luck, but I shall certainly try again next 
year. 

New Jersey. Louise Bijdr. 

Ever-Ready Planting Cards 

I HAVE gardened for a number of years, but some- 
times find myself at a disadvantage on a fine 
spring morning when work is crowding, and the 
man who does the garden work comes demanding 
seed and instructions. I cannot then take time to 
read up on varieties, culture, etc., and I sometimes 
have found afterward that in the hurry of the mo- 
ment, I have planted a late variety of peas instead 
of an early, and that a heat-resisting late lettuce has 
been the first sown. 

The outcome of these troubles has been planting 
cards, which can be easily consulted and carried 
around, or hung up in the garden during working 
hours 

I cut cards of strong white pasteboard (mine are 
made of old boxes) measuring 8 x 12 in . and in the 
middle of'the narrow side of these I bore a hole and 
put a loop of string to hang it up by. The back 
of each card is left blank, so that garden notes and 
memoranda may be written there, and on the face 
of the card I gum the names of the vegetables to be 
planted and their cultural directions. These I ob- 
tain from the catalogue of the seedsman from whom 
I order my seeds, cutting them out neatly and past- 
ing them on. 

A catalogue of the previous year would answer the 
purpose in case one was unwilling to mutilate the 
new issue. For example, with "Corn." I paste 
first the cultural directions, then under this the 
names and descriptions of the four varieties I intend 
planting, in the order of their earliness and lateness. 
By each variety I make a note in ink of the quantity 
of seed ordered, and another note "plant every 2 
weeks till July 15." This is done for each kind of 
vegetable, and on the right hand side of each card I 
leave a margin of i| inches on which to note the 
dates of sowings 

These cards will not take the place of garden note 
books or systematic garden records, but have the 
advantage of costing nothing, and of being ever 
ready 

Maryland. Mrs. P. B. Springer. 

White Pentstemons 

/CONSIDERABLE space is given every year, in 
VJ the catalogues of several prominent seed firms, 
to the merits of the white variety of Penlslemon 
tubiflorus. One description gives it as "the first 
pure white pentstemon," wherein the writer has 
overlooked the following: 

Here in the hills of Northwest Arkansas is to be 
found native, although rather sparingly, a species 
of beardstongue {Pentstemon tubiflorus) with pure 
white flowers, usually covered with frost like bloom 
that sparkles in the sunlight, and adds much to their 
charm. Botanical descriptions allude to the purple 
tinge in the blossoms. However that may be, the 
form of this plant growing on the Boston mountains 
is, to my knowledge.always with flowers immaculate. 
The plants attain a height of from two to three 
feet, and come into flower in late June, continuing 
through July. The individual flower is of good size 
and tube-shaped; many crowded on a stalk, which 



December, 1914 



THE GARDEN M A G A Z I N E 



165 



bears a superficial resemblance to the tuberose. 
Specimen clumps transplanted into my garden have 
flourished, even suffering to grow in damp situa- 
tions, generally so fatal to members of this group. 
It also stands drought well. As to the amount of 
cold it will endure, I cannot state, but in its habitat 
the temperature often goes under zero; sometimes 
when there is no snow blanket to protect the plants. 
Arkansas. A. P. S. 

A Unique Double Crop 

IT GENERALLY happens that during any sum- 
mer either the early or the late potato season is 
good; but it is seldom that both are found to be 
favorable. 

A gardener whose early potato crop had suffered 
badly on account of long drought decided to try late 
potatoes. But he had only one space, an old straw- 
berry bed in his garden unplanted, and he wanted to 
put that in late corn. He decided to turn under the 
bed and to plant both late corn and late potatoes, 
setting the potatoes in the same rows with the corn. 

The soil was prepared and the seed planted on 
July 4. The corn used was Country Gentleman, and 
the potatoes, Bliss's Early Triumph. They came 
■out of the ground together and grew well in their 
close companionship. The potato roots did not 
seem to interfere with the development of the corn, 
and the shade of the corn-blades appeared to keep 
the potato tops from suffering from intense heat and 
from sun-scald after showers. The potato tops 
began to die about September 20, and when the 
stalks were lifted, the gardener found that he had 
a much better crop than his earlies had yielded. 
The corn attained its full growth and development, 
some of the stalks having three good ears. This 
was ready to use by the time the potatoes were 
taken out. 

In tins successful experiment the rows were 
three feet apart, and the hills of corn were thirty 
inches apart in the row. One potato seedpiece was 
dropped midway between the hills of corn. Pro- 
bably it would always be better, when planting as 
late as Jul} - , to use the seed of a variety that matures 
quickly. 

Pennsylvania. Archibald Rutledge. 

Growing Flowers in the Middle Southwest 

IT IS universally supposed that flowers cannot be 
successfully grown in the blistering sun and severe 
winds of Oklahama. I have had in my garden, how- 
ever, many varieties of flowers and have grown them 
well, too. 

Coming from the East, where the climate is mild, 
we believed that all we had to do was to plant, cul- 
tivate, and reap results. My first failure was from 
planting seeds in the open ground and not protecting 
them. When the soil was well prepared and the 
seeds carefully sown, I supposed I had only to 
await the proper length of time for their appearance 
above ground, but my hopes were not to be realized; 
when the gentle breezes of spring had spent their 
furies for about three days there was nothing left 
but deep holes in the earth where my precious flowers 
had been planted. The soil had blown out as 
deeply as it had been spaded up. 

New beds were dug and more seeds planted. 
With the idea that by keeping the soil moist it would 
not blow away in case we had another sand storm. 
I watered the beds copiously each morning and 
evening, with the result that the soil was soon baked 
hard. Then I tried planting in boxes of soil, but 
it seemed impossible to keep them from drying out, 
though later I removed the boxes to a bench by the 
kitchen window and was really successful in starting 
tender plants in them by keeping them covered with 
panes of glass. 

However, each failure in the garden only made 
me more determined. I refilled the old beds which 
had blown out and prepared some new ones with 
equal parts of the natural soil, rich soil from the cow 
lot and sand. 

Then, when the beds were well watered and the 
seeds planted, they were all edged with boulders 
from the creek and covered with gunny sacks nailed 
to boards laid over the entire beds, rocks, and all, 
and weighted down with more rocks. I had wielded 
the mattock and dent shovel and rolled the wheel- 
barrow at intervals for two weeks, and in a short 
time I was rewarded with hundreds of plants of 



sweet alyssum, asters, balsams, cosmos, dianthus, 
poppies, mignonettes, nasturtiums, pansies, petun- 
ias, phlox, sweet peas and verbenas. 

The canna bed instead of being raised to drain the 
water was banked up around the rock border so as 
to catch and hold the water. For the roses, chry- 
santhemums and carnations I drove holes in tin 
, cans and buried one on either side of each plant, 
and each evening they were filled with water. The 
water was thus applied to the roots of the plants and 
caused the fibrous roots to grow downward into the 
cool moist earth and nourish the plants, instead of 
coming to the surface to be dried by the winds and 
parched by the hot sun. 

Later on I resorted to this method for watering 
all my plants and found it most satisfactory. I 
have since learned that September and October are 
the best months to plant roses and shrubs of all 
sorts, also hardy perennials, even chrysanthemums, 
as well as some of the annuals. 

Altus, Oklahoma. Virginia B. Mead. 

What's the Matter With the Dahlias? 

WILL some one please tell me why I did not have 
success with my dahlias this year? About 
May tenth I planted fifty bulbs in a bed deeply dug 
.and very finely broken up. The bulbs were planted 
a foot apart in a rich heavy loam that had never 
been used before for flowers. The shoots came up 
and I thinned them out to one or two. When they 
were about two feet high I pinched off the tops of 
the plants. I had about half a dozen blooms. The 
bed is situated in a very sunny location and the 
plants have luxuriant foliage. Can you tell me if 
there is any way by which I might insure success 
next year, as I have some very fine varieties? 

Lansdowne, Pa. E. W, Davis. 

[Editor's Note: — We shall specially welcome 
letters in reply as this complaint is but typical of 
several received.] 

Rockery Pests 

IF THE readers of The Garden Magazine have 
cherished rockeries in their gardens and desire to 
extermine pests therein, a search under the stones in 
spring will reveal all kinds of insects. Our small 
rockery was made a year ago and as the stones were 
placed too closely, it was decided to remove some 
and change the position of others. The first ex- 
traction revealed coils of a yellowish wire worm, 
sluggish still but with every promise of a future evil 
life! The next stone hid the same worm with slugs 
as companions and so on to the end, the finds closing 
with a black beetle armed with strong nippers. 
Boiling water was effectual and a coating of soot 
followed. Though some stones remain unturned, 
our alpines (some gathered from rock}' hill tops of 
British Columbia) now have a fighting chance for 
summer blooming. 

Vancouver, B. C. Alice Fane. 



The Old Black Gilliflower Apple 

THE old Black Gilliflower is an apple which has 
always been valued chiefly for dessert use. 
It has come down to us from colonial times and is 
one of the apples which was grown by Israel Put- 
nam of Revolutionary fame in his orchard at Pom- 
fret, Conn., along with other varieties many of 
which are no longer propagated. It may be of 
interest to some readers to know that cions of the 
Black Gilliflower and a number of other varieties 
were taken from this Israel Putnam orchard and 
sent to the first white settlement in Ohio, at Mari- 
etta, as early as 1796. These varieties were grown 
in the Putnam nursery at that place, and from there 
disseminated to the early settlers of that region. 

Black Gilliflower is now obsolete, or fast becoming 
so, in most regions of the country. One great 
reason for this, doubtless, is that it is not so good 
an all around market apple as are such varieties as 
Baldwin and Northern Spy, being less brilliant in 
color and with less sprightly acidity in flavor. 

In some few localities it is still planted in com- 
mercial orchards because it is profitable to grow 
it to a limited extent for some local markets, and 
there is some demand for it for Southern trade. 
On good soils, and even on poorer soils which 
are given liberal dressings of stable manure and 
provided with thorough underdrainage, it is a good 
grcwer and a reliable cropper, yielding fruit of re- 
markably uniform grade, fair, smooth, symmetri- 
cal, with but a very small percentage of culls. 

This apple is very distinct in color, form, and 
flavor. The greenish undercolor becomes yellow- 
ish as the ripening processes progress. It is more 
or less overspread with a characteristic red, or in 
highly colored specimens somewhat of a dull pur- 
plish color of a very dark tone, which has been 
duly recognized in giving it the name Black GUI- 
flower. 

The flesh is often rather dry and at its best is 
but moderately juicy, but it has a characteristic 
and pronounced flavor or aroma which is pleasing 
to many. It is so mildly sub-acid that it is not 
much valued for culinary uses except possibly for 
baking. It is not in demand at evaporators or 
canneries. 

The Black Gilliflower varies from medium to 
large, but is seldom very large. It is somewhat 
ribbed and the axis is sometimes rather oblique. 
The cavity is usually deep, acuminate and with 
red russet or greenish outspreading rays. The 
basin is generally rather shallow, furrowed and 
much wrinkled. The skin is thick, tough, striped 
or covered with red and streaked with a bluish 
gray scarfskin toward the cavity. The core is large. 
The flesh is whitish or with slight yellowish tinge, 
firm, rather coarse, tender, only moderately juicy 
at best, but it has a rich aromatic flavor and good 
dessert quality. 
Ames, Iowa S. A. Beach 




Black Gilliflower, a good quality, moderately juicy, sub-acid apple that is fast becoming obsolete 




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; GARDENING 

YOUNcf folks; 

CONDUCTED BY ELLEN EDDY SHAW 




Gifts from the Garden 

ALL the fall, boys and girls have been bal- 
ancing up their accounts to see the actual 
results of the season's garden work. Now these 
results are not financial ones always, although they 
may be expressed in terms of money value. It 
is amazing to discover the amount of produce a 
small strip of soil in the backyard, after proper 
cultivation, will yield to the worker. Each spring 
a large number of boys and girls all over America 
pick up their hoes and spades and attack their 
allotted garden spaces. Accounts of this work and 
its results seem to have something of the Christmas 
spirit in them. 

Each year about the first of November we go over 
the articles which come to us as a result of our 
National Children's Garden Contest. Prizes are 
awarded but many times the children's own accounts 
of their work do not appear in our magazine. The 
following articles from prize winners show what has 
been accomplished under given conditions. Many 
other stories could be added to these: 

WON PRIZES AT THE SHOWS 

My garden is thirty-five feet wide and forty-five 
long. I first planted my pepper and tomato seeds 
in the hotbed and watered them with warm water 
every morning. After they got about three inches 
high I transplanted each into a flower pot. Then 
after it was warm enough to put them into the 
earth I set them out about a foot and a half apart in 
rows. I planted my cabbage seed the first of April. 
I had about 100 plants. I gave away about forty 
and kept sixty which I set out for myself. 1 kept 
some plants for transplanting in case any should not 
head. I transplanted them the first of July. After 
I had set out my plants I so\ved four rows of Swiss 
chard and two rows of lettuce. About a week later 
I planted four hills of potatoes and two hills each of 
squash and cucumber. When my vegetables were 
just beginning to grown I was careful not to let the 
weeds smother the little plants. I went through my 
garden every day pulling the weeds and getting the 
bugs off. After my plants got bigger I hoed them, 
being careful not to hoe too near the plants so as not 
to injure their roots. When I hoed my cabbages 
and potatoes I put phosphate around the roots to 
enrich the soil. The first to blossom were my pep- 
pers and tomatoes, then my potatoes, and while 
they were in bloom I was careful not to knock off the 
buds and flowers. The first things I had to eat 
out of my garden were my lettuce and Swiss chard. 
When my peppers got ripe I sold three bushels. 




Alice's thirty-cent garden won for her an automobile 



My first tomato was ripe before the supervisor made 
her first visit. I sold two bushels of tomatoes and 
have saved some for seed for another year. The 
cabbage and potatoes were the last to ripen. I 
gave away some cucumbers and squashes. Three 
of my squashes were white. I took two to the fair 
at North Adams and saved one for seed. My 
potatoes were nice and smooth but I had only one 
peck which I have put away to keep for seed. I 
have about sixty perfect heads of cabbage for winter 
use. The Hoosac Valley Agricultural Society's 
Fair at North Adams offers premiums, so I exhibited 
three squashes, eight peppers, and eight tomatoes. 
The judges awarded first prize on my peppers. 
The Good Will Club of Williamstown, Mass., where 
my garden is, awarded me first prize of one dollar 
for the best garden kept by any pupil of the Eighth 
Grade. — Owen Larabee. 

COMMUNITY GARDENS STARTED 

The Larchmont, N. Y., branch of the National 
Plant Flower and Fruit Guild was organized in Feb- 
ruary 1913. The principal object being to start chil- 
dren's school gardens. In May 1914 the gardens 
opened with fifty-six children enrolled, average atten- 
dance thirty-three. In the centre of each garden this 
year the children planted three stalks of corn, with 
very satisfactory results, much preferring this to 
the tomato plant of last year. Our teacher's salary 
was raised to thirty dollars a month, as she has made 
such a success of the work. The radishes and beets 
were of very good quality, an improvement over 
last year. The beans were not so good, but as other 
gardens also failed with beans it was thought to be 
the result of a cold June. Crops for 1914 were as 
follows: radishes, 3,766; beets, 410; carrots, 1,617; 
lettuce, 22 heads; tomatoes, 65; cabbage, 12 heads; 
beans, 101 quarts; parsley, 15 bunches; corn, 131 
ears; strawberries, 2 quarts. We had community 
gardens of tomatoes, parsley, cabbage and straw- 
berries; the latter having been given to the gardens, 
as small plants in the early spring. Our plant mar- 
ket this year brought in forty-two dollars, which 
was used for seeds, fertilizer, etc., and to help with 
our increased expenses. We give prizes at the close 
of the garden season for attendance, diligence and 
community work. — Martha Bintliff. 

A GARDEN OF MANY FLOWERS 

My garden is about 45 x 475 ft. but part of that 
is taken up by a small barn, arbor and hotbed. On 
the arbor I have six kinds of flowering vines and one 
banana squash vine. Against the barn are gourds 
and nasturtiums. In my pond are lilies, water 
hyacinths and water poppies. Against the house 
are blue lilies and Canterbury bells. In front of 
the house are wild flowers. Along the street are 
roses, a honeysuckle bush, snowballs, hydrangea 
and several other hardy shrubs. My flower seed 
cost thirty cents. They were pennypackets; 
some bulbs were given to me. My favorite flowers 
are salpiglossis, snapdragon, tuberose, a kind of 
blue lily, forget-me-not, roses, pansies, and sweet 
William. First against the fence, because they grow 
so very tall, are artichokes, then a row of golden 
glow, then cosmos, next about twelve althaea, then 
iris and wild wood-lilies. In front of them is a bed 
of daisies and the other small bed, even with the dai- 
sies, has snapdragons. In the back of the snap- 
dragons, even with the iris, are dahlias. Then I 
have portulaca, pansies, asters, cockscombs, spider- 
wort and castor oil beans to hide the arbor till the 
vines cover it. When the daisies were through 
blooming, I cut them down and planted zinnias. 
I mustn't forget the roses! Mine grow wild in a 
round bed and the blossoms are as big as if the 
bushes were pruned. All the pruning they get is 
when I cut off the blossoms. I tell you all this 
about my flowers because I am competing in the